The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of June 30, 1979 (I)


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(1) 1. CASAROLI, Agostino
(1914-1998)

Birth. November 24, 1914, Castel San Giovanni, diocese of Piacenza, Italy (1). Of a family of modest economic means. His father was a tailor.

Education. Studied at Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; at the Episcopal Seminary of Bedonia, Piacenza; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (diplomacy); and at the Italian Society for International Organizations, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 27, 1937, Piacenza. Further studies, 1937-1939, Rome. Adjunct to the archives and minutante at the Secretariat of State, 1940. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome from 1943. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 4, 1945. Chaplain of Villa Agnese, 1950-1998. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 22, 1954. Assistant to Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial at the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, July 25 to August 4, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ecclesiastical counselor to the Roman Group of Christian Union of Enterpreneurs, 1957-. Papal envoy to deliver the red biretta to Cardinal José María Bueno Monreal, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain, December 1958. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1958-1961. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 24, 1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on diplomatic relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on consular relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1963. Vatican representative at the exchange of instruments in ratification of the modus vivendi with Tunisia, concerning the situation of the Catholic Church, 1964. Signatory of the partial agreement between the Holy See and Hungary, Budapest, September 15, 1964. Negotiated with the Czech government the appointment of Frantisek Tomásek, titular bishop of Buto and auxiliary of Prague, as apostolic administrator sede plena of the archdiocese, February 1965. Signatory of the protocol between the Holy See and Yugoslavia, Belgrade, June 25, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartagine, July 4, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, prefect of the Papal Household. In the same ceremony were consecrated Ernesto Civardi, titular archbishop of Sardi, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, future cardinal; and three other prelates. His episcopal motto was Pro fide et justitia. President of the Pontifical Commission for Russia. Delivered the official document of adhesion of the Vatican to the Treaty of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, Moscow, U.S.S.R., February 25, 1971. Vatican representative to the meeting of European foreign ministers, Helsinki, Finland, July 3 to 7, 1973. Special delegate of the Holy See to the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, Helsinki, Finland, July 30 to August 1, 1975. Delivered the papal message to the United Nations Organization Special Assembly on Disarmament, June 1978. Confirmed in his posts by Pope John Paul I, August 28, 1978; and by Pope John Paul II, October 1978. Pro-secretary of State and pro-prefect of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, April 28 to July 1, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 30, 1979. Secretary of State, prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church and president of Pontifical Commission for State of Vatican City, July 1, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, January 30, 1981. Papal legate to the opening celebrations of 7th centennial of St. Francis' birth, Assisi, Italy, October 3 to 4, 1981; to the celebrations of 450th anniversary of the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, México, December 12, 1981. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Knights of Columbus, Hartford, United States, August 3 to 6, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 8, 1984; charged with representing the pope before the civil government of the State of Vatican City. Papal legate to National Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 11 to 14, 1984. Named cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, retaining in commendam his title, May 25, 1985; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Porto-Santa Rufina on September 30, 1986. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of the 11th centennial of St. Metodius' death, Djakovo, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, July 4 to 5, 1985; and Velehrad, Czechoslovakia, July 7, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Papal legate to the coronation of the image of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary, Pompeii, Italy, May 8, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the secretariat of State and the prefecture of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, December 1, 1990. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, June 5, 1993. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 24, 1994. After his retirement, he exercised his priestly ministry among young detainees in the jail of Casal del Marmo for minors, in Rome.

Death. Tuesday June 9, 1998, of cardio-respiratory complications, at "Colombus Clinic" in Rome, where he had been admitted the previous Thursday. Buried beneath the pavement at the entrance of the chapel of S. Antonio di Padua in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome (2). The "Associazione Centro Studi Cardinale Agostino Casaroli", located at the Seminary of Bedonia, was founded following the cardinal's death; his niece, Orietta Casaroli Zanoni, gave a vast collection of photographs, audio-visual recordings, books, documents, and several others belongings of the late cardinal to the newly established Association.

Bibliography. Casaroli, Agostino. Il martirio della pazienza. Torino : Einaudi, 2000; Casaroli, Agostino. Nella Chiesa per il mondo : omelie e discorsi. Milano : Rusconi, 1987; Lavopa, Marco. La diplomazia dei "Piccoli Passi". L'Ostpolitik vaticana di Mons. Agostino Casaroli. Rome : GBE / Ginevra Bentivoglio EditoriA, 2013 (Extravagantes, 24); Melloni, Alberto. Il filo sottile : l'Ostpolitik vaticana di Agostino Casaroli. Bologna : Il mulino, 2006. (Santa Sede e politica nel Novecento, 4); Santini, Alceste. Agostino Casaroli, hombre de diálogo. Translated by Rafael Pérez. Madrid : PPC, 1993; Silvestrini, Achille. L'Ostpolitik di Agostino Casaroli, 1963-1989. Convegno "L'Ostpolitik di Agostino Casaroli, 1963-1989" (2008 : Vatican City). Bologna : EDB, 2009. (I libri de Il regno, 5). Materials specified: Table of contents. Link to external web site http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/toc/casalini08/09180214.pdf.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography by Carlo Felice Casula, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (2013), Treccani; Site of the "Associazione Centro Studi Cardinale Agostino Casaroli", in Italian; and his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Secretaries of State Compared. Low Marks for Casaroli, Too by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, July 16, 2012; Casaroli and Wyszynski: Facts and falsehoods revealed by Gianni Valente, Vatican Insider, 10/12/2013.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on facade of the house in which he was born, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CITTÀ DI CASTEL SAN GIOVANNI

IL GIORNO 24 NOVEMBRE 1924 NACQUE IN QUESTA CASA
IL FUTURO CARD. AGOSTINO CASAROLI
SEGRETARIO DI STATO EMERITO DELLA CITTÀ DEL VATICANO

ORDINATO SACERDOTE NEL 1937, IL 4 LUGLIO DEL 1967
FU NOMINATO VESCOVO, IL 30 GIUGNO 1979 DIVENNE CARDINALE
E, IL 1º LUGLIO, DIVENNE SEGRETARIO DI STATO
CARICA CHE RICOPRÌ FINO AL 1990

MORTO A ROMA IL 9 GIUGNO 1998, SEPOLTO NELLA NOBILE
TOMBA ODESCALCHI, BASILICA DEI SANTI XII APOSTOLI

PERSONALITÀ DIPLOMATICA DI LIVELLO MONDIALE
CONTRIBUÌ ALLA DISTENSIONE INTERNAZIONALE E ALLA
CAUSA DELLA PACE TRA I POPOLI SERVENDO FEDELMENTO
LA CHIESA UNIVERSALE E LA RICERCA DELLA VERITÀ

LA COMUNITÀ DI CASTEL SAN GIOVANNI POSE IL 24 ·11 ·1999

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HEIC RESURRECTIONEM EXSPECTAT
CORPUS
CARDINALIS AUGUSTINI CASAROLI
PLACENTINI
MCMXIV MCMXCVIII
ROGATE PRO EO.

This is the text on a memorial cross, with a splendid mosaic portraying him, erected in the basilica, also provided by Mr. Bonnici:

AUGUSTINUS S.R.E. EP. CARD. CASAROLI
Tit. Eccl. Sub. Portus - Sanctae Rufinae
Commed. Bas. XII Apostolorum
olim a publicis eccl. negotiis
multorum etiam egentium iuvenum
amicus et pater
MCMXIV - MCMXCVIII


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(2) 2. CAPRIO, Giuseppe
(1914-2005)

Birth. November 15, 1914, Lapio, archdiocese of Benevento, Italy. Baptized in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio. He had an uncle, also named Giuseppe Caprio, who was a priest and for several years pro-secretary of the economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Education. Studied at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Benevento; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1939-1940, Rome. Assigned to the Secretariat of State, 1940-1947. Secretary of the nunciature in China, 1947-1951; expelled from China by the Communist regime after three months of house arrest in Nanchang. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, 1951-1954. Visitor and regent of the apostolic delegation in South Vietnam, 1954-1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 21, 1955. Internuncio in China (Formosa), May 20, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apollonia, October 14, 1961. Consecrated, December 14, 1961, basilica of Madonna delle Grazie, Benevento, by Cardinal Gregoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Raffaele Calabria, titular archbishop of Elipoli di Fenicia, coadjutor of Benevento. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. His episcopal motto was Pax in virtute. Pro-nuncio in India, August 22, 1967. Head of the Vatican delegation to the Second U.N.O. Conference for Commerce and Development, New Delhi, India, 1968. Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 19, 1969. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, June 14, 1977. Pro-president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 28, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, July 1, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 30, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 28 to October 29, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Cardinal protodeacon, June 22, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, November 15, 1988. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Prince Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein, November 1989. Resigned the presidency, January 22, 1990. Special papal envoy to the accession to the throne of Emperor Akihito, Tokyo, Japan, November 12, 1990. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, November 26, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 15, 1994. Resigned the grand mastership, December 1995.

Death. October 15, 2005, in the afternoon, Rome. The funeral, presided by Pope Benedict XVI, who delivered the homily, took place on Tuesday, October 18, 2005, at 11 a.m., in the altar of the chair of Saint Peter the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Fifty cardinals and many bishops, present in Rome for the assembly of the Synod of Bishops, participated in the ceremony, which was also attended by members of the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See, and family members of the late cardinal. Another funeral for Cardinal Caprio took place on October 19, 2005, in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio, where he had been baptized; it was presided by Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and concelebrated by Serafino Sprovieri, archbishop of Benevento, and all the bishops of the Irpina region. The remains of the cardinal were buried, according to his will, in that parish church.

Link. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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(3) 3. CÉ, Marco
(1925-2014)

Birth. July 8, 1925, Izano, diocese of Crema, Italy. Of a modest family of small farmers. His last name is also listed as Cè.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Crema, (classic studies); then at Lyceum "A. Verri", Lodi (maturità); sent to Rome, he resided at Seminary Lombardo and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1948, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Returned to Crema after his ordination. He was vice-rector of the diocesan seminary and professor of Sacred Scriptures, from 1948 to 1957; he was named its rector in 1957; and continued teaching; occupied both posts until 1970. He was president of the Diocesan Liturgical Commission. He also dedicated himself particularly to preaching spiritual retreats to the youth of the Catholic Action; and to giving spiritual exercises to the clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vulturia and appointed auxiliary of Bologna, April 22, 1970. Consecrated, May 17, 1970, feast of Pentecost, at the cathedral of Crema, by Carlo Manziana, bishop of Crema, assisted by Franco Costa, titular archbishop of Emmaus, General Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, and by Placido Cambiaghi, C.R.S.P., bishop of Novara. His episcopal motto was Christus ipse pax. He was received in Bologna on June 29 with a solemn concelebration in the cathedral basilica of S. Petronio. Named general ecclesiastical assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, May 21, 1976. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, December 7, 1978. He took canonical possession of the see on January 1, 1979; and made his solemn entrance the following January 7.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the sixteenth centennial of the death of Saint Vigil, bishop, patron of the archdiocese of Trent, Italy, that took place in that city on June 26, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of patriarchate, January 5, 2002. Apostolic administrator of Venice, January 5 to March 3, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI; he was the oldest cardinal participating in the conclave. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 8, 2005. Preached the spiritual exercises for Pope Benedict XVI and the Roman Curia, March 5 to 11, 2006, chapel Redemptoris Mater, Vatican City on the theme "Camminando con Gesù verso la Pasqua guidati dall'Evangelista Marco". After his retirement, he continued, until a few months before his death, to exercise his ministry dealing especially with the spiritual care of people and, in particular, the diocesan retreats. He was the first patriarch emeritus of Venice.

Death. Monday May 12, 2014, at 8:15, p.m., at the Hospital Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Patriarch Francesco Moraglia of Venice a telegram of condolence (1). The funeral for the late cardinal took place on Saturday May 17, 2014, at 10 a.m., in the cathedral basilica of S. Marco, presided by Patriarch Moraglia. The funeral chamber, in the cathedral basilica, started on Wednesday May 14. The body of the late cardinal was entombed in the crypt of the cathedral following the funeral (2).

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Italian, patriarchate of Venice; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il racconto della "vecchiaia bella" del Patriarca emerito Marco. L'ultimo scritto del card. Cé, a marzo 2014, su Gente Veneta, Patriarcato di Venezia, Lunedì 12 Maggio 2014; Muore il cardinale Cè, successore di Luciani a Venezia by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 13/05/2014.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the site of the Press Office of the Holy See:

A Sua Eccelenza Mons. Franceco Moraglia
Patriarca de Venezia
S. Marco 320/A
30124 Venezia

Appresa con tristezza la notizia della morte del Cardinale Marco Cè, desidero esprimere a lei ed all'intera comunità diocesana, come pure ai familiari del compianto porporato e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato, la mia profonda partecipazione al loro dolore, pensando con affetto a questo caro fratello, che ha servito con gioia il Vangelo e ha amato teneramente la Chiesa. Ricordo con gratitudine la sua instancabile opera profusa dapprima a Crema, sua diocesi di origine, poi a Bologna al fianco del Cardinale Poma, in seguito nell'Azione Cattolica Italiana, infine come mite e saggio pastore di codesta Chiesa veneziana. Penso altresì al generoso servizio da lui reso alla Parola di Dio, mediante la predicazione di giornate di spiritualità al clero e ai giovani, come pure il fervido impegno nell'attuazione di un autentico spirito liturgico. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne Pastore nella celeste Gerusalemme, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice benedizione apostolica.

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CHRISTUS IPSE PAX
MARCUS CARD. CÉ
PATRIARCHA VENETIARUM
MCM XXV - MM XIV


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(4) 4. RIGHI-LAMBERTINI, Egano
(1906-2000)

Birth. February 22, 1906, Casalecchio di Reno, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Regional Seminary of Bologna; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Bologna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bologna, 1929-1936. Further studies, 1936-1939, Rome. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1939. Auditor, nunciature in Italy, 1939-1949. Auditor and counselor, nunciature in France, 1949-1954. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 10, 1954. Chargé d'affaires, nunciatures in Costa Rica and Venezuela; and in the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1954-1957. Apostolic delegate in Korea, December 28, 1957.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed nuncio in Lebanon, July 9, 1960. Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Dino Staffa, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities; and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary general of the Second Vatican Council. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Chile, December 9, 1963. Nuncio in Italy, July 8, 1967. Nuncio in France, April 23, 1969. Special envoy, with functions of permanent observer, to the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1974-1979. Awarded the title of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 22, 1986. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Via, November 26, 1990.

Death. October 4, 2000, Rome. His funeral mass, presided by Pope John Paul II, took place at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on Friday October 6, 2000, at 10 am. He was buried in his family's chapel in Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticna.


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(5) 5. TRINH VAN-CAN, Joseph-Marie
(1921-1990)

Birth. March 19, 1921, Trac But, apostolic vicariate of Việt Nam.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hà Nôi.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1949, Hà Nôi. Successively, 1949-1963, in the archdiocese of Hà Nôi, pastoral ministry; vicar foraneous; vicar delegate; official of the ecclesiastical tribunal.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ela and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Hanoi, February 5, 1963. Consecrated, June 2, 1963, metropolitan cathedral of Hà Nôi, by Joseph-Marie Trin-nhu-Khuê, archbishop of Hà Nôi, assisted by Father J. Bich and Father Cung. His episcopal motto was Caritas gaudiam pax. Participated in the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Hà Nôi, November 27, 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Via, June 30, 1979. Attended the the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; one of its three presidents delegate.

Death. May 18, 1990, of a heart attack in his office, in Hà Nôi. Buried in St. Joseph's metropolitan cathedral, Hà Nôi.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(6) 6. CIVARDI, Ernesto
(1906-1989)

Birth. October 21, 1906, Fossarmato, diocese of Pavia, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pavia; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Sacred Roma Rota, legal section, Vatican City becoming a Rotal lawyer.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1930, Pavia. Further studies, 1930-1932, Rome. Vice-rector, Lombardian Seminary, Rome, 1932-1934. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome and staff member of the S.C. Consistorial, 1934-1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 15, 1950. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, 1953-1965; undersecretary, 1965-1967. Commissary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments and justice promoter of the Vatican City Tribunal, 1953-1967. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 18, 1958; voting prelate, October 10, 1962. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Counselor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1965-1967. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, May 17, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, June 26, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In the same ceremony were consecrated Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, future cardinal; and three other prelates. Present at the ceremony was his brother Luigi, titular bishop of Tespia and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 16, 1967. Secretary of the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Secretary of the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 21, 1986.

Death. November 28, 1989, Rome. The funeral was celebrated by Pope John Paul II at the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Thursday, November 30, 1989. Buried in the chapel of the "Confraternità dei Lombardi", Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(7) 7. CORRIPIO AHUMADA, Ernesto
(1919-2008)

Birth. June 29, 1919, Tampico, México. Son of Ernesto Corripio Estrada and Herminia Ahumada; he was the eldest of four brothers; the other children were Valentín, Francisco and Narciso. During his infancy there began a religious persecution which became more acute in the government of Plutarco Elías Calles, who assumed the presidency in 1924, when the future cardinal was five years old; the "Cristero" conflict in its critical phase lasted until 1929, when the government and the Church arrived at an unfulfilled peace agreement; by that time, he had already felt God's call and was the altar server of Fr. Francisco Cortés, who had to seek refuge in the house of the now Servant Of God Francisco Balmori. Inspired in his vocation by his maternal grandmother and promoted by the bishop of Tampico, Serafín María Armora, he entered the seminary.

Education. Seminario Palafoxiano, Puebla, December 30, 1930-1935 (literary studies and philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1937-January 1945; licentiates in theology, 1942; in canon law, 1944; and in church history, 1945); resided at Collegio Pio Latino Americano.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1942, Gesù church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1942-1945. Successively, 1945-1950, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tampico; faculty member, administrator and vice-rector, Seminary of Tampico. Secretary of the Tampico diocesan curia, 1950-1952.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Zapara and appointed auxiliary of Tampico, December 27, 1952; at the time, he was the youngest bishop of the world. Consecrated, March 19, 1953, cathedral of Tampico, by Octaviano Márquez Toriz, archbishop of Puebla, assisted by Serafín María Armora y González, bishop of Tamaulipas, and by Luis Guizar Barragán, bishop of Saltillo. His episcopal motto was Nuestro vivir es Cristo. Transferred to the see of Tampico, February 25, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antequera, July 25, 1967. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference, from 1967 to 1973. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Puebla de los Angeles, March 8, 1976. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, July 19, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; one of its three presidents delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal representative to the funeral of Oscar Arnulfo Romero Galdamez, assassinated archbishop of San Salvador, El Salvador, March 30, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, January 29 to February 5, 1984. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 29, 1994. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of México, September 29, 1994 to June 13, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 29, 1999. He was instrumental in the renewing of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and México.

Death. April 10, 2008, at 5:30 a.m., from complications of heart problems, thrombosis and diabetes, in his residence in La Noria, Xochimilco, México City. His body was exposed in the Minor Seminary of the archdiocese of México on April 10, from 4 p.m. until the following day at noon; then, the casket with the body of the late cardinal was transferred to the National Basilica of Guadalupe, where it was in repose until Saturday at noon, when it was taken to the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of México; Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera, archbishop of México, presided the funeral mass on Sunday April 13 in that cathedral. His burial took place in the crypt of the archbishops, fila 2, sitio 41, beneath the Altar de los Reyes of that cathedral.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Arzobispado de México; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(8) 8. SATOWAKI, Joseph Asajiro
(1904-1996)

Birth. February 1, 1904, Shittsu, archdiocese of Nagasaki, Japan.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Nagasaki; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1932, Rome. Successively, 1933-1941, in diocese of Nagasaki, pastoral ministry, procurator and episcopal chancellor. Apostolic administrator of Taiwan, 1941-1945. Rector, Seminary of Nagasaki, 1945-1947. Successively, 1945-1955, in the diocese of Nagasaki, pastoral ministry, vicar general, director of diocesan journal, faculty member of "Junshin School".

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kagoshima, February 25, 1955. Consecrated, May 3, 1955, church of Our Lady of the Martyrs, Nagasaki, by Maximilien de Furstenberg, titular archbishop of Palto, apostolic delegate in Japan, assisted by Paul Aijiro Yamaguchi, bishop of Nagasaki, and by Paul Yoshigoro Taguchi, bishop of Osaka. His episcopal motto was Laetentur insulare multae. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nagasaki, December 19, 1968. President of the Episcopal Conference of Japan. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Elected President of the Japanese Episcopal Conference in 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Pace, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 1, 1984. During his episcopate, he founded the Nagasaki diocesan seminary in 1989; and the Sisters of Our Lady of the Annunciation, an indigenous congregation. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 8, 1990.

Death. August 8, 1996, of a brain tumor at St. Francis Hospital, Nagasaki. Buried, Akagi no bochi (cemetery of Akagi), Nagasaki, with the deceased priests of the archdiocese.

Link. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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(9) 9. ETCHEGARAY, Roger
(1922-

Birth. September 25, 1922, Espelette, diocese of Bayonne, France. Son of Jean-Batiste Etchegaray and his wife Aurélie Dufau. He was baptized a few days later with the names Roger-Marie-Élie. He had two younger siblings, Jean, who was a member of the Priestly Society of the Mission de France, and Maïté.

Education. Seminary of Ustaritz, Bayonne, September 1934-1943; Major Seminary, Bayonne, September 1943-1947; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome (resident, 1947-1949) Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1947-1949 (doctorate in canon law, July 6, 1949).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1947, Espelette, by Jean Saint-Pierre, titular bishop of Gordo, former auxiliary bishop of Carthage, Tunisia. Successively, 1947-1961, in the diocese of Bayonne, pastoral work; secretary to Bishop Léon-Albert Terrier (July 1949); secretary general of the Catholic Action and of the diocesan works, October 1, 1954; director of works of the diocese, December 3, 1958; vicar general, October 18, 1960. Director adjunct of the secretariat of the Episcopal Conference of France, January 19, 1961-1966. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the Committee for the relations between the European Episcopal Conferences, 1965. Director of the general secretariat of the Episcopal Conference of France, 1966-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gemelle di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of Paris, March 29, 1969. Consecrated, May 27, 1969, cathedral Notre-Dame of Paris, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Cardinal Paul Gouyon, archbishop of Rennes, and by Władysław Rubin, titular bishop of Serta, secretary of the Synod of Bishops. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Promoted to the archbishopric of Marseille, December 22, 1970. First president of the Council of European Episcopal Conferences, 1971-1979. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; member of the council of the general secretariat, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of France, 1975-1981. Prelate of Mission de France, November 25, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Leone I, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Resigned the prelature, April 23, 1982. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress and the centennial celebrations of the evangelization, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, August 28, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986. President of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Marseille, April 13, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of the general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Papal legate to the 44th International Eucharistic Congress, Seoul, South Korea, October 5 to 8, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Elected membre libre of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a part of the Institut de France, March 28, 1994. Named president of the Central Committee and of its Council of Presidency for the Jubilee of the Holy Year 2000, November 15, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of evangelization, Savaii and Apia, Samoa, September 12 to 15, 1995. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, December 2, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 750th anniversary of the feast of Corpus Domini, St. Martin's basilica, Liège, Belgium, June 9, 1996; to the celebrations of the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhorod and the 3rd centenary of the Marian Shrine of Mariapocs, Hungary, August 18, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Ceased as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, June 24, 1998. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto-Santa Rufina, June 24, 1998. Awarded an honoris causam degree by the Theology and Canon Law Faculty of the Catholic University of Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, December 1, 1998. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Portugal, Braga, June 3-6, 1999; to the commemorative celebrations of the second centennial of the death of Pope Pius VI, Valence, France, August 29, 1999. Special papal enoy to the celebration of the World Peace Day in Jerusalem and the Holy Land, January 1, 2001; and to deliver the Papal Message for the occasion to the authorities of Israel and Palestine. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the basilica of St. Paul outside the Walls. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the centennial of the Evangelization of Rwanda that took place in Kigali, February 8, 2001. Papal envoy on a special peace mission to Jerusalem, May 1 to 8, 2002. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, September 25, 2002. Grand office of Légion d'honneur, October 7, 2002. Special papal envoy to Baghdad, Iraq, to demonstrate to all the solicitude of the Holy Father in favor of peace and to help the Iraqi authority to do a serious reflection about the duty of an active international cooperation, based on justice and international law, to insure that population the supreme good of peace, February 10, 2003. Received the Prize "Felix Houphouet-Boigny" for his work towards world peace. The prize was instituted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He received the recognition together with the great mufti of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Mustafa Cedric, on March 24, 2004. The prize was named after the first president of Ivory Coast. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the "Social Week of France", that took place in Lille, September 24 to 26, 2004. Vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, April 30, 2005. Special papal envoy to Lebanon, on August 15, 2006, to bring to that tormented population, and to all those in that region who are suffering, the expression of the pope's spiritual proximity and concrete solidarity, and to pray for the great intention of peace. Member of the delegation of the Holy See to the funeral of His Holiness Alexis II, patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, December 9, 2008. Injured by a mentally unstable woman who jumped Pope Benedict XVI during the procession of the Christmas Eve mass in the Vatican basilica, December 24, 2009; recovered at Policlinico Agostino Gemelli, Rome. Received the grand cross of the Légion d'honneur on April 28, 2014.

Bibliography. Etchegaray, Roger. L'homme à quel prix?. Paris : Éditions de la Martinière, 2012; Etchegaray, Roger. J'ai senti battre le coeur du monde. Conversations avec Bernard Lecomte. Paris : Fayard, 2007 (Témoignages pour l'histoire); Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3163; Miranda, Salvador. "Etchegaray, Roger." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 242-243.

Webgraphy. Photographs and biography, in Italian, diocese of Porto-Santa Rufina; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Pope visits cardinal hurt in Mass attack, in English, North Jersey Media Group; What we need most of all is prayer. Witness of Cardinal Roger Etchegaray by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, from WITNESSES, year XXIX, issue no. 01/02 - 2012; Roger Etchegaray: «Ma che bella avventura...» by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 3 maggio 2012.


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(10) 10. BALLESTRERO, O.C.D., Anastasio Alberto
(1913-1998)

Birth. October 3, 1913, Genoa, Italy. Eldest of the five children of Giacomo Ballestrero and Antonietta Daffunchio. He was baptized on November 2, 1913 in the parish of S. Zita; received the name Alberto. He was confirmed on May 3, 1923 in the church of S. Martino di Albaro, Genoa; and received the first communion on June 21, 1923.

Education. Attended elementary school in Genoa, 1919-1922; then, Collegio Belimbau, Genoa, 1922-1923. Entered the Novitiate of the Discalced Carmelites of Deserto di Varazze, October 2, 1924; joined the Order of Carmelites Discalced, province of Liguria, in Loana, Savona; took the habit, October 12, 1928 and the name of Anastasio del Santissimo Rosario; emitted the first vows, October 17, 1929; transferred to the convent of S. Anna, Genoa. September 1932 (philosophy and theology); recovered in a local hospital from a life-threatening infection, October-December 1932; solemn profession, October 5, 1934, convent of S. Anna, Genoa; received the subdiaconate, March 1935; and the diaconate, December 1935.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1936, metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Dalmazio Minoretti, archbishop of Genoa. Named professor of philosophy in the studentato of Genoa-S. Anna, August 13, 1936. Initiated his preaching apostolate in the clinic "Bertani", Genoa, January 1, 1937. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, April 22, 1945; occupied the post until 1948. Elected provincial of Liguria, April 3, 1948; occupied the post until May 7, 1954. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, again, May 7, 1954. Elected preposito general of the order, April 9, 1955; reelected, April 21, 1961; occupied the post until May 20, 1967; visited all 350 Carmelite convents and 850 Carmelite monasteries in the world except Hungary, which did not allow him to enter the country. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Union of Superior Generals.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bari, Italy, December 21, 1973. Consecrated February 2, 1974, Rome, by Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio, prefect of S.C. for Bishops, assisted by Michele Mincuzzi, titular bishop of Sinnipsa, auxiliary of Bari, and by Enrico Romolo Compagnone, O.C.D., bishop of Terracina-Latina, Priverno e Sezze. His episcopal motto was In omnia bonitate et caritate. Transferred to metropolitan see of Turin, Italy, August 1, 1977. Attended Fourth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Elected vice-president of Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1978; named by Pope John Paul II its president, May 18, 1979; occupied the post until July 3, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the inaugural ceremonies of the Theresian Year commemorating the 4th centennial of the death of St. Theresa of Avila, October 14 to 15, 1981, Alba de Tormes and Avila, Spain. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1989. He retired to the monastery of S. Croce in Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 3, 1993.

Death. June 21, 1998, in his residence of Fortino Santa Maria, Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. After a solemn funeral celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, he was buried in the crypt of the church of S. Giuseppe del Deserto (Eremo del Deserto), Carmelite monastery, Varazze, Savona, Italy.

Beatification. The Council of Bishops of Piedmont announced on February 4, 2014 the opening of the process for his beatification.

Bibliography. "Date principali di 'Una vita donata'." Ite ad Joseph, LXXXVI, No. 4 (Luglio-Agosto 1998), 4-6.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ballestrero, 100 anni by Renzo Savarino, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Padre, vescovo e maestro by Giuseppe Ghiberti, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Ballestrero «Carmelo, la mia patria» by Filippo Rizzi, in Italian, Avvenire, 19 dicembre 2013; Al via la causa beatificazione di Ballestrero, Vino Nuovo, 07 febbraio 2014; Ballestrero, pastore dell'incontro by Marco Bonatti, L'Avvenire, 10 ottobre 2014.


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(11) 11. Ó FIAICH, Tomás
(1923-1990)

Birth. November 3, 1923, Crossmaglen, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland. Son of Patrick Ó Fiaich and Annie Carragher. He had an older brother, Patrick (Paddy), who died in 1983. His last name is also listed as Fee and O' Fee.

Education. Primary education at Cregganduff Public Elementary School, where his father was the principal teacher, from 1928 until 1936; St. Patrick's College, Armagh; St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, September 1940-1943; he had to interrupt his studies because of illness (pleurisy and pneumonia); St. Peter's College, Armagh (theology); University College, Dublin, 1948-1950 (took his degree in 1950; thesis: "The Kingdom of Airgialla", a study of the tribes and customs of South Armagh); and St. Anthony's College, Louvain, Belgium, 1950-1952 (history; he obtained his degree in 1952 "avec la plus grande distinction") .

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1948, St. Peter's College, Armagh, by Bishop James Staunton of Ferns. Further studies in Dublin and Louvain, 1948-1952. Curate in the Parish of Clonfeacle, Armagh, 1952-1953. Lecturer in modern history, St Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1953-1959; professor, 1959-1970; vice-president, 1970-1974; president, 1974-1977.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Armagh, August 18, 1977. Consecrated, October 2, 1977, Armagh, by Gaetano Alibrandi, titular archbishop of Binda, nuncio in Ireland, assisted by Francis Lenny, titular bishop of Rotdon, auxiliary of Armagh, and by William J. Philbin, bishop of Down and Connor. His episcopal motto was Fratres in unum. President of Episcopal Conference of Ireland, 1977-1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Patrizio, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. During his time as archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, sectarian and political violence greatly affected Northern Ireland and he suffered with his people. Throughout his ministry he maintained a pastoral concern for all the sections of the population.

Death. May 8, 1990, of a severe heart attack, in the evening, while leading the annual Armagh Archdiocesan Pilgrimage to the Marian Shrine of Lourdes in France. He had arrived in France the day before and had complained of feeling ill shortly after saying mass at the Grotto in the French town of Lourdes. He was rushed by helicopter to a hospital in Toulouse, 125 miles away, where he died. During his lying in state at the metropolitan cathedral of Armagh, thousands of people lined up to pay their respects. The funeral took place on May 15, 1990 in that cathedral. The requiem mass was celebrated by Bishop Cahal Brendan Daly of Down and Connor, senior bishop of the ecclesiastical province of Armagh, who also delivered the homily. Present were Cardinals George Basil Hume, O.S.B., archbishop of Westminster; Bernard Francis Law, archbishop of Boston; John Joseph O'Connor, archbishop of New York; Adrianus Johannes Simonis, archbishop of Utrecht; and Francis Arinze, president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians; also present was Emmanuel Gerada, titular archbishop of Nomento, nuncio in Ireland. Also in attendance were President Patrick John Hillery of Ireland; Vice-President Martin McGuiness; Taoiseach Charles Haughey; Taniste Brian Lenihan; Lord Caledon, representative of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain; Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams. At the head of the nave, in the front seats, on either side were the members of the late cardinal's immediate family: Mrs. Deidre O'Fee, his sister-in law, with his nieces and nephews Ainin, Eithne, Blaithin, Tom, Padraig, Sile, John and Orla. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the grounds of that metropolitan cathedral. The Cardinal Tomás Ó Fiaich Memorial Library, a registered charity, was officially opened in Armagh on May 8, 1999 by the Northern Ireland Secretary of State (1).

Bibliography. FitzGerald, Billy. Father Tom. Fount, 1990; Ó Glaisne, Risteárd. Tomás Ó Fiaich. Baile Átha Claith: Coiscéim, 1990; Ó Fiaich, Tomás, "'The Primacy in the Irish Church". Seanchas Ard Mhacha: Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society, XXI, no 1, (2006), 1-23.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Named after the cardinal to honor his academic interests, it contains extensive archival material about local and national Irish folklore, heritage and history. Cardinal Ó Fiaich's private papers covering his period as archbishop and cardinal are held by the library, as are those of nine previous archbishops of Armagh dating back to the mid-eighteenth century.


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(12) 12. CARTER, Gerald Emmett
(1912-2003)

Birth. March 11, 1912, Montréal, Canada. He was the youngest of eight children of an Irish Catholic family of modest means. His father, a strong union man, was a typesetter for the newspaper Montreal Star. His brother Alexander was bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, and two sisters became nuns.

Education. Primary studies at St. Patrick's Boy School, Montréal; then attended the Collège de Montréal, (classics); the Grand Seminary, Montréal (theology); and the University of Montréal, (licentiate in theology, 1936; master's of arts, 1940; doctorate, 1947).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal, by Alphonse-Emmanuel Deschamps, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of of Montréal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Montréal; ecclesiastical inspector of the English Catholic schools of Montréal and responsible of the Catholic School Committee 1937-1939. First director of the English section of École Normale Jacques-Cartier, 1939. Chaplain of the Catholic students at McGill University,1942-1956. Adjunct director of the English section of Catholic Action, 1943; director, 1944. President of the Thomas More Institute for Adult Education, 1946-1961. Member of the Commission of the Catholic Schools of Montréal, 1948-1961. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Montréal, January 30, 1953. President of the St. Joseph's Teachers College, from June 5, 1955. Member of the Board of Catholic Schools. Founder of St. Thomas More and Newman Clubs throughout Canada. Director of St. Lawrence College, Sainte-Foy, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Altiburo and appointed auxiliary of London, Canada, December 1, 1961. Consecrated, February 2, 1962, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Émile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by John Christopher Cody, bishop of London, and by Alexander Carter, bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, his brother. His episcopal motto was Pax et Lux. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of London, Canada, February 17, 1964. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of the Region of Ontario, 1971-1973. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1973-1975. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1975-1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; elected member of its council. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toronto, April 27, 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinal, November 5 to 9, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. He suffered a cardiac crisis in 1981. Companion of the Order of Canada, 1983. He broke a hip in 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 11, 1992.

Death. April 6, 2003, after a series of strokes, Toronto. Buried in the Bishops' Mausoleum, Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Ontario, where his successor, Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic, was also buried.

Bibliography. Higgins, Michael W. and Douglas R. Letson. My Father's Business: A biography of His Eminence G. Emmett Cardinal Carter.Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1990; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 354-355.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Archives of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(13) 13. MACHARSKI, Franciszek
(1927-

Birth. May 20, 1927, Kraków, Poland. The youngest of the three children of Leopold Macharski, a lawyer, and Zofia Pec. The other siblings were Władysław, member of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta (died on June 10, 2010); and, Janina. Baptized on June 26, 1927, in St. Stefan parish in Kraków. He received the sacrament of confirmation in 1944 from Stanisław Rospond, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Kraków.

Education. Studied at the Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków; at the Jegellonican Catholic University, Kraków; and at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1950, basilica of Święty Franciszek, Kraków, by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Kraków, 1950-1956. Further studies, 1956-1960. Faculty member, Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków, 1960-1970; rector, 1970-1978. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; auditor priest. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Kraków, 1977-1978.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Kraków, December 29, 1978. Consecrated, January 6, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Julian Groblicki, titular bishop of Filadelfia di Arabia, auxiliary of Kraków and by Stanisław Smoleński, titular bishop of Alava, auxiliary of Kraków. His episcopal motto was Jesu in te confido.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. Papal legate to the 17th International Marian Congress and 10th Mariological Congress, Kevelaer, Germany, September 17 to 20, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress, Bratislava, Slovakia, September 23 to 24, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the consecration of the Basilica of Lisieux, France, July 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on June 3, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on May 20, 2007.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 271; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 325-333.

Webgraphy. Arms, photograph and biographical data, in Polish, archdiocese of Kraków; his arms and photograps, Araldica Vaticana.


rubin4.jpg

(14) 14. RUBIN, Władysław
(1917-1990)

Birth. September 20, 1917, Toki, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland. Son of Ignace Rubin and Tekla Saluk. He had five siblings; one of them was called Jan Kazimierz. Baptized on September 22, 1917, in the church of the Discovery of the Holy Cross, in Toki, by Father Wacław Zakrzewski.

Education. Studied at Jan Kazimierz University, Lviv; at the University of Saint Joseph, Beïrut, Lebanon; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. During the Second World War, he was arrested and interned in a forced labor camp. Released, he joined the Polish Army.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1946, Beïrut, by Rémy-Louis Leprêtre, O.F.M., titular archbishop of Rusio, vicar apostolic of Aleppo. Pastoral ministry with Polish refugees, Roumy, Lebanon, 1946-1949. Further studies, 1949-1953, Rome. Pastoral ministry among Polish refugees throughout Italy, 1953-1958. Rector of the Pontifical Polish College, Rome, 1959-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Serta and appointed auxiliary of Gniezno, Poland, and delegate of the primate of Poland for the spiritual care of Polish emigrés, November 17, 1964. Consecrated, November 29, 1964, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, assisted by Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, and by Stefan Bareła, bishop of Częstochowa. Rector of the church and residence of St. Stanisław, Rome, 1964-1967. Secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, February 27, 1967. Participated in the Fist Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Santa Maria in Via Lata, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the union of the Malankar Church with the Catholic Church, Kottayam, India, December 26 to 29, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture, October 30, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, November 26, 1990.

Death. Wednesday November 28, 1990, after a long illness, Vatican City. Buried in the pro-cathedral of Lubaczow, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland.

Bibliography. "25 (dwadzieścia pięć) -lecie święceń kapłańskich J.E. ks. Biskupa Władysław Rubina," Wrocławskie Wiadomości Kościelne, 26 (1971), p. 346-349; J.E. "Kardynał Rubin prefektem rzymskiej kongregacji." Więż, (1980), nr 7/8, p. 265-266; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 335-343; Szetelnicki, Waclaw. Lwowianin na drogach swiata, Władysław. Roma : [s.n.], 1985. Responsibility:Przedmowa ... Mariana Jaworskiego.

Link. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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(15) 15. KUNG PIN-MEI, Ignatius
(1901-2000)

Birth. August 2, 1901, P'ou-tong, diocese of Shanghai, China. He belonged to a five generation Catholic family. His last name is also listed as Gong Pin-mei; and as Gong Pinmei.

Education. At 12, he was taught Chinese classics and religious instruction by his aunt Martha, a homebound nun, who encouraged him to join the priesthood. He later attended St. Ignatius High School in Shanghai and entered the Seminary of Shanghai at 19.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1930. From 1930 to 1949, pastoral ministry in diocese of Shanghai; although a diocesan priest, he was appointed headmaster of Aurora High School and later of Gonzaga High School, both run by the Society of Jesus.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Soochow (Suzhou), August 9, 1949. Consecrated, October 7, 1949, Shanghai, Zikawei, church of Saint Joseph, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in China, assisted by James Edward Walsh, M.M., titular bishop of Sata, and by Simon Chu Kai Min, bishop of Haimen. Transferred to Shanghai and also appointed apostolic administrator of Soochow and Nanking, July 15, 1950. When persecution against church started, arrested September 8, 1955; sentenced to life in prison, March 16, 1960. Released from jail and placed under house arrest, 1985; political rights granted by Shanghai tribunal, January 6, 1988. Exercised pastoral ministry during his years in jail. Resided in United States since 1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, June 30, 1979; published, June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, June 30, 1991. By the time his creation was published he had already turned 80 years of age, August 2, 1981, and lost the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. March 12, 2000, at 3:05 a.m., from stomach cancer, at the home of his nephew Joseph Kung in Stamford, Connecticut, United States of America. Following his death, he was laid out in state at St. John the Evangelist church, Stamford, where the funeral mass was also said on Saturday, March 18, at 11 am., with some 1,700 mourners in attendance. Cardinal James Francis Stafford, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, was the personal representative of Pope John Paul II for the occasion and principal celebrant; while Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, bishop of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, delivered the homily. The diocese of Hong Kong celebrated a requiem mass for the late cardinal on the evening of March 15 in the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Another requiem mass was celebrated, in Latin Tridentine Rite, on Monday, March 20, at 11 am., at the church of the Five Wounds, San Jose, California, followed by interment. Buried near the vault of Archbishop Dominic Tang Yee-Ming, S.J., of Canton, who died of pneumonia while visiting Cardinal Kung in 1995, in Santa Clara Mission cemetery, Santa Clara, California (1). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 101 and 269.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, The Cardinal Kung Foundation; his funeral, The Cardinal Kung Foundation; photo gallery, The Cardinal Kung Foundation; photograph, arms and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archives; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
KUNG PIN - MEI
HIS EMINENCE IGNATIUS CARDINAL
AUG. 2, 1901 - MAR. 12, 2000
BISHOP OF SHANGHAI, CHINA

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