The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Paul VI (1963-1978)
Consistory of June 27, 1977 (VI)


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(140) 1. BENELLI, Giovanni
(1921-1982)

Birth. May 12, 1921, Poggiole di Vernio, diocese of Pistoia, Italy. Youngest of the five surviving children of Luigi Benelli and Maria Simoni; his uncle Guido Benelli entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) and died with fame of holiness. He was baptized the day after his birth in the church of S. Leonardo in S. Quirico di Vernio.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pistoia (entered on October 18, 1931); while in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical French Seminary, studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University from 1943 until 1947; and later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, December 23, 1939, from Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; the subdiaconate, June 29, 1942, at the cathedral of Pistoia, from the same bishop; and the diaconate, June 12, 1943, at the cathedral of Pistoia, also from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, parish church of Poggiole di Vernio, by Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; with dispensation for not having reached yet the canonical age. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1943-1950. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1947. Attached to the Secretariat of State; private secretary to Giovanni Battista Montini, substitute of the Secretariat of State, August 1, 1947. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 16, 1950. Secretary of the nunciature in Ireland, 1950-1953. Secretary of the nunciature in France, 1953-1960. Auditor of the nunciature in Brazil, 1960-1962. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 1, 1961. Counselor of the nunciature in Spain, 1962-1965. Permanent observer of the Holy See before UNESCO, Paris, May 11, 1965 to June 11, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro and appointed pro-nuncio in Senegal and apostolic delegate in Western Africa, June 11, 1966. Consecrated, September 11, 1966, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Sigismondi. titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Mario Longo Dorni, bishop of Pistoia. His episcopal motto was Virtus ex alto. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the cipher, June 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, June 3, 1977.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. October 26, 1982, suddenly, of a heart attack, in his office at the archiepiscopal palace of Florence. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, took place on October 29, 1982, at the metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence. His remains were buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral; a simple marble stone marks his final resting place (1).

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli. Giovanni Battista Re, et al. Roma : Edizioni Studium, 1992. (Coscienza studi, 22); In memoriam di S.Em. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli, arcivescovo di Firenze. Florence: Curia Arcivescovile, 1982; Lovascio, Antonio. Giovanni Benelli. Un pastore coraggioso e innovatore. Prefazione di Giuseppe Betori. Firenze : Società Editrice Fiorentina, 2012.

Webgraphy. Biography by Bruna Bocchini Camaiani, Andrea Riccardi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 34 (1988), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOHANNES CARD. BENELLI
MCMXXI      MCMLXXXII


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(141) 2. GANTIN, Bernardin
(1922-2008)

Birth. May 8, 1922, Toffo, archdiocese of Cotonou, Bénin (then Dahomey). Son of Henri Gantin, chief of the local railroad station, and Anne Tonondji, great-granddaughter of King Glèlè. He was baptized shortly after his birth by Father Gaymard. His last name means iron tree (Gan=tree and tin=iron) and this is reflected in his coat of arms.

Education. He studied at the regional school of Abomey from 1929 to 1935; in 1934, he was prepared for his first communion by Father Le Port; studied at the School of Petits Clercs, Ouidah from May to October 1935; counseled by Father Gautier, he entered the Seminary of Ouidah on October 28, 1935; in 1953, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athaenaeum and at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum (licentiate in dogmatic theology, 1954); licentiate in canon law, 1955; preparation for the doctorate, 1956; subject of his thesis: "Les bénédictions et consécrations en comparaison avec quelques coutumes et rites religieux du paganisme africain spécialement au Dahomey"; it was at this time that he was surprised by the promotion to the episcopate by Pope Pius XII.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 14, 1951, cathedral of Ouidah, by Louis Parisot, S.M.A. (Society of African Missions), vicar apostolic of Ouidah (later archdiocese of Cotonou). Professor of languages at the Seminary of Ouidah; and pastoral ministry in apostolic vicariate of Ouidah, 1951-1953. Further studies, 1953-1956, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tipasa di Mauritania and appointed auxiliary of Dahomey (later Cotonou), December 11, 1956. Consecrated, February 3, 1957, chapel of Collegio de Propagande Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, prefect of S.C. Ceremonial and librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapolis di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and by André Pierre Duirat, S.M.A., bishop of Bouaké. His episcopal motto was In tuo sancto servitio. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cotonou, January 5, 1960; he was the first African metropolitan archbishop. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Secretary adjunct of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, March 5, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 28, 1971. Secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, February 26, 1973. Vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, December 19, 1975; pro-president, December 16, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, June 27, 1977. President of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, June 29, 1977; he was the first African cardinal heading a dicastery of the Roman Curia; resigned the post, April 8, 1984. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, September 4, 1978; resigned the post, April 8, 1984. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebrations of St. Peter Claver's birth, Cartagena, Colombia, June 24, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; president delegate. Papal legate to the 42nd International Eucharistic Congress, July 16 to 23, 1981, Lourdes, France. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, April 8, 1984; resigned both posts, June 25, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 25, 1984. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of 150th anniversary of the beginning of the evangelization in the archdiocese of Papetee, Tahiti, French Polynesia, August 10, 1984. In 1985, he was named member of the Royal Academy of Morocco by King Hassan II. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 29, 1986. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the first centennial of the evangelization, Port-Vila, Republic of Vanuatu, September 8, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 5, 1993. Special papal envoy to the inauguration of the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Campinas, Brazil, December 12, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Pierre Lucien Claverie, bishop of Oran, Algeria, killed in a bomb explosion, Oran, Algeria, August 5, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Papal representative to the funeral of King Hassan II of Morocco, Rabat, July 25, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, December 1 to 3, 2000. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Evangelization of Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, January 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, May 8, 2002. Resigned the deanship of the College of Cardinals and the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, and became dean emeritus, November 30, 2002. Returned to live in Bénin, December 4, 2002. In 2003, he received the Légion d'Honneur from Jacques Chirac, president of the Republic of France. He was the first, and so far, only cardinal from the Popular Republic of Bénin; and the first African to be both head of a Vatican dicastery and dean of the College of Cardinals since this office was established by Pope Bl. Eugenius III in 1150.

Death. May 13, 2008, at 4:45 p.m., from severe complications of dehydration, in the Hospital Georges Pompidou, Paris, France, after a long illness. On May 7, 2008, the President of the Republic, Chief of State and Chief of the Government, learning of the deterioration of the state of health of the cardinal, visited him and ordered his translation to the hospital in Paris. The transfer took place on May 8, the day of his 86th birthday. On the day of the cardinal's death, the Council of Ministers held an extraordinary session and issued a communique expressing the sorrow of the Government of the Republic of Bénin to the entire Nation, to the Catholic Church, to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, to the Catholic community of Bénin and to the cardinal's family for the loss of the cardinal. A delegation headed by the Minister of Health went to Paris to arrange the return of the body of the late cardinal to Bénin. A period of three days of national mourning was observed in memory of the cardinal from Wednesday May 14. During this period, the flags flew at half mast in all the national territory. Msgr. Anatole Dédégbé, vicar general of the archdiocese of Cotonou, expressed the sorrow of the Catholic Church in Bénin for the death of Cardinal Gantin. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Gantin, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Marcel Honorat Léon Agboton of Cotonou. On May 15, 2008, the newspaper Le Matinal, of Cotonou, Republic of Bénin, reported that the late cardinal would be buried, according to his own wishes, beside the vault of Bishop Louis Parisot, S.M.A., on May 24, near the altar of the chapel of the Grand Seminary of Saint Gall, Ouidah. His mortal remains reposed in the chapel of the house of the Sœurs Petites Servantes des Pauvres, sixth district, 49 Rue Notre Dame des Champs, Paris; after two days, they were driven in the Funérarium of the Cimetière des Batignolles, in Paris (17º); and arrived in Bénin on May 21. On May 15, a large governmental delegation accompanied by René Marie Ehuzu, C.I.M., bishop of Porto Novo, and by Eugène Cyrille Houndékon, bishop of Abomey, arrived in Paris to organize the repatriation of the body to Bénin. On Tuesday May 20, a mass in memory of the late cardinal was celebrated by Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, archbishop of Paris, at 6:15, in Notre-Dame cathedral; Archbishop Agboton of Cotonou, pronounced the homily. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, papal representative, presided the mass in the Stadium "Amitié" in Cotonou of May 22; with him concelebrated Cardinals Francis Arinze, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; Polycarp Pengo, archbishop of of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; Théodore-Adrien Sarr, archbishop of Dakar, Sénégal; Bernard Agré, archbishop emeritus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast; and Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria, as well as forty archbishops and bishops; Cardinal Re delivered the homily. On Friday May 23, 2008, at 11 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica, was celebrated a Holy Mass of suffrage for the late cardinal. The Holy Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, with the other cardinals present. At the end of the celebration, Pope Benedict XVI delivered the homily and imparted the apostolic blessing. The International Airport of Cadjèhoun, in Cotonou, has been renamed "Aéroport international Bernardin Cardinal Gantin".

Bibliography. Missionario africano a Roma. Missionario romano in Africa. Curato da Giulio Cerchietti, Gianfranco Grieco e Luigi Lalloni. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(142) 3. RATZINGER, Joseph
(1927-

Birth. April 16, 1927, Holy Saturday, at 4:15 a.m., Marktl, diocese of Passau, Germany. Son of Joseph Ratzinger, who was a member of the rural police, and Maria Peintner; before marrying she worked as a cook in several hotels. His grand uncle Georg Ratzinger was a priest and member of the Reichstag, as the German Parliament was called then. He was baptized with the name Joseph Alois on that same day at 8: 30 a.m., in the parish of Saint Oswald in Marktl, by Fr. Josef Stangl (1), vicar of Marktl. He received first communion in March 1936 and the sacrament of confirmation on June 9, 1937 in Traunstein from Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. He speaks eight languages among them his native German, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. He is an accomplished pianist. He has a brother, Georg, who is a priest; and a sister, Maria, who died in 1991. His middle name is also listed as Aloysius.

Education. Superior School of Philosophy, Freising; University of München, München (doctorate in theology; thesis: "People and house of God in the doctrine on the church of St. Augustin" under the direction of Gottlieb Söhngen, professor of fundamental theology; habilitation for teaching thesis: "Offenbarungsverständnis und Geschichtstheologie Bonaventuras"). Received the subdiaconate, Saturday October 28, 1950, Freising, from Johannes Baptist Neuhäusler, titular bishop of Calidone, auxiliary of München und Freising; and the diaconate the following day in the same place and from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, cathedral of Sts. Mary and Corbinian, Freising, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising; his brother Georg and 42 other priests were ordained in the same ceremony. Further studies, 1951-1952. Faculty member at the Superior School of Philosophy and Theology, Freising, 1952-1959. Faculty member at the University of Bonn, 1959-1963. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert. Faculty member at the University of Münster, 1963-1969. Faculty member at the University of Tübingen, 1966-1969. Faculty member at the University of Ratisbon, 1969-1977; its vice-president, 1969-1977. Member of the International Theological Commission, Vatican City, 1969-1977.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of München und Freising, March 24, 1977. Consecrated, May 28, 1977, cathedral of München, by Josef Stangl, bishop of Würzburg, assisted by Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, and by Ernst Tewes, C.O., titular bishop of Villamagna in Proconsulari, auxiliary of München und Freising. His episcopal motto was Cooperatores veritatis.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25-26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Special papal envoy to the 3rd National Marian Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, September 16 to 24, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; theFifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; its relator general; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, president of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and president of the International Theological Commission, November 25, 1981 to April 2, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 15, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; its president delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Elected associé étranger of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a part of the Institut de France, January 13, 1992. Named bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1997, the city of Marktl am Inn, place of his birth, granted him the title of "Illustrious Citizen", on his 70th birthday; he unveiled a commemorative plaque in the facade of the house where he was born; he visited the city as pope on September 11, 2006, during his apostolic trip to Germany. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, November 9, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the 12th centenary celebrations of the creation of the diocese of Paderborn, Germany, January 3, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the jubilar celebrations in the diocese of Regensburg, Germany, October 6, 2002. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, November 30, 2002. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the canonization of St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, Kraków, Poland, May 11, 2003. Papal representative to the funeral of Cardinal Franz König March 27, 2004, Vienna, Austria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 19, 2005; took the name Benedict XVI. The ceremony to mark the beginning of his pontificate took place on April 24, 2005, at 10 a.m. Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, protodeacon of S. Saba, bestowed the pallium; and Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, subdean of the College of Cardinals, the ring of the fisherman. Celebrated mass and took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica on May 7, 2005. He celebrated five consistories for the creation of ninety cardinals. Resigned the papacy on February 28, 2013 at 8 p.m., Roman time. On July 4, 2015, in Castel Gandolfo, making an exemption, he received an honorary doctorate from the John Paul II Pontifical University of Kraków and another one from the Academy of Music of that city.

Bibliography. Allen, John L. Cardinal Ratzinger : the Vatican's enforcer of the faith. New York : Continuum, 2000; Allen, John L. Pope Benedict XVI : a biography of Joseph Ratzinger. New York ; London : Continuum, 2005; Allen, John L. The rise of Benedict XVI : the inside story of how the Pope was elected and where he will take the Catholic Church. New York : Doubleday, 2005; Bardazzi, Marco. In the vinyard of the Lord. The life, faith, and teachings of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI. New York : Rizzoli, 2005; Catalán Deus, José. Después de Ratzinger, ¿qué?. Balance de cuatro años de pontificado y los desafíos de su sucesión. Madrid : Penísula, 2009. (Colección Atalaya 364); De Carli, Giuseppe. Benedictus. Servus servorum Dei. Gorle Velar in coedizione; Roma : Rai-ERI ;Elledici, 2008; From Pope John Paul II to Benedict XVI : an inside look at the end of an era, the beginning of a new one, and the future of the church. Edited by Mary Ann Walsh ; with reporting by Catholic News Service. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005; Gänswein, Georg. Benedetto XVI urbi et orbi. Con il Papa a Roma e per le vie del mondo. Herder ; Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010; Gibson, David. The rule of Benedict : Pope Benedict XVI and his battle with the modern world. San Francisco : HarperSanFrancisco, 2006. Contents: Black smoke, white smoke, and shades of gray -- The shadow of the pontiff -- The passion of the pope -- The Ratzinger solution -- Secrets of the conclave -- A German soul -- Council, crisis, and conversion -- Defender of the faith -- Pontifex maximus, pontifex minimus -- Joys and hopes, griefs and anxieties -- America and the battle for Catholicism -- The counter-reformation -- The rule of Benedict. Abstract: Examines the election of Pope Benedict XVI, his conservative beliefs, and the future of the Catholic church under his leadership; González-Balado, José Luis. Benedicto XVI, un Papa convincente. Madrid : Editorial San Pablo, 2006; Let God's light shine forth. The spiritual vision of Pope Benedict XVI. Edited and with an introduction by Robert Moynihan. New York; London ; Toronto ; Sydney; Auckland : Doubleday, 2005; Mansfield, Stephen. Pope Benedict XVI : his life and mission. New York : J.P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Pursell, Brennan. Benedict of Bavaria : an intimate portrait of the Pope and his home land. North Haven, Conn. : Circle Press, 2008; Benedict XVI, Pope, 1927- . Jesus of Nazareth. Part two, Holy week : from the entrance into Jerusalem to the Resurrection. San Francisco, Calif. : Ignatius Press, 2011. Contents: The entrance into Jerusalem and the cleansing of the Temple -- Jesus' eschatological discourse -- The washing of the feet -- Jesus' high-priestly prayer -- The Last Supper -- Gethsemane -- The trial of Jesus -- Crucifixion and burial of Jesus -- Jesus' resurrection from the dead. Abstract: Offers a detailed analysis of Jesus Christ's final week in Jerusalem, examining the political, religious, and scholarly aspects of Jesus' life, teaching, death, and resurrection; Ratzinger, Joseph. Milestones. Memoirs: 1927-1977. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1998; Rodari, Paolo ; Tornielli, Andrea. Attacco a Razinger. Accuse e scandali, profezie e complotti contro Benedetto XVI. Milano : Piemme, 2010; Rose, Michael S. Benedict XVI : the man who was Ratzinger. Dallas, Tex. : Spence Pub. Co., 2005; Rourke, Thomas R. The social and political thought of Benedict XVI. Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, 2010; Tornielli, Andrea. Ratzinger custode della fede. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 2002; Valente, Gianni. Ratzinger professore - Gli anni dello studio e dellinsegnamento nel ricordo dei colleghi e degli allievi (1946-1977). Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2008; Velásquez O., César Mauricio ; Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. De Benedicto a Francisco; Los 30 días que cambiaron la Iglesia. Bogotá : Grupo Editorial Planeta, 2013; Villagrasa, Jesús. Joseph Ratzinger. Personas e ideas de una vida. Preface by Josef Clemens. México : El Arca, 2006.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in English, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; photographs and biography by Michael Frassetto, in English, Ecyclopaedia Britannica; photograph and biography, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, as cardinal, Araldica Vaticana; and his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; Wiedersehen mit Wegbegleitern. Ratzinger-Schülerkreis zieht Ökumene-Bilanz, domradio.de, 22.8.2012; Ratzinger, Vatican II and the summer of 1962 by Gianni Valente, Vatican Insider, 02/24/2012; El joven Ratzinger, el matriomnio y el «regalo envenenado» del estocismo al cristianismo by Gianni Valente, Vatican Insider, 10/16/2014; Ratzinger-Daniélou sul filo della storia by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 11 febbraio 2015; The election of Benedict XVI: "Lord, do not do this to me", Rome Reports, 2015-04-14; Benedict XVI receives two honorary doctorates on Sacred Music, Rome Reports, 2015-07-06.

(1) He was not the bishop who consecrated him in 1977, only his namesake.


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(143) 4. CIAPPI, O.P., Mario Luigi
(1909-1996)

Birth. October 6, 1909, Florence, Italy. Son of Luigi Ciappi and Teresa Anichini. He spent his infancy in Borgo San Lorenzo, Mugello.

Education. In November 1919, he entered the Dominican school in Lucca; he could not attend school in Florence because of the earthquake that had affected the region; he distinguished himself in the ginnasiali and liceali studies. Joined Order of Preachers (Dominicans); on October 4, 1925, he received the religious habit and the name Luigi from Father Ludovico Fanfani, O.P., provincial prior; started the novitiate in the convent of Santa Maria della Quercia, Viterbo, see of a national novitiate for Italy; he made his first religious profession on October 8, 1926; sent to the convent of San Domenico, Pistoia, where he studied philosophy and theology from 1927 to 1929; from 1929, he studied theology at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (it became the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino in 1963); on October 31, 1930, he made his solemn profession before Father Ludovico Fanfani, O.P., in the convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva; obtained a doctorate in theology; thesis: De divina misericordia ut prima causa operum Dei), 1934; University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1932, Holy Saturday, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1932-1935. Faculty member and dean of the Theological Faculty of the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1935-1955; of the Institute Beato Angelico, Rome. Master of the Sacred Palace, May 5, 1955; title changed to theologian of the Pontifical Household by the motu proprio Pontificalis domus, March 28, 1968. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Miseno, June 10, 1977. Consecrated, June 18, 1977, basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Dino Staffa, prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, assisted by Jean Jérôme Hamer, O.P., titular archbishop of Lorio, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, and by Angelo Raimondo Verardo, O.P., bishop of Ventimiglia-San Remo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora del S. Cuore, June 27, 1977. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, 1977-1989 . Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Opted for order of cardinal priests and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù aggonizante a Vitinia, June 22, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on October 6, 1989.

Death. April 23, 1996, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Order of Preachers, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Oliva, Adriano. "Il Cardinale Mario Luigi Ciappi: un teolgo al servizio di cinque papai", in Firenze e suoi cardinali (Firenze : Pagnini Editore, 2005), p. 141-145.

Webgraphy. Photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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