The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of February 2, 1983 (II)


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(16) 1. KHORAICHE, Antoine-Pierre
(1907-1994)

Birth. September 20, 1907, Ain Ebel, archdiocese of Tyr of the Maronites, Lebanon. He was the eldest of seven children. His last name is also listed as Khreich.

Education. Studied at the Patriarchal Seminary of Tyr; at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome; and at Saint Joseph Pontifical University, Beirut, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1930. Successively, 1930-1940, faculty member of Sophia School, Beirut; patriarchal vicar of Palestine and president of the Maronite tribunal in the Holy Land. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Tyr of the Maronites, 1940-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tarso of the Maronites and appointed auxiliary of Saïda of the Maronites, April 25, 1950. Consecrated, October 15, 1950, Diman, Lebanon, by Antoine-Pierre Arida, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, assisted by Ignace Ziadé, archbishop of Alep of the Maronites, and François Ayoub, bishop of Cyprus of the Maronites. His episcopal motto was Gloria Libani data est ei. Apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Saïda of the Maronites. Transferred to the see of Saïda of the Maronites, November 25, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Administrator delegate of the patriarchate of Antioch of the Maronites, 1974. Episcopal delegate for the Maronite seminaries and president of the executive commission of the Inter-ritual Assembly of Patriarchs and Bishops of Lebanon. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, Bkerké, February 3, 1975; received the ecclesiastica communio, February 15, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 2, 1983; received the red biretta, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the patriarchate, April 3, 1986. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 20, 1987.

Death. August 19, 1994, Beirut. Buried, patriarchal see, Bkerké, Lebanon.

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(17) 2. YAGO, Bernard
(1916-1997)

Birth. July, 1916, Pass, diocese of Yopougon, Ivory Coast.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Abidjan; and at the Catholic Institute, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 1, 1947. Faculty member of Minor Seminary of Bingerville and director of the Pre-Seminary École de Petit Clerics, 1947-1956. Pastoral ministry in Abidjan, 1956-1957. Further studies, Paris, 1957-1959. Counselor of the Catholic Action, Abidjan, 1959-1960.

Episcopate. Elected metropolitan archbishop of Abidjan, April 5, 1960. Consecrated, May 8, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Napoléon-Alexandre La Brie, titular bishop of Ilta, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of Canada, French sector, and by Fulton John Sheen, titular bishop of Cesariana, auxiliary of New York, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of the United States of America. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Paul Zoungrana, M.Afr., archbishop of Ouagadougou; Jérôme Rakotomalala, archbishop of Tananarive; and Peter Poreku Dery, bishop of Wa. His episcopal motto was Ut omnes unum sint. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Crisogono, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 19, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 1996. He was the first cardinal from Ivory Coast.

Death. October 5, 1997, Abidjan. Buried in Saint Paul du Plateau metropolitan cathedral, Abidjan.

Bibliography. Grah Mel, Frédéric. Bernard Yago, le cardinal inattendu. s.l. : Presses des universités de Côte d'Ivoire, 1998; Lébry, Léon Francis. Bernard Cardinal Yago : passioné de Dieu et de l'homme. Abidjan : NEI : Fraternité Matin, 1997.

Webgraphy. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(18) 3. SABATTANI, Aurelio
(1912-2003)

Birth. October 18, 1912, parish of Pieve S. Andrea, Casal Fiumanese, diocese of Imola, Italy. Son of Luigi Sabattani and Argia Casadio. He was baptized on the folowing day, October 19, in the church of Pieve Sant'Andrea, by his uncle Father Angelo Sabattani with the name Aurelio Guido Antonio Gaspare. The other siblings were Francesco, who died in childhood; Maria Teresa; and Pier Giorgio.

Education. Initial education at home, from his mother and his uncle, the priest; elementary eduction at the local school, from 1917, under teacher Giuseppina Tabanelli. Received the first communion and the sacrament of confirmation on May 5, 1919, in the parish church of S. Giovanni Battista di Riolo, from Paolino Giovanni Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Imola. Entered the Seminary of Imola, on October 23, 1922; received the clerical vestment in his native parish from Bishop Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap. of Imola; concluded his ginnasiali education on July 15, 1927; entered the Regional Seminary Benedetto XV, Bologna, in October 1927; studied philosophy and theology until 1935 (master's in dogmatic theology); received the diaconate on Sunday October 28, 1934, in the cathedral basilica of Faenza, from Bishop Antonio Scarante of Faenza; in 1935, he was sent to study at Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iure" ("S. Apollinare"), Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, summa cum laude; thesis: De vita et operibus Alexandri Tartagni de Imola, July 4, 1939); from 1935 to 1939, he alternated periods of study in Rome and periods of pastoral work in Riolo Terme. In 1939, he was called by Msgr. Amleto Todini to work in the Vatican Secretariat of State as aiutante di studio; and he was invited to take the esame di diplomacia, while at the same time, studying at the Studio Rotale to become an advocate at the Sacred Roman Rota in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1935, episcopal chapel, Faenza, by Antonio Scarante, bishop of Faenza; he obtained dispensation for being younger than 24 years of age according to the canon law in force at the time. He celebrated his first mass on the following July 28, in the parish church of Riolo. Further studies in Rome, 1935-1939. Brief service in the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1939-1940; he had to return to his diocese because of family affairs (his mother died on July 13, 1940, his sister and brother were thirteen and eleven respectively and he felt that it was his duty to return home). Successively, 1940-1955, in Imola, diocesan chancellor, from October 15, 1940; faculty member of its seminary; diocesan counselor of Christian Teachers; cathedral canon; in Bologna, judge and official of the regional ecclesiastical tribunal; during the summer months of 1942-1947, worked at the Vatican Secretariat of State. Privy chamberlain supra numerum, September 30, 1943. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 31, 1955. The cardinal vicar of Rome named him spiritual counselor of the Catholic Physicians Association of Rome, 1955-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Giustiniana prima and appointed prelate of Loreto and pontifical delegate of its shrine, June 24, 1965. Consecrated, July 25, 1965, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardi, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. President of the Episcopal Conference of the Marches. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 13, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the prelature, September 30, 1971. Vicar of the cardinal archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1971. Pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and pro-president of the Vatican Court of Appeal, May 17, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983. Received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, February 2, 1983. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 3, 1983. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, February 8, 1983. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. Cardinal protodeacon, November 26, 1990. Vicar general of Vatican City, January 14, 1991. Resigned the posts of archpriest, vicar and president, July 1, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, October 18, 1992. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, April 5, 1993.

Death. April 19, 2003, in the morning, in his residence at the Palace of the Tribunal, in piazza Santa Marta, Vatican City. Buried in his family's tomb in Riolo Terme.

Bibliography. Cárcel Ortí, Vicente. "Aurelius Cardinalis Sabattani. Nota biographica." in Dilexit iustitiam : studia in honorem Aurelii Card. Sabattani. Città del Vaticano : Libreria editrice vaticana, 1984. (Studi giuridici ; 5), pp. XV-XX; Sabattani, Aurelio ; Cárcel Ortí, Vicente. Il cardinale Aurelio Sabattani (1912-2003) : omelie, discorsi e testimonianze. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2007; Ravaglia, Paolo. Ha amato la Chiesa. Una biografia del Cardinale Aurelio Sabattani (1912-2003). Imola : Il Nuovo Diario Messaggero, 2009.

Webgraphy. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(19) 4. KUHARIĆ, Franjo
(1919-2002)

Birth. April 15, 1919, Pribić, near Krašić, archdiocese of Zagreb, Yugoslavia (then Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; now Croatia).

Education. Studied at the Classic Lyceum, Zagreb; and at the Theological Faculty of the University of Zagreb.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 15, 1945, Zagreb, by Alojzije Stepinac, archbishop of Zagreb, future blessed. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb, 1945-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Meta and appointed auxiliary of Zagreb, February 15, 1964. Consecrated, May 3, 1964, metropolitan cathedral of Zagreb, by Franjo Šeper, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Dragutin Nežić, bishop of Poreć i Pula, and by Josip Lach, titular bishop of Dodona, auxiliary of Zagreb. His episcopal motto was Deus caritas est. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Apostolic administrator of Zagreb, 1969-1970. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, June 16, 1970. President of the Episcopal Conference of Yugoslavia, 1970-1993. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, February 2, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. President of the Croatian Episcopal Conference, 1993-1997. Honorary member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1994. Special papal envoy to the beginning of the celebration of 4th centennial of the Union of Brest-Litovsk and the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhgorod, Marian shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, May 18-21, 1995. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 5, 1997. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the 850th anniversary of the establishment of the diocese of Hvar, Croatia, September 14, 1997; to the 7th centennial celebrations of the establishment of the diocese of Sibenik, Croatia, September 29, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 15, 1999. He was called the "Rock of Croatia".

Death. March 11, 2002, Zagreb. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Zagreb.

Beatification. On the tenth anniversary of the death, his successor, Cardinal Josip Bozanić, officially announced the starting of a procedure required by the Church, of examining options for the beatification of the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu; Stankovic, Vladimir. Kardinal Kuharic u hrvatskom iseljenistvu : Juzna Afrika.Zagreb : Krscanska sadasnjost : Glas koncila, 2003. (Likovi ; 20; Variation: Likovi (Zagreb, Croatia) ; 20); Stankovic, Vladimir. Kardinal Kuharic u hrvatskom iseljenistvu-- Sjeverna Amerika. Zagreb : Krscanska sadasnjost : Glas Koncila, 2005.

Webgraphy. His effigy on a medal; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(20) 5. CASORIA, Giuseppe
(1908-2001)

Birth. October 1, 1908, Acerra, Italy. Of a family of modest means. Son of Clemente Casoria and Maria Russo. He was baptized in the cathedral of Acerra by Fr. Vincenzo Montesarchio; his godfather was Vincenzo del Giudice, a friend of the family.

Education. Elementary studies (five years) in Acerra; Seminary of Acerra, Acerra; Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy, Naples (doctorate in theology, 1930); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1932); obtained the diploma of the triennial study of the S.C. of the Council, 1934; Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, 1936); obtained the diploma of advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1938; obtained a doctorate in political science, 1952.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1930, in the bishop's chapel, by Francesco Di Pietro, bishop of Acerra. Professor at the Seminary of Acerra, 1930-1931. Pastoral ministry and further studies, 1930-1937. Professor at the Seminary of Potenza e Molfetta, 1934-1937. Work in different organs of the Roman Curia, 1937-1972: defender of the matrimonial bond, Sacred Roman Rota, 1939-1952; defender of the matrimonial bond, ecclesiastical tribunal of the conciliar region of Campania, 1941; advocate in the S.C. of Rites, for causes of the saints, 1949; deputy to the monasteries of the vicariate of Rome, 1951; commissary for the matrimonial causes, Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1954; prelate referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, March 8, 1956; voting prelate, 1962; judge of the appellate tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome, 1956; defender of the matrimonial bond and commissary for matrimonial causes in the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1956; consultor of the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1958; undersecretary adjunct of the S.C. for Discipline of Sacraments, 1959; undersecretary, 1960. Expert in the preparatory commission for the Discipline of Sacraments of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962. Qualifier in the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1964; expert judge and commissary for matrimonial causes, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vescovio, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., titular archbishop of Satriano, pro-prefect of the SS. CC. for the Sacraments and for Divine Worship, future cardinal. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, February 2, 1973. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, August 24, 1981.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, February 2, 1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, February 3, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned prefecture, April 8, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 1, 1988. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, April 5, 1993.

Death. February 8, 2001, in Clinica Pio XI, Rome. When the pope learned the news of the death, he sent a telegram to the niece of the cardinal. The funeral, celebrated in the altar of the chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Saturday February 10, at 11 a.m., was presided over by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily; nineteen cardinals concelebrated with the pope and three others were present at the ceremony; also present were numerous archbishops and bishops as well as priests from Acerra and Campania and the family of the late cardinal; the niece and her husband had the two first readings of the exquial liturgy. Later, the body of the late cardinal was transferred to Acerra; in the cemetery of the city, Bishop Salvatore Giovanni Rinaldi presided over a mass of suffrage, after which the body was buried in the family's tomb in that cemetery.

Bibliography. Sacramenti, liturgia, cause dei santi : studi in onore del cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. A cura di Antonio Moroni, Carlo Pinto e Marcello Bartolucci. Napoli : Campania Notizie, 1992; Scelzo, Angelo. Anche la Curia ha un' anima (napoletana). Vita del Cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009.

Webgraphy. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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(21) 6. LEBRÚN MORATINOS, José Alí
(1919-2001)

Birth. March 19, 1919, Puerto Cabello, diocese of Valencia en Venezuela, Venezuela. Eldest of the five children of Enrique Lebrún and Josefina Moratinos. Baptized in the parish church of Puerto Cabello. Confirmed in his native city by Felipe Rincón González, archbishop of Caracas. He was prepared for his first communion by Brother Juan, of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.

Education. Colegio San José, of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, Puerto Cabello; Interdiocesan Seminary, Caracas, July 4, 1934-1937; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in philosophy, 1941; started studying theology but had to leave Italy because of the Second World War); resided in Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome; Pontifical University Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia. Besides his native Spanish, he spoke Italian, Latin and French.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1943, cathedral of Valencia, by Gregorio Adam Dalmau, bishop of Valencia. Successively, 1943-1956, in Valencia, faculty member, spiritual director and rector of its seminary; chaplain and faculty member, School "Our Lady of Lourus"; pastoral ministry in several parishes; chaplain of the local jail; diocesan assessor of the Feminine Catholic Youth; director of Cultura Católica and of the newspaper El Carabobeño; assessor of the Venezuelan Catholic Education Association, sectional of Valencia; master of ceremonies, defensor of the matrimonial bond, and pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Arado and auxiliary of Maracaibo, August 2, 1956. Consecrated, September 2, 1956, Valencia, by Raffaele Forni, titular archbishop of Egina, nuncio in Venezuela, assisted by Acacio Chacón Guerra, archbishop of Mérida, and by Gregorio Adam Dalmau, bishop of Valencia en Venezuela. His pesicopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Apostolic administrator of the see Maracaibo, October 23, 1957. Transferred to see of Maracay, June 21, 1958. Transferred to see of Valencia en Venezuela, March 19, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Second General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to titular archbishop of Voncaria and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, and apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Caracas, September 16, 1972. Vice-president of the Venezuelan Episcopal Conference. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Caracas, May 24, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pancrazio, February 2, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Venezuela, 1984-1990. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 27, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 19, 1999.

Death. February 21, 2001, in a clinic in Caracas after suffering a heart attack. Buried in the chapel of Our Lady of El Pilar, which is in the right nave of that cathedral. All the bishops and archbishops of Caracas, including Cardinals José Humberto Quintero Parra and Antonio Ignacio Velasco García, S.D.B., are buried there.

Bibliography. Vinke, Ramón. El Cardenal José Alí Lebrún. Caracas : [s.n.], 1994.

Webgraphy. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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22) 7. BERNARDIN, Joseph Louis
(1928-1996)

Birth. April 2, 1928, Columbia, diocese of Charleston, United States. Oldest of the two children of Italian immigrants Joseph Bernardin, a stonecutter, and Maria Magdalen Simion; he had a sister, Elaine; the father died of cancer when Joseph was six years old. He was baptized and received confirmation in St. Peter's church, Columbia.

Education. Enrolled in the pre-medical program at the University of South Carolina, Columbia; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; Columbia University, New York; Catholic University, Washington (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 26, 1952, church of St. Joseph, Columbia, by John Joseph Russell, bishop of Charleston. Successively, 1952-1966, in Charleston, pastoral ministry; faculty member, Catholic Lyceum; vicar general. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 18, 1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lugura and appointed auxiliary of Atlanta, March 4, 1966. Consecrated, April 26, 1966, cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Charleston, by Paul Hallinan, archbishop of Atlanta, assisted by Ernest Leo Unterkoefler, bishop of Charleston, and by Francis Frederick Reh, titular bishop of Macriana in Mauritania, rector of the Pontifical North American College. His episcopal motto was As those who serve. At the time, he was the youngest bishop in America. Secretary general of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and of the United States Catholic Conference, 1968-1972. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Atlanta, 1968. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cincinnati, November 21, 1972. Attended theThird Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 28, 1974; elected member of the council of the general secretariat, October 19, 1974. President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1974-1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, July 8, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of the general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1996. In June 1995, the cardinal underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer; after the operation, he began his cancer ministry; on August 30, 1996, he told his flock that the cancer had returned, was in his liver, and was inoperable. Decorated with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton, September 9, 1996.

Death. November 14, 1996, at 1.33 a.m., from inoperable liver and pancreatic cancer, at his Near North Side home, Chicago. Buried in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago (1). His predecessors Cardinals Samuel Alphonse Stritch and John Patrick Cody are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 148; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 6; Kennedy, Eugene Cullen. Cardinal Bernardin: Easing conflict -and battling for the soul of American Catholicism. Chicago : Bonus Books, 1989; Kennedy, Eugene Cullen. My brother Joseph : the spirit of a cardinal and the story of a friendship. New York : St. Martin's Press, 1997; Wall, A. E. P. "Bernardin, Joseph Louis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 258-259.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Photograph Library; Cardinal Bernardin: In Memoriam, November 14, 1996, Transcript.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HERE, AWAITING THE RESURRECTION, LIE THE REMAINS OF
HIS EMINENCE, JOSEPH LOUIS CARDINAL BERNARDIN
SEVENTH ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO
BORN, COLUMBIA, SC, APRIL 2, 1928     ARCHBISHOP OF CINCINNATI, 1972 - 1982
ORDAINED, CHARLESTON, SC, APRIL 26, 1952       PRESIDENT, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS, 1974 - 1977
AUXILIARY BISHOP OF ATLANTA, 1966 - 1968     ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO, 1982 - 1996
GENERAL SECRETARY, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS 1968 - 1972     DIED, CHICAGO, IL, NOVEMBER 14, 1996
PEACE I LEAVE WITH YOU, CHRIST'S PEACE I GIVE TO YOU


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(23) 8. KITBUNCHU, Michael Michai
(1929-

Birth. January 25, 1929, Samphran, apostolic vicariate of Bangkok, Thailand.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Siracha; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1959, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Pastoral ministry in Bangkok, 1960-1965. Rector of the Metropolitan Seminary of Bangkok, 1965-1972.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bangkok, December 18, 1972. Consecrated, June 3, 1973, by Joseph Khiamsun Nittayo, former archbishop of Bangkok, assisted by Lawrence Thienchai Samanchit, bishop of Chanthaburi, and by Michel-Auguste-Marie Langer, M.E.P., bishop of Nakhorn-Sawan. His episcopal motto was Per Crucem ad lucem. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of Thailand, 1979-1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, February 2, 1983. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on January 25, 2009. On May 14, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bangkok, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij, until then bishop of Nakhon Sawan, new archbishop of Bangkok. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor. He is the first cardinal from Thailand.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(24) 9. NASCIMENTO, Alexandre do
(1925-

Birth. March 1, 1925, Malanje, Angola. His last name is also listed as Do Nascimento.

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Bangalas; then at the Seminary of Malanje; and later at the Seminary of Luanda; in 1948, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome where he obtained a bachelor in philosophy and a licentiate in theology; during his exile in Portugal, he studied civil law at the University of Lisbon.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1952, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Returned to Angola and was named professor of dogmatic theology at the Major Seminary of Luanda, and chief editor of the Catholic newspaper O apostolado, 1953-1956. Preacher of the metropolitan cathedral, 1956-1961. During those years, he also was director-adjunct of Radio Católica; assistant of the Grupos Familiares; and spiritual assistant of the workers of the port. He was among the priests who, before the Independence, were deported to Portugal for political reasons; because of their nationalistic sympathies they were not well seen by the Portuguese authorities; he was forced to go into exile in Lisbon from 1961 until 1971. In Lisbon, pastoral ministry in several parishes and counselor of the Movement of Teams of Our Lady. Successively, 1971-1975, in Lubango, professor of moral and theology and counselor at the Pius XII Institute of Social Sciences; member of the archdiocesan curia; secretary general of the Angolan Cáritas; president of the ecclesiastical tribunal of Luanda; member of the presbyteral council and of the diocesan commission for the 1975 Holy Year; and special assistant to students and former political prisoners.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Malanje, August 10, 1975. Consecrated, August 31, 1975, in the cathedral of Luanda, by Giovanni De Andrea, titular archbishop of Acquaviva, apostolic delegate in Angola, assisted by Manuel Nunes Gabriel, archbishop of Luanda, and by Eduardo André Muaca, titular archbishop of Tagarbala, coadjutor, with right of succession, of Luanda. His episcopal motto was Turres fortissima nomen Domini. Elected vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Angola, 1975-1981. Promoted to the newly established metropolitan see of Lubango, February 3, 1977. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of Ondjiva. On October 15, 1982, during a pastoral visit, he was kidnapped by a group of militaries; Pope John Paul II appealed for his freedom during the Angelus of Sunday October 31; he was freed on the following November 16.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco in Agro Laurentino, February 2, 1983. Preached the spiritual exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia in Lent 1984. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Luanda, February 16, 1986. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. President of the Episcopal Conference of Angola and São Tomé. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 23, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 1, 2005. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". On July 19, 2010, in Luanda, he was decorated by the president of the Portuguese Republic, Anibal Cavaco Silva, with the Grãu-Cruz Order of Christ for his commitment to the achievement of peace and reconciliation among Angolans.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(25) 10. LÓPEZ TRUJILLO, Alfonso
(1935-2008)

Birth. November 8, 1935, Villahermosa, diocese of Ibagué (now diocese of Líbano-Honda), Colombia, of a prominent family from Antioquia. His father was in charge of the General Accounting Office of the State, one of his brothers was a Minister of State and a relative was Bishop of Socorro and San Gil until 1975.

Education. Studied at the National University, Bogotá; at the Seminary of Bogotá; at the Pontifical International Institute Angelicum, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; and at the Pontifical Theological Faculty and Pontifical Institute of Spirituality Teresianum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained November 13, 1960. Further studies in Europe, 1960-1962. Faculty member, Seminary of Bogotá 1962-1966. Coordinator of pastoral, XXXIX International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, August 1968. Attended II General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, August 24 to September 6, 1968, as expert. Started the new archdiocesan department of pastoral, 1968. Successively, 1970-1972, in Bogotá, vicar general; pastor; counselor and faculty member at the National University.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Boseta and appointed auxiliary of Bogotá, February 25, 1971. Consecrated, March 25, 1971, Bogotá, by Aníbal Muñoz Duque, titular archbishop of Cariana, coadjutor with right of succession and apostolic administrator sede plena of Bogotá, assisted by Eduardo Francisco Pironio, titular bishop of Ceciri, auxiliary of Mar del Plata, and by Pablo Correa León, bishop emeritus of Cúcuta. His episcopal motto was Veritas et caritate. Elected secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Sucre, Bolivia, November 22, 1972; confirmed, Rome, November 1, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Promoted to the rank of archbishop and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Medellín, May 22, 1978. Attended the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; secretary general. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Medellín, June 2, 1979. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1979-1982. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1987-1990. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, November 8, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 9, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Named bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 17, 2001. Papal legate to the celebrations of the Fourth World Encounter of the Family, January 22 to 26, 2002, Manila, Philippines. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil.

Death. April 19, 2008, of respiratory problems and diabetes, at 8:30 p.m., local time, in the Clinic "Pio XI", Rome, where he had been interned for a month. At the moment of his death, Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals; his brother, a nephew as well as other relatives and members of the Roman Curia, were in his room. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI, who was at St. Joseph's Seminary, New York, during his apostolic visit to the United States of America, prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent the cardinal's brother a telegram of condolence. In the morning of April 21, 2008, after the signing of the notary's act (rogito), the casket of the cardinal was taken to the church of Santo Stefano degli Abissini, in the Vatican. The funeral took place on Wednesday April 23, 2008, at 11 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica. The Holy Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Sodano, together with the other cardinals present. At the end of the eucharistic liturgy, the exequial liturgy was presided by Pope Benedict XVI, who had the homily and the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt under the church of Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri, in Via di Porta Angelica, which is the official cemetery of the Vatican; it is the parish church of the Vatican and it is served by the Augustinian friars (1).

Bibliography. Gómez Orozco, Horacio. El Cardenal Alfonso López Trujillo. Santafé de Bogotá: Plaza & Janes, 1997; López Trujillo, Alfonso. Testimonios : Cardenal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo. Conversaciones con José Luis Gutiérrez García. Santafe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia : Plaza & Janés, 1997.

Webgraphy. Biography , in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Murió el Cardenal Alfonso López Trujillo , video, You Tube.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

S. EM. REV. MA
CARDINALE
Alfonso López Trujillo
PRESIDENTE
DEL PONTIFICIO CONSIGLIO PER LA FAMIGLIA
9 NOVEMBRE 1935 - 19 APRILE 2008


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(26) 11. DANNEELS, Godfried
(1933-

Birth. June 4, 1933, Kanegem, diocese of Brugge, Belgium. He was the eldest of six siblings.

Education. Studied at the Catholic University, Louvain; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology. He speaks Dutch, English, French, German and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1957, Brugge, by Emil Jozef De Smedt, bishop of Brugge. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1959. Faculty member and spiritual director, Major Seminary, Brugge, 1959-1969. Successively, 1969-1977, faculty member, Catholic University, Louvain, and editor-secretary of the Flemish interdiocesan review Collationes; in charge of the permanent diaconate in the diocese of Brugge; author of several books in theology.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Antwerpen, November 4, 1977. Consecrated, December 18, 1977, by Cardinal Leo-Jozef Suenens, archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, assisted by Emiel-Jozef De Smedt, bishop of Brugge, by Jules Victor Daem, former bishop of Antwerp, by Jean Huard, bishop of Tournai, and by Guillaume Marie van Zuylen, bishop of Liège. His episcopal motto is Apparuti humanitas Dei nostri. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Mechelen-Brussels, December 19, 1979. President of the Episcopal Conference of Belgium. Military Ordinary for Belgium, September 15, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Attended the Special Synod of Dutch Bishops, Vatican City, January 14 to 26, 1980; one of the president delegates.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Anastasia, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; its relator. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Treaty of Watangi, Christchurch, New Zealand, April 29, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to Reims, France, for the celebrations of the millennium of the construction of the basilica of Saint-Remi, which took place on October 7, 2007. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 1350th anniversary of the birth of St. Willibrord, which took place in Luxembourg from May 11 to 13, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 75th anniversary of the apparitions of the "Vierge des Pauvres", which took place in the Shrine of Banneux, Belgium, on May 31, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Valenciennes, France, on September 14, 2008, for the millennium of the pilgrimage in honor of Notre-Dame du Saint-Cordon. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, according to canon 401, § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, on January 18, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of that see until the installation of his successor, Bishop André-Mutien Léonard of Namur, on February 28, 2010. After his retirement, he has been interrogated by Belgian courts concerning his knowledge about priests accused of sexual abuse against minors. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 4, 2013. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization", by papal appointment.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in French; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(27) 12. WILLIAMS, Thomas Stafford
(1930-

Birth. March 20, 1930, Wellington, New Zealand.

Education. Studied at the Faculty of Commerce, Victoria University, Wellington; at the National Seminary, Mosgiel, Dunedin; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum De Propaganda Fide, Rome; and at University College, Dublin, from 1961 until 1962, earning a degree in Social Sciences.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1959, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Dublin. Pastoral ministry in St Patrick's parish, Palmerston North, 1963-1965; director of studies, Catholic Enquiry Centra, Wellington, 1966-1970; missionary in Western Samoa; built the Paul VI College, Leulumoega, Samoa, 1971-1975; pastor, Holy Family parish, Porurua, Wellington, 1976-1979.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Wellington, October 30, 1979. Consecrated, December 20, 1979, church of St. Mary of the Angels, Wellington, by Owen Noel Snedden, titular bishop of Acheloo, auxiliary of Wellington and military vicar for New Zealand, assisted by John Patrick Kavanagh, bishop of Dunedin, and by Petero Mataca, archbishop of Suva. His episcopal motto is Unity is Christ. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand, 1983-1991. Moderator of the National Tribunal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, February 2, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of Cook Islands, New Zealand, December 16 to 18, 1994. Military ordinary in New Zealand, June 1, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; president delegate. Awarded the Order of New Zealand, June 5, 2000. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, March 4, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the Military Ordinariate of New Zealand, March 4, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 20, 1010.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biographical data, in English, New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(28) 13. MARTINI, S.J., Carlo Maria
(1927-2012)

Birth. February 15, 1927, Turin, Italy. Second child of Leonardo Martini, an engineer, and Olga Maggia. He was baptized on February 22, 1927 at Immacolata Concezione parish, Turin.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit "Istituto Sociale", Turin; then, he joined the Society of Jesus on September 25, 1944; studied at the Jesuit Novitiate, Cuneo; at the Faculty of Philosophy Aloisianum, Gallarate, Milan; at the Theological Faculty, Chieri, Turin; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in fundamental theology in 1959, with the thesis: "Il problema storico della Risurrezione negli studi recenti"; later, at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in Sacred Scriptures in 1966, with research on a group of codici of the Gospel of St. Luke; and the thesis "Il problema della recensionalità del Codice B alla luce del Papiro Bodmer XIV".

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1952, Chieri, Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Further studies, Rome, 1954-1958. Faculty member, Theological Faculty, Chieri; took final vows as a Jesuit on February 2, 1962. Further studies, Rome, 1962-1964. Pastoral ministry in Rome: ministry among incarcerated youngsters at Casal del Marmo, Nisidia, and Poggioreale; collaborated with the Community of Sant'Egidio. Faculty member, dean, and on September 29, 1969, rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, July 18, 1978 until his election to the episcopate. Only Catholic member of the Ecumenical Committee for the preparation of the Greek edition of the New Testament. Director of the 1978 Lent spiritual exercises in the Vatican by invitation of Pope Paul VI.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, December 29, 1979. Consecrated, January 6, 1980, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Ferdinando Maggioni, titular bishop of Subaugusta, auxiliary of Milan he took possession of the see on February 10, 1980. In the same ceremony was consecrated Christian Wiyghan Tumi, bishop of Yagoua, Cameroun, future cardinal. His episcopal moto was Pro veritate + adversa diligere. Member of the general secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, by papal appointment, 1980-1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cecilia, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; relator; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Council of the European Catholic Episcopal Conferences from Easter 1987 until 1993. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, January 17, 1989. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the first centennial of the evangelization of Zambia, August 29 to September 2, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. On November 4, 1993 he convoked the 47th diocesan synod of Milan, which lasted until February 1, 1995. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Awarded the prize "Príncipe de Asturias" in the Social Sciences, Oviedo, Spain, October 27, 2000. Named by the pope honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, November 23, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Ninth centennial of the death of St. Bruno, founder of the Carthusians, October 6, 2001, Serra San Bruno, Italy. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 11, 2002. He returned to his biblical studies in Jerusalem. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 11, 2006, he received an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 15, 2007. In 2008, for health reasons, he had to leave Jerusalem and return to Italy. As a new residence the cardinal chose the Aloisianum of Gallarate, in the province of Varese. In June 2012, on the occasion of the Eighth World Encounter of Families, celebrated in Milan, he had a brief colloquy with Pope Benedict XVI.

Death. August 31, 2012, in his sleep at 3.45 p.m., from Parkinson's disease, at the Aloisianum in Gallarate. The neurologist Gianni Pezzoli, who for years had treated the cardinal, said that after the last crisis, which began in mid-August , the cardinal was no longer able to swallow solid foods or liquids, but remained lucid to the end and refused any form of aggressive treatment. A mass was held at the church of the Aloisianum on August 31 at 8:30 pm. The cardinal celebrated his last mass on August 30 in morning. He requested that on his tomb be inscribed the words of Psalm 118: ''Lampada ai miei passi la tua Parola, luce al mio cammino''. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Martini, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Angelo Scola, archbishop of Milan (1). The body of the cardinal lay in state from Saturday September 1 at noon in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan. The cathedral remained open the whole day and night for members of the public to pay their respect. The Comune of Milan held a minute of silence at 4 p.m. on Monday, September 3, as the funeral mass was set to start. The funeral mass, presided over by Cardinal Scola, who also delivered the homily, took place in that cathedral on Monday September 3 at 4 p.m. Cardinal Angelo Comastri, archpriest of the papal Vatican basilica and vicar of the pope for Vatican City, represented Pope Benedict XVI at the funeral and delivered a message from the pope. Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop emeritus of Milan, delivered his remembrance at the end of the mass. Concelebrating with Cardinal Scola were Cardinals Comastri, Tettamanzi, Angelo Bagnasco, archbishop of Genoa and president of the Italian Episcopal Conference; Silvano Piovanelli, archbishop emeritus of Florence; Paolo Romeo, archbishop of Palermo; and Gianfranco Ravasi, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture and of the Pontifical Commissions for the Patrimony of the Church and of Sacred Archeology. Tens of bishops and dozens of priests also concelebrated. Present were the sister of Cardinal Martini, Maris, his niece, Giulia, and his nephew, Giovanni. In attendance were Father Adolfo Nicolás, S.J., superior general of the Society of Jesus, and representatives of other Christian denominations, and of the Jewish and Muslim communities. The Italian government was represented by Prime Minister Mario Monti and his wife. Also present were the mayor of Milan; several ministers of the government friends of the late cardinal; as well as former Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Mario Enrico Delpini, titular bishop of Stefaniaco, auxiliary and vicar general of Milan, thanked, in the name of Cardinal Scola and the cathedral chapter, all those who had attended the wake and the funeral of Cardinal Martini as well as those who had assisted him during his illness. At the end of the mass, Cardinal Scola went to the square of the cathedral to greet and thank the thousands of people who had not been able to enter the cathedral. In a private ceremony, following the Ambrosian rite, the body of the late cardinal was buried in an empty tomb on the left side of the cathedral, facing the main altar at the foot of the altar of the Cross of San Carlo Borromeo (2). The funeral liturgy was broadcast live nationwide. Present at the interment were Cardinal Scola, bishops, relatives of the late cardinal and the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Milan. A park was named in his honor in Vimercate, Brianza, Milan. In his memory, the archdiocese of Milan established The Carlo Maria Martini International Award in 2013.

Bibliography. Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 299-301; Garzonio, Marco. Cardinale a Milano in un mondo che cambia : nella testimonianza di Carlo Maria Martini. Milano : Rizzoli, 1985; Garzonio, Marco. Il Cardinale : Il valore per la chiesa e per il mondo dell'episcopato di Carlo Maria Martini. Milan : Mondadori, 2002. (Uomini e religioni.; Saggi;); Garzonio, Marco. Carlo Maria Martini. Torino : Edizioni San Paolo, 1993. (Primo piano); Impalà, Enrico. Il bosco e il mendicante. Vita del cardinal Martini. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2013. (Tempi e figure); Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 161, 163, 164, 166, 168-173 and 175n; Martini, Carlo Maria. Colti da stupore. Incontri con GesùMilano : Mondadori, 2012; Martini, Carlo Maria ; Sporschill, Georg. Conversazioni notturne a Gerusalemme : sul rischio della fede. Milano : Mondadori, 2008. (Saggi / [Mondadori]); Modena, Damiano. Carlo Maria Martini. Custode del mistero nel cuore della storia. Rome : Paoline, 2005. (Saggistica); Tornielli, Andrea. Carlo Maria Martini. Il profeta del dialogo. Milano : Piemme, 2012; Valentini, Giovanni. Un certo Carlo Maria Martini. Milano : Sperling & Kupfer, 1984. (Un Certo ; 3);.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms, documents and bibliography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Martini: «Io vescovo, dai libri alla gente», Intervista, Chiesa, Avvenire, 6 febbraio 2000; Arcivescovo emerito di Milano cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, You Tube, Apr 3, 2008; Martini: così vedo inferno e paradiso, Chiesa, Avvenire, 13 febbraio 2009; S.E. Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini parla di "Solo Libera l'Anima", You Tube, Nov 26, 2010.There are those who work for a more right society by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 12/23/2011; Carlo Maria Martini publishes his new work, "The Bishop" by Luca Rolandi, Vatican Insider, 02/23/2012; A special meeting between the theologian Pope and Cardinal Martini, Biblicist and pastor by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 06/ 2/2012; Health worsens for Carlo Maria Martini, former Archbishop of Milan, Rome Reports, 2012-08-31 15:45:16; La scheda: il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, Quotidiano.net, 30 agosto 2012; Card.Martini: p. Lombardi, grande evangelizzatore del nostro tempo, Agenzia Stampa Quotidiana Nazionale (ASCA), 31 Agosto 2012 - 16:43; Carlo Maria Martini: una vita per la Chiesa, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; Uomo del dialogo e della Parola di Dio by Antonio Airò, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; Il sogno di Gerusalemme, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; È deceduto il cardinale Martini, il cordoglio della Diocesi ambrosiana by Giuseppe Grampa, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; È morto il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini. Camera ardente in Duomo, lunedì i funerali, Corriere della Sera, 30 agosto 2012 (modifica il 31 agosto 2012); Milano, morto il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini. Napolitano: "È una grave perdita per l'Italia", Quotidiano.net, 31 agosto 2012; Il cardinal Martini racconta un aneddoto, video, Quotidiano.net, 31-08-2012; Fallece a los 85 aqos el cardenal jesuíta Carlo María Martini, arzobispo emérito de Milán, Revista Ecclesia, 31 agosto, 2012; Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini passes away at age of 85, Rome Reports, 2012-08-31 18:59:20 'Ha servido generosamente al Evangelio y a la Iglesia'. Telegrama de pésame de Benedicto XVI por la muerte del cardenal Martini, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 31-08-2012; El cardenal Carlo Maria Martini murió esta tarde. Oración del papa y del cardenal Scola, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 31-08-2012; Martini's death: The last lesson to the Church and to the world by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 08/31/2012; Cardinal Martini's open and deeply felt Christianity that encouraged dialogue by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 08/31/2012; Catholic world mourns renowned biblical scholar Cardinal Martini by Cindy Wooden, CatholicHerald.co.uk, Friday, 31 August 2012; Renommierter Theologe und beinahe Papst. Zum Tod des Mailänder Alt-Erzbischofs Martini, domradio.de, 31.8.2012; Martini, leading liberal voice, dies, The Tablet, 31 August 2012; Cardinal Carlo Martini: «Une Eglise dont le regard est orienté vers un horizon lointain», la-Croix.com, 31/8/12 - 17 H 51La voix du cardinal Martini s'est éteinte by Frédéric Mounier, la-Croix.com, 31/8/12 - 18 H 21; Benedict XVI:Telegram on the death of Cardinal Martini, Vatican Radio, 2012-08-31; Cardinal Carlo Martini, Papal Contender, Dies at 85 by Gaia Pianigiani, The New York Times, August 31, 2012; Milan gathers around Cardinal Martini, Vatican Insider, 09/1/2012; Martini: vita e morte a Gerusalemme by Enrico Impalà, Cultura, Avvenire, 11 luglio 2013; Martini Pope. The Dream Come True by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, October 15, 2013; Martini e Bergoglio. Ecco dove non concordano, Settimo Cielo, 16 ottubro 2013; «Martini non era contrario a Wojtyla santo» by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 22/04/2014; Martini, la rinuncia di Benedetto e il conclave 2005 by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 17/07/2015.

(1) This is the text of the telegram published by the Press Office of the Holy See:

Signor Cardinale Angelo Scola
Arcivescovo di Milano
Piazza Fontana, 2 20122 Milano

Appresa con tristezza la notizia della morte del Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini dopo lunga infermità, vissuta con animo sereno e con fiducioso abbandono alla volontà del Signore, desidero esprimere a Lei ed all'intera comunit` diocesana come pure ai familiari del compianto Porporato la mia profonda partecipazione al loro dolore pensando con affetto a questo caro Fratello che ha servito generosamente il Vangelo e la Chiesa. Ricordo con gratitudine la sua intensa opera apostolica profusa quale zelante religioso figlio spirituale di sant'Ignazio, esperto docente, autorevole biblista e apprezzato Rettore della Pontificia Università Gregoriana e del Pontificio Istituto Biblico, e quindi come solerte e saggio Arcivescovo di codesta Arcidiocesi ambrosiana. Penso altresl al competente e fervido servizio da lui reso alla Parola di Dio, aprendo sempre più alla comunità ecclesiale i tesori della Sacra Scrittura, specialmente attraverso la promozione della Lectio divina. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne pastore nella celeste Gerusalemme, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARLO MARIA MARTINI
1927 - 2012
CARDINALE
ARCIVESCOVO DI MILANO
1980 - 2002
"LAMPADA PER I MIEI PASSI
E' LA TUA PAROLA,
LUCE SUL MIO CAMMINO"
SALMO, 119,105


lustiger.jpg

(29) 14. LUSTIGER, Jean-Marie
(1926-2007)

Birth. September 17, 1926, Hospital Rothschild, Paris, France. Of a Polish Jewish family that migrated earlier in the century. His parents were Karl and Gissèl Léa Lustiger. He lived with a Christian family in Orléans, 1940-1942; converted to Catholicism and was baptized, together with his sister Arlette, on August 25, 1940, in the episcopal chapel of Orléans by Jules-Marie Courcoux, bishop of that diocese; changed his name Aron to Jean-Marie; the god-parents were Suzanne Combes and Jean Bathellier; his parents attended the ceremony; he received confirmation shortly after from the same bishop. His mother was arrested by the Gestapo in Paris and sent to a concentration camp in Drancy in 1941; and later to Auschwitz, where she died; her name appears in the "Mémorial des Juifs de France" with number 48 and the date of February 13, 1943. After the liberation of France from the Nazis in 1945, his father tried to obtain the annulment of Jean-Marie's baptism.

Education. Primary studies in schools in Paris; secondary studies at Lycée Montaigne, Paris, 1936-1939; and Lycée Pothier, Orléans, 1940-1942; Minor Seminary of Coflans, 1942-1943 (obtained a bachelor's in June 1943); La Sorbonne University, Paris, 1945-1946 (lettres); Seminary des Carmes, Institut Catholique de Paris, 1946-1954 (philosophy and theology); military service.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1954, chapel of the Seminary des Carmes, Institut Catholique de Paris, by Émile-Arsène Blanchet, titular bishop of Lero, rector of Institut Catholique de Paris. From 1954 to 1959, chaplain of the Paris university parish, chaplain to students of letters and sciences, La Sorbonne University; chaplain to students of Grandes Ecoles (E.N.S. de Saint-Cloud, Fontenay). From 1959 to 1969, director of Centre Richelieu; responsible for the chaplains of the new universities of the Parisian region. Pastor of Sainte-Jeanne-de-Chantal, Paris, 1969-1979.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orléans, November 10, 1979. Consecrated, December 8, 1979, cathedral of Orléans, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Eugène Ernoult, archbishop of Sens, and by Daniel Pézeril, titular bishop of Reperi, auxiliary of Paris. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Paris, January 31, 1981. Ordinary of the faithful of Oriental rite residing in France without their own ordinary, March 12, 1981.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; to the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; to the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of the general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; president delegate. By papal bull, transferred to the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, November 26, 1994. Elected member of the Académie Française, June 15, 1995; reception, March 14, 1996. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the First Centennial of the Evangelization of Burundi, Gitega, November 22, 1998; to the third centenary commemorative celebrations of the cathedral of Nice, France, May 2, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the diocese of Basse-Terre e Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, held in that ecclesiastical circumscription, November 19, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, on January 27, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 11, 2005. Apostolic administrator of Paris, February 11 to March 5, 2005. Resigned the office of ordinary for Catholics of Oriental rite resident in France and without an ordinary of their own, March 14, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, September 17, 2006. On May 31, 2007, in a wheelchair, he made an emotionally charged appearance at the Académie Française to say goodbye to his fellow "immortals", as the 40 members of the prestigious academy are known (1). He resided at 14ème arrondissement, 277 boulevard Raspail, Paris.

Death. August 5, 2007, at 7:20 p.m., of cancer, at Maison médicale Jeanne-Garnier, 106, avenue Émile Zola, Paris; his death certificate mentions him as Aron Lustiger. The body was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris on August 9, 2007, from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. On August 10, 2007, at 10 a.m., in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris, took place the funeral of the cardinal. The mass was presided by Archbishop André Vingt-Trois of Paris. President Nicolas Sarkozy, who returned from his vacation in the United States of America to be present at the funeral, Prime Minister François Fillon, as well as several members of the government, attended the ceremony, together with sixteen cardinals, fifty bishops, 500 priests and 3000 faithful, who filled the cathedral. The family of the late cardinal; Bernadette Chirac, former first lady of France; Lech Walesa, former president of Poland; representatives of other religions and the Jewish community, in which the cardinal was born, were also present. Cardinal Paul Poupard, president of the Pontifical Commission for Culture, read a message from Pope Benedict XVI. At the end of the ceremony, the body of the cardinal was buried in the crypt of the cathedral, which is inaccessible to the public and situated below the choir of Notre-Dame; the archbishops of Paris after the 17th century repose in the crypt (2). On October 23, 2013, in the Benedictine monastery of Abu Gosh, near Jerusalem, a memorial was inaugurated in his honor.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3244; Serrou, Robert, Olivier Néri and Bruno Serrou. Lustiger : "cardinal, juif et fils d'immigri". Ed. rev. et augm. Paris : Perrin, 2001; Tincq, Henri. Aron Jean-Marie Lustiger. Le cardinal prophète. Paris : Éditions Grasset, 2012.

Webgraphy. Photograph and bibliography, in French, archdiocese of Paris (the menu is on the left side of page); photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Cardinal Lustiger's funeral ceremony begins with reading of Kaddish, in English, European Jewish Press, August 10, 2007; Jean-Marie Lustiger, une lecture spirituelle de l'histoire. Portraits de cardinaux français du XVIe au XXe siècle, le-Croix.com Institut Jean-Marie Lustiger, in French, The Institut; Les parents du cardinal Lustiger avaient été baptisés by Jean-Marie Guénois, Le Figaro, 03/04/2012 ` 20:32.

(1) These are his works, taken from the site of the Académie Française, linked above: Sermons d'un curé de Paris (Fayard) (1978); Pain de vie et peuple de Dieu (Critérion) (1981); Osez croire (Le Centurion) (1985); Osez vivre (Le Centurion) (1985); Premiers pas dans la prière (Nouvelle Citi) (1986); Prenez place au cœur de l'Église (Office chrétien des handicapés) (1986); Six sermons aux élus de la Nation, 1981-1986 (Le Cerf) (1987); Le Choix de Dieu. Entretiens avec Jean-Louis Missika et Dominique Wolton (Le Fallois) (1987); La Messe (Bayard) (1988); Dieu merci, les droits de l'homme (Critérion) (1990); Le Sacrement de l'onction des malades (Le Cerf) (1990); Le Saint-Ayoul de Jeanclos (en collaboration avec Alain Peyrefitte) (Fayard) (1990); Nous avons rendez-vous avec lEurope (Mame) (1991); Dare to rejoice (Compilation américaine) (Our Sunday visitor) (1991); Petites paroles de nuit de Noël (Le Fallois) (1992); Devenez dignes de la condition humaine (Flammarion) (1995); Le Baptême de votre enfant (Fleurus) (1997); Soyez heureux (Éd. Nil) (1997); Pour l'Europe, un nouvel art de vivre (PUF) (1999); Les prêtres que Dieu donne (Desclée de Brouwer) (2000); Comme Dieu vous aime. Un pèlerinage ` Jérusalem, Rome et Lourdes (Parole et silence) (2001); La Promesse (Parole et Silence) (2002); Comment Dieu ouvre la porte de la foi (Desclée de Brouwer) (2004); Contempler l'Apocalypse (Parole et Silence) (2005).
(2) A commemorative plaque will be installed in the cathedral with the following message from the late cardinal:

Je suis né juif.
J'ai reçu le nom
de mon grand-père paternel, Aron.
Devenu chrétien
par la foi et le baptême, je suis demeuré juif
comme le demeuraient les Apôtres.
J'ai pour saints patrons
Aron le Grand Prêtre,
saint Jean l'Apôtre,
sainte Marie pleine de grâce.
Nommé 139e archevêque de Paris
par Sa Sainteté le pape Jean-Paul II,
j'ai été intronisé dans cette cathédrale
le 27 février 1981,
puis j'y ai exercé tout mon ministère.
Passants, priez pour moi.
+ Aron Jean-Marie cardinal Lustiger
Archevêque de Paris


glemp6.jpg

(30) 15. GLEMP, Józef
(1929-2013)

Birth. December 18, 1929, Inowroclaw, archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland. Son of Kazimierz Glemp, a salt miner, who joined the resistance against the Nazis in Greater Poland, and Salomea z Kośmickich. He was baptized on the same day of his birth by Father Ludwik Sobieszczyk, parish vicar in the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. During the Nazi occupation, Józef, his mother; sister, Stanisława; and two brothers, Czesław and Jan, were interned in a forced labor farm.

Education. Studied at the primary school in Kościelec Kujawski until fourth grade; studies interrupted because of the Second World War; March of 1945, he re-started his studies in the State secondary school "Jan Kasprowicz" in Inowrocław; on May 25, 1950, he obtained the certificate of maturation together with the diploma approving his entrance to higher studies without the customary matriculation examinations; then, he entered the Faculty of Polish Studies of the University of Warsaw; later, he transferred to the University of Mikołaj Kopernik in Toruń afterward, he entered the Primatial Major Seminary in Gniezno, where he studied philosophy and theology; on September 30, 1952, he entered the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Poznań, furthering his theological studies; after ordination, in 1958, he was sent to Rome for specialized studies in canon and civil law at the Pontifical Lateran University, where he obtained a licentiate on both laws on June 20, 1960; and the doctorate on June 23, 1964; his doctoral thesis was entitled De evolutione conceptus fictionis iuris (The evolution of the concept of legal fiction); for one year he also attended specialized courses at the Pontifical Gregorian University, among them Latin stylistics; also, he completed the Studium of Ecclesiastical Administration at the Congregation of the Council in 1962; and took a three-year course in the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, which he completed with the title of Advocate of the Roman Rota, from 1961 to 1964. In that year, he returned to Gniezno.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1956, in the cathedral basilica Gniezno, by Franciszek Jedwabski, titular bishop of Massula, auxiliary of Poznań (1). Impeded by the State authorities to take up his appointment at the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Inowrocław, he worked pastorally in the parish of Saint James in Mogilno, where his family had relocated. On December 7, 1956, he was named chaplain to the Dominican Sisters in Mielżyn near Gniezno, in an institution for incurably ill children. Concurrently, he taught religion in the school of Ruchocinek and in the home for youthful offenders in Witkowo, just outside Gniezno. Later, he was chaplain to the Sisters of Sacré Coeur in Polska Wieś, near Pobiedziska. Named vicar and prefect of the secondary school of education of the parish of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Wągrowiec. Transferred as vicar to the parish of Miasteczko Krajeńskie. Further studies, Rome, 1958-1964. Successively, 1964-1967, in Gniezno, secretary of the Primatial Seminary; notary of the curia and metropolitan tribunal; counselor of the primatial tribunal super ratio, 1965; defender of the matrimonial bond; and consultor in the Primatial Tribunal for matters of dispensation concerning ratified and non-consummated marriage. He taught courses for priests of the archdiocese of Gniezno in post conciliar studies; and in the academic year of 1966-1967, he was pro synodal examiner in that area. Successively, From December 1, 1967, in Warsaw, chief of the primatial secretariat; chaplain to the primate; secretary for matters concerning the archdiocese of Gniezno; Secretariat's press officer; faculty member of the Catholic Theological Academy; simultaneously to his work in the secretariat, he was chaplain of the Congregation of Franciscan Sisters, Servants of the Cross in Laski; and of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Most Holy Name of Jesus; also, he was named judge in the process of beatification of the Servant of God, Father Władysław Korniłowicz; and at the same time, he did pastoral work in the parish church of Saint Martin and in the pastoral center of the University Church of Saint Anne in Warsaw. From February 1968, he was a volunteer assistant in the Faculty of Canon Law of the Academy of Catholic Theology in Warsaw, in the field of Roman Law; and during the academic year 1973-1974, in the field of matrimonial canon law. He continued these assignments until his promotion to the episcopate. From 1970, he was given the pastoral care of lawyers and jurists in Warsaw. Named chaplain of honor of His Holiness on November 29, 1972. On January 15, 1975, he was named secretary of the Commission of the Episcopate for matters concerning Polish Institutions in Rome. In the same year, he was named member of the Episcopal Commission for the Revision of Canon Law. On March 12, 1975, he received the confirmation of his doctorate from the Faculty of Canon Law. On March 19, 1976, he was named gremial canon of the metropolitan and primatial cathedral chapter of Gniezno. He participated in the Third International Congress of Canon Law in Pamplona in October 1976.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Warmia, March 4, 1979; took canonical possession of the see on the following March 19. Consecrated, April 21, 1979, cathedral basilica of Gniezno, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, assisted by Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, and by Jan Obłąk, titular bishop of Abbir maggiore, auxiliary of Warmia. His episcopal motto was Caritati in iustitia. In the Polish episcopate, he was named chair of the Commission of Iustitia et Pax; as well as member of other commissions: Pastoral Care of Workers and the Revision of Canon Law; he also co-chaired the legislative assembly established by the Joint Commission of Representatives of the Government and the Episcopate. In Warmia, he erected many parishes and pastoral and catechetical centers; convoked a presbyteral council (September 15, 1979); a pastoral council (September 20, 1979); and reactivated the Diocesan Commission of Art (October 8, 1979); the Council for Publications (November 30, 1979); and the Liturgical Commission (December 21, 1979). On March 19, 1980 he announced the beginning of the preparatory phase of the Pastoral Synod of the Diocese of Warmia, whose previous synod had taken place in 1922. Further, he gave new impulse to the process of beatification of the Servant of God, Cardinal Stanisław Hosius (Hozjusz). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gniezno, July 7, 1981; having united with it, pro illa vice et ad personam, the archdiocese of Warsaw. Took possession of both archdioceses on July 9, 1981. Ordinary of the faithful of Oriental Rite residing in Poland without ordinary of their own rite, September 18, 1981 to June 9, 2007. President of the Episcopal Conference of Poland from 1981 until 2004. As Primate of Poland he became protector of Pastoral Care for Poles Abroad. He received doctorates honoris causa from The Academy of Catholic Theology, Warsaw, 1982; Villanova University, Philadelphia, 1985; The Catholic University of Lublin, 1985; The University of Santo Tomas, Manila, 1988; The University of Bari, 1990; Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey, 1991; Warsaw Agricultural University (SGGW), 1992; the Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Warsaw, 1995; Loyola University of Chicago, 1998 and University of Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 2, 1983. Member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1983), of the Pontifical Council for Culture (1993), and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (2002). He accompanied Pope John Paul II during his pilgrimages to Poland in 1983, 1987, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2002; during World Youth Day in Częstochowa and Paris; and in several foreign pilgrimages, among them, to Spain, France, Austria, Lithuania and Latvia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Papal representative to the funeral of Cardinal Julijonas Vaivods, apostolic administrator of Riga and Liepaja, Latvia, May 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; president delegate. On March 25, 1992, with the restructuring of the dioceses in Poland, Pope John Paul II dissolved the union "ad personam" of Gniezno and Warsaw, confirming Cardinal Glemp as archbishop of Warsaw, and as guardian of the relics of Saint Wojciech (Adalbert), venerated in the cathedral of Gniezno, continued to bear the title of primate of Poland. He was bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of Malta in its Polish association (1994); and grand prior of the Grand Priory of Poland of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (1996). He was also the honorary chairman of the international meetings of Uomini e Religioni. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. At the request of Pope Benedict XVI, presided over the closing mass of the National Eucharistic Congress and the beatification of three Polish priests on Sunday, June 19, 2005. On November 1, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI confirmed the title of the cardinal as primate until the completion of his eightieth year of age. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 6, 2006. Named apostolic administrator of Warsaw on January 6, 2007; occupied the post until April 1, 2007, when the new archbishop of Warsaw, Kazimierz Nycz, took possession of the see. Resigned the office of ordinary of the faithful of Oriental Rite residing in Poland without ordinary of their own rite on June 9, 2007. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the death of Saint Bruno, which took place in Lomża and Giżycko, Poland, from June 19 to 21, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave and the title of primate of Poland, when turned eighty years of age, December 18, 2009. He was grand chancellor of the University of Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński (Academy of Catholic Theology); and of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Warsaw. He was named honorary citizen of many cities, among them Warsaw, Inowrocław, Mogilno, Źnin, Darłów, Miechów, Piastów and Łowicz, as well as Castel Sant'Elia in Italy. He published numerous works (2). He helped steer Poland through a historic and relatively peaceful transition from Communism to democracy in 1989.

Death, January 23, 2013, at 9:30 p.m., in the hospital "Instytut Grużlicy i Chorób Płuc", Płocka 26 Street, in Warsaw, from lung cancer. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz, current archbishop of Warsaw. The body of Cardinal Glemp was exposed in the church of the Sisters of the Visitation in Warsaw on Saturday January 26 from 9 a.m. throughout the day with the opportunity of individual prayers for the deceased. On Sunday January 27 in the morning, the body was transported to the Basilica of Holy Cross in Warsaw. At 9 a.m, the first radio mass was celebrated. At 4 p.m., a solemn mass was celebrated by Celestino Migliore, titular archbishop of Canossa, nuncio in Poland. The homily was delivered by Józef Michalik, archbishop of Przemyśl of the Latins, president of the Episcopal Conference of Poland. After this mass, around 5:30 p.m., the body of the late cardinal was transported in a solemn procession to the Cathedral Basilica of Saint John the Baptist in Warsaw, where it was exposed until 10.00p.m. The funeral mass, which took place on Monday January 28, 2013, at 11 a.m., in that cathedral basilica, was presided over by Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków. Concelebrating were Cardinals Kazimierz Nycz, archbishop of Warsaw; Stanisław Ryłko, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, representing the Holy See at the funeral; Franciszek Macharski, archbishop emeritus of Kraków; Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, archbishop emeritus of Wrocław; Péter Erdö, archbishop of Estergom-Budapest, Hungary; Dominik Duka, O.P., archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic; Lluís Martínez Sistach, archbishop of Barcelona, Spain; Josip Bozanić, archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia; and Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne, Germany. Other bishops and priests also concelebrated. The homily was delivered by Józef Kowalczyk, archbishop of Gniezno, primate of Poland. Following the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried in a black granite sarcophagus in the crypt of the cathedral basilica, where his two immediate predecessors, Cardinals Stefan Wyszyński and August Hlond, S.D.B., are also buried.

Bibliography. Kindziuk, Milena. Kardynal Józef Glemp : ostatni taki Prymas(Cardinal Jozef Glemp: the last such Primate). Warszawa : "Swiat Ksiazki", 2010; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 119; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 345-352.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in English, Sekretariat Prymasa Polski; photographs and biography, in Polish, Sekretariat Prymasa Polski; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; catalog of the archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, was under detention; and Lucjan Bernacki, titular bishop of Mela, auxiliary of Gniezno, was absent.
(2) De conceptu fictionis iuris apud Romanos, 1974; Lexiculum iuris romani, 1974; Przez sprawiedliwość ku miłości (Through Justice to Love), 1982; Człowiek wielkiej miary (A Man of Great Calibre), 1983; Kościół na drogach Ojczyzny (The Church on the Paths of the Fatherland), 1985; Chcemy z tego sprawdzianu wyjść prawdomówni i wiarygodni, 1985; Kościół i Polonia (The Church and Polonia), 1986; Umocnieni nadzieją (Strengthened by Faith), 1987; W tęczy Franków orzeł i krzyż (In the Rainbow of the Franks: the Eagle and The Cross), 1987; O Eucharystii (The Eucharist), 1987; Nauczanie pasterskie (Pastoral Teachings), 5 volumes, 1981-95; Let My Call Come to You, 1988; A wołanie moje niech do Ciebie przyjdzie (Let My Cry Come Unto Thee), 1988; Boże, coś Polskę posłał nad Tamizę (The Visitation to the Church on the Thames), 1988; Nauczanie społeczne 1981-1986 (Social Teaching 1981-1986), 1989; Na dwóch wybrzeżach (On Two Coasts), 1990; U przyjaciół Belgów (Among Our Belgian Friends), 1990; I uwierzyli uczniowie (And His Disciples Believed in Him), 1990; Zamyślenia Maryjne (Marian Reflections), 1990; Słowo Boże nad Łyną, 1991; Tysiąclecie wiary świętego Włodzimierza (The Millennium of Faith of Saint Vladimir), 1991; Gniezno - ciągła odnowa (Gniezno - Constant Renewal), 1991; Służyć Ewangelii słowem (Serving the Gospel in Word), 1991; Solidariet : La Polonia che sogniamo, 1991; Na Skałce - na opoce (On Skałka - On the Rock), 1991; Niebo ściągają na ziemię, 1991; Między Ewangelią a Konstytucją (Between the Gospel and the Constitution), 1992; Na wyspie Świętego Patryka (On the Isle of Saint Patrick), 1992; Idżmy do Betlejem (Let Us Go to Bethlehem), 1992; Wartości chrześcijańskie nabywane pod Kalwarią (Christian Values Won on Calvary), 1993; W blaskach Zmartwychwstania (In the Splendor of the Resurrection), 1994; Być znakiem miłości (To be a Sign of Love), 1994; Rodzina drogą Kościoła (The Family and the Path of the Church), 1995; Boskie i cesarskie (What is God's and What is Caesar's), 1995; Idzie, idzie Bóg prawdziwy (He Comes, the True God, He Comes), 1995; Le Chemins des Pélerins, 1996; Od Kalwarii na drogi Europy (From Calvary down to the Paths of Europe), 1997; Święci idą przez Warszawę (Saints Have Walked through Warsaw), 1997; Piętnaście lat posługi prymasowskiej (Fifteen Years of Primatial Service), 1997; Poles - We enter now the Twenty-first Century!, 1998; Modlimy się w kraju Helwetów, 1998; Zachowanie tożsamości narodowej a solidarność międzyludzka (The Preservation of National Identity and Interhuman Solidarity), 1998; Z krzyżem przez dzieje wierzącej Stolicy, 1998; Odkrywać drogi Opatrzności Bożej, 1999; Listy pasterskie Prymasa Polski, 1999; La speranza a Varsavia si stringe alla Croce, 1999; Sławny w męczenników gronie, 1999; Chrystus wciąż żyje, 2001; Ściśle duszpasterskie, 2002; "Caritati in iustitia", 2002; Opatrzność pod krzyżem Chrystusa i naszym, 2003; Z Jasnogórskiego Szczytu, 2004.


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(31) 16. VAIVODS, Julijans
(1895-1990)

Birth. August 18, 1895, Bernāne, parish of Vārkava, archdiocese of Mohilev, Russia (1).

Education. Finished his secondary education (gymnasium) in Preiļi in 1913; then, entered the Theological Seminary of the archdiocese Mohilev in St. Petersburg, Russia. Later, he attended the Theological Faculty of Riga, where he earned a licentiate in theology on June 23, 1943 (thesis: Garīrgā dzīive un tās vadiīaji Kurzemē XVIII gs. (Spiritual Life and Church Hierarchy in Kurzemē in the 18th century)).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 7, 1918, in St. Petersburg, by Jan Cieplak, titular bishop of Eurea di Fenicia, suffragan of Mohilev. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Mohilev. Celebrated his first mass in the parish of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Vārkava. From June 9, 1918 to February 21, 1919, he was chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Aglona; from February 21, 1919 to February 24, 1920, he was parish priest of the same parish. Incardinated in the diocese of Riga when it was erected on September 22, 1918. From February 24, 1920 to September 23, 1920, he was chaplain of the gymnasium in Rēzekne. From September 23, 1920 to August 9, 1921, chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Ludza and chaplain of the gymnasium in Ludza. From August 9, 1921 to August 31, 1924, chaplain of the gymnasium in Daugavpils. From August 31, 1924 to February 20, 1925, chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Varakļāni. From February 20, 1925 to September 27, 1933; parish priest of Sv. Trīsvienības in Lē nas; during this time he founded filial-parishes in Vaiņode (chapel Sv. Krusta), Saldus and Silaiņi. From September 27, 1933 to June 26, 1936, parish priest of Sv. Miķeļa in Alsunga, during this time he founded the parish of Sv. Stanislava in Dviete and became in addition its first parish priest on June 26, 1936. From October 14, 1936 to April 13, 1937, parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Jaunjelgava. From April 13, 1937 to July 28, 1938; parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Ventspils. With the erection of the diocese of Liepāja on May 8, 1937, he was incardinated in this diocese. In 1938 he was decorated with the cross of merit of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Latvia (Triju Zvaigžļu Ordenis). From July 28, 1938 to April 6, 1940, parish priest of the cathedral Sv. Jēzepa in Liepāja and diocesan chancellor. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of Sv. Jēzepa on December 30, 1938. Vicar general of Liepāja from April 6, 1940; in addition, from April 8, 1940, he was also curia judge. On August 16, 1944, he was named dean of the denate of Kurzemē. When Latvia was occupied by German troups in 1944, the bishop of Liepāja had to leave his diocese on October 7, 1944, and handed over all rights and obligations to Msgr. Vaivods; he took care of the diocese under the heavy conditions of the Germans until May 1945; and then during the following Soviet occupation until July 25, 1947, when Peters Strods, titular bishop of Stadia, was named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Liepāja. Bishop Strods confirmed Msgr. Vaivods as vicar general of the diocese and diocesan chancellor. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 4, 1949; he did not learn about this nomination until fourteen years later. On January 2, 1958, he was arrested by the Soviet authorities; and on February 11, 1958, he was sentenced to prison for two years. He spent this time in a concentration camp in Mordovia. On January 2, 1960, he returned to Liepāja, but he was not allowed to work as a priest for half a year. From June 11, 1960 to March 27, 1961, he was parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Vaiņode. From March 27, 1961 to November 15, 1962, parish priest of the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. From November 15, 1962, vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga. Attended the third session of the Second Vatican Council, September 14 to November 21, 1964, by papal invitation. He was the author of several publications on the history of the Catholic church and on the history of Latvia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Macriana maggiore and appointed apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Riga and Liepāja, November 10, 1964. Consecrated, November 18, 1964, chapel of Our Lady of Czestochowa, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, assisted by Jāzeps Rancāns, titular bishop of Marcopoli, auxiliary of Riga (expelled from his office in 1944 and living in exile in Grand Rapids, United States), and by Boļeslas Sloskāns, titular bishop of Cillio, apostolic administrator of Minsk and of Mohilev (expelled from his office since 1926 and living in exile in Louvain, Belgium). His episcopal motto was Ad Jesum per Mariam. Took possession of the see on December 8, 1964, in the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. Attended the fourth session of the Second Vatican Council, September 14 to December 8, 1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Latvia. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Received the cross of merit cross, second class, of the Order of Merit of Saint Vladimir by Patriarch Alexij of Moscow on April 16, 1968; and the cross of merit cross, first class, of the Order of Merit of Saint Vladimir by the same patriarch, on August 18, 1975. Between 1964 and 1986 he ordained sixty eight priests.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, February 2, 1983. Did not have the right to participate in the conclave because he was promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years of age. His celebrated his first mass as cardinal on March 8, 1983, in Sv. Alberta in Riga. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first Latvian cardinal.

Death. May 24, 1990, 2.35 a.m., in Riga. The funeral mass was celebrated on May 28, 1990, in the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. The late cardinal was buried on May 29, 1990, in the garden of the minor basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Aglona, Latvia. His remains were reburied on June 1, 1993, in the crypt of that church after the reconstruction work was finished. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. In 1995, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth, a stamp with his portrait was issued by the Republic of Latvia. On October 1, 2014, a memorial in his honor was unveiled and blessed next to the cathedral of Rēzeknē, Latvia

Webgraphy. Photographs and brief biographical entry, in Latvian; photographs, arms and effigy on a postal stamp, Araldica Vaticana..

(1) Since the independence of Latvia in 1918 and erection of the Catholic hierarchy in the same year, the parish of Vārkava formed part of the diocese of Riga (archdiocese since 1923); and is now in the diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona.


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(32) 17. MEISNER, Joachim
(1933-

Birth. December 25, 1933, in Breslau-Lissa, archdiocese of Breslau, Germany (1). He was the second of the four sons of Walter Meisner and his wife Hedwig. The father was killed in 1945 in the Second World War. The mother moved with her four sons to Körner, a small village in Thuringia, then German Democratic Republic, and worked in a canning shop in Mühlhausen.

Education. After finishing his school education in 1948, he did an apprenticeship as a bank clerk. From 1951, he studied at the Norbertinum in Magdeburg to obtain the Abitur. From 1956 until 1959 he studied theology and philosophy at the Theological Faculty in Erfurt. He obtained a doctorate in theology at the Pontificial Gregorian University in Rome in 1969 (thesis: Nachreformatorische katholische Frömmigkeit in Erfurt). Received the diaconate in the church St. Marien in Neuzelle on April 8, 1962 from Ferdinand Piontek, titular bishop of Barca and apostolic administrator of Görlitz.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1962, cathedral of Sankt Marien, Erfurt, by Josef Freusberg, titular bishop of Adrianopoli di Epiro, auxiliary of Fulda. Incardinated in the apostolic administration of the territory of Erfurt and Meiningen. From 1963 until 1966, he was chaplain at the parish of Sankt Aegidien in Heiligenstadt; and in 1966 at the parish Heilig-Kreuz in Erfurt. Spiritual counselor and director of Caritas, 1966-1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vina, March 17, 1975, cathedral of Sankt Marien, Erfurt, and appointed auxiliary bishop to the apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen. Consecrated, May 17, 1975, by Hugo Aufderbeck, titular bishop of Arca di Fenicia, apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen, assisted by Hans-Georg Braun, titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena, apostolic administrator of Magdeburg, and by Georg Weinhold, titular bishop of Idicra, auxiliary of Dresden-Meissen. His episcopal motto is Spes nostra firma est pro vobis. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Transferred to the see of Berlin, April 22, 1980. Took possession of this see May 17, 1980. Elected president of the Berliner Bischofskonferenz (Conference of the bishops of the German Democratic Republic) September 7, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pudenziana, February 2, 1983. He was ascribed to the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments since 1983); for Catholic Education from 1983 until 1993; for the Clergy since 1991 and for Bishops from 1995 until 2013; to the Pontifical Councils for Interreligious Dialogue from 1990 until 2000, for Culture from 1993 until1998, and for Legislative Texts since 2002; the Pontificial Commissions Iustitia et Pax from 1984 until 1988, for Non-Believers from 1983 until 1993; and to the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See since 1991. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cologne, December 20, 1988. Took possession of the see on February 12, 1989. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1989, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Senator of honor of the Sophia University of Tokio, Japan, December 9, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Grand prior of the German Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem since October 20, 1990. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Jesuit University Ateneo in Manila, Philippines, December 5, 1990. Honorary knight of the Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly known as the Teutonic Order (Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum) since 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Received the honorary citizenship of Miguel Pereira, Brazil, on August 28, 1992. Decorated with the Grand Decoration of Honor in Gold (Großes Goldenes Ehrenzeichen) of the Republic of Austria on November 30, 1992. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, November 6, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the sixth centennial of St. John Nepomuceno's birth, Nepomok and Prague, Czech Republic, May 13 to 17, 1993. Attended Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Pontificial Theological Faculty of the University of Wrocław, Poland, in 1996; and from the Pontificial University of México in México City, México, on October 24, 1996. Decorated with the Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého Iva), III Class, of the Czech Republic in 1998. Special papal envoy to the ceremony of consecration of the new parish church of Astana, Kazakhstan, June 27, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Received the honorary citizenship of Trzebnica, Poland, August 21, 2001; and of Serra San Bruno, Italy, November 27, 2001. Received an honorary doctorate in sociology from the Institute of Arts and Science of the Leibniz University of Santa Fe, United States of America, in May 2003. Decorated with the Grand Merit Cross with Star and Sash (Großes Verdienstkreuz mit Stern und Schulterband) of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, October 7, 2003. Honorary canon of the cathedral of Saint John Baptist in Wrocław, Poland, October 29, 2003. Decorated with the Jubilee Medal of The Order of Merit pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 2004. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the 850th anniversary of the arrival in Finland of Saint Henry, bishop, and the 50th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Helsinki. The celebrations took place in Helsinki on February 27, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the University of Lublin, Poland, May 5, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Received the honorary citizenship of Levoča, Slovakia, August 15, 2006. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Šiluva, Lithuania, which took place on September 13 to 14, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the twelfth centennial of the death of Saint Ludger, first bishop of Münster and "Apostle of the Saxons and Frisons", which took place in Werden an der Ruhr, diocese of Essen, Germany, on September 6, 2009. Decorated with the chapter cross (Distinktorium) of the chapter of the cathedral of Saint Jacob in Olsztyn, Poland, in 2011. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Catholic University of Ruzomberok, Slovakia, September 28. 2011. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the eighth centenary of the birth of Saint Agnes of Bohemia, which took place in the cathedral of Prague, Czech Republic, on November 12, 2011. Received the grand decoration in gold of the Order of Saint Martin of the diocese of Eisenstadt, Austria, in 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". He is chairman of Renovabis, a charitable organization of the Catholic Church in Germany, established in 1993 to help people in Eastern and Central Europe. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. In 2013 he established the Cardinal Meisner Foundation for East- and South-Europe to assist priests and provide for the pastoral care in those countries. On August 17, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the placing of the first stone of the Duomo of Xanten, Germany, which took place on October 13, 2013. He lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 25, 2013. Decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Zasługi Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) of the Republic Poland, February 16, 2014. He has written and published numerous works (2). On February 28, 2014, the pope accepted his resignation from the office of metropolitan archbishop of Cologne for age reasons, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. On June 10, 2015, he was named special papal envoy to the inauguration of the conventual complex of the Shrine of "Maria-Radna" in Timişoara, Romania, recently restored, which will take place on August 2, 2015.

Bibliography. Helbach, Ulrich. "Mesiner, Joachim." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 295-297.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biographical data, in German, archdiocese of Cologne; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his portrait by Toni May, metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Gap left by retiring cardinal Joachim Meisner will be impossible to fill by Guido Horst, Vatican Insider, 23/12/2013; Meisner lobte immenses Lebenswerk by Joachim Röhrig, Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, 08.12.2013.

(1) The city was assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference, 1945, and it now has the Polish name Wroclaw.
(2) They are: Das Auditorium Coelicum am Dom zu Erfurt. Ein Beitrag zur Universitätsgeschichte Erfurts (= Erfurter theologische Schriften, Bd. 6). St. Benno-Verlag, 1962; Nachreformatorische katholische Frömmigkeitsformen in Erfurt (= Erfurter theologische Studien, Bd. 26), 1971; Sein, wie Gott uns gemeint hat! Betrachtungen zu Maria. Bernward-Verlag, 1988; Unsere Hoffnung stärke euch. Styria Pichler, 1989; Wider die Entsinnlichung des Glaubens. Gedanken zur Re-Evangelisierung Europas. 2. Aufl., Styria, 1991; Die heilige Messe. Pattloch-Verlag, 1997; Spuren Gottes auf unseren Wegen. Der Alltag als Begegnungsfeld des Menschen mit Gott. Morus-Verlag, 1998; Von nun an preisen mich selig alle Geschlechter. Butzon & Bercker, 1999; Mit dem Herzen sehen. Chancen und Auftrag der Kirche zu Beginn des dritten Jahrtausends. MM-Verlag, 2000; Froh in der Gnade Gottes. Bachem, 2005; Geborgen in Gott. Tag- und Nachtgebete. 6. Aufl., Adamas-Verlag, 2005; Edith Stein - Teresia Benedicta a Cruce. Jüdische Christin und christliche Jüdin. Butzon & Bercker, 2006; Er war mein Freund. Ein Zeugnis aus der Nähe. Pattloch-Verlag, 2007; Bernhard Lichtenberg. Ich werde meinem Gewissen folgen. Topos plus Verlagsgemeinschaft, 2013.


lubac.gif

LUBAC, S.J., Henri de
(1896-1991)

Birth. February 20, 1896, Cambrai, France. He was the seventh child of Augustin Maurice Sonier de Lubac, officer of the Légion d'Honneur, and Marie Josephine Aglaé Gabrielle de Beaurepaire. His baptismal name was Henri Marie Joseph. Although he is always listed as Henri de Lubac, his father's last name was Sonier de Lubac. He spent his childhood in Bourg-en-Bresse and Lyons. He received first communion from Cardinal Pierre-Hector Coullié, archbishop of Lyon; and from the same cardinal he received the sacrament of confirmation.

Education. Jesuit school of Saint-Joseph, Lyon, 1905-1912 (baccaulareate or high school); in 1909 he studied at the Jesuit school of Mongré, Villefrance; Catholic Faculty of Lyon (law), 1912-1913; joined the Society of Jesus, novitiate of Lyon, October 9, 1913; for political reasons in France, the novitiate was moved to Saint Leonard-on-Sea, England; in 1914, he was mobilized in the French Army; in 1916, he was sent to Verdun; he participated in combat in Éparges; on November 1, 1917, he was seriously wounded (he suffered the rest of his life the consequences of the wounds); he was demobilized and returned to England to continue his studies; Saint Mary's College, Canterbury (letters), 1919-1920; Jesuit House of study at Jersey (philosophy), 1920-1923; and at Ore Place, Hastings, 1924, 1926 (theology); when the Jesuit house at Lyon-Fourvière reopened, he finished there his theological studies from 1926 to 1927; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1927-1929 (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1927, Lyon. Further studies, Rome, 1927-1929. Instructor of fundamental theology, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1929-1934. Professed the solemn vows in the Society of Jesus on February 2, 1931. Transferred to Lyon-Fourvière, 1934. Professor of fundamental theology, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1938-1939. Professor of the history of religion, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1939. Founder, with Jean Daniélou, future cardinal, of the collection Sources chrétiennes, 1941. Forced to leave Lyon during the Second World War because of his activities with the Resistance during the Nazi occupation; sought refuge in Vals, near Puy. Suspected of being an adherent of the Nouvelle théologie in 1946, he was forbidden by his religious superiors to teach or publish. Obligated by the Vatican to stop publication of his works because of the doctrinal objections raised against his book Surnaturel (1946). Transferred from Lyon to the Jesuit house in Paris on rue de Sèvres, June 1950. Returned to Lyon (rue Sala), 1953. Named honorary professor, Theological Faculty of Lyon, in 1961. Director of the journal Recherches de science religieuse. Member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, 1958. Permiited again to teach and to publish theological works, 1958. Faculty member at the Catholic Institute of Paris, 1959. Returned to Lyon-Fourvièere in 1960. He was among the theologians named by Pope John XXIII consultors to the preparatory commission of the Second Vatican Council in 1960. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Defended Fr. Teilhard de Chardin, S.J. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1969-1974. After the closing of Lyons-Fourvière, he moved to Paris in 1974. Pope Paul VI wrote him a letter of thanks on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, February 20, 1976.

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II. He was the first cardinal not to be consecrated bishop since the regulation issued by Pope John XXIII in 1962, which ordered that all cardinals should be bishops (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, February 2, 1983. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He lived in "Résidence Saint-Germain", a Jesuit house in Paris, at 42 rue de Grenelle. He was a prolific writer in theological matters (2).

Death. Wednesday September 4, 1991, at 7:45 a.m., in "'Ma Maison", a house of the Little Sisters of the Poor, congregation founded by St. Jeanne Jugan, situated at 62 avenue de Breteuil, in Paris; he had suffered a stroke that had left him unable to speak; he had been under the care of the Little Sisters of the Poor. His funeral took place at Notre-Dame metropolitan cathedral, Paris. Cardinal Paul Poupard represented Pope John Paul II at the funeral; and Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris, delivered the homily. Buried in the tomb of the Society of Jesus, Vaugirard cemetery, Paris; in the same vault is buried Cardinal Jean Daniélou, S.J. (1969) (3). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Balthasar, Urs von and G. Chantraine. Le Cardinal Henri de Lubac, l'homme et son oeuvre avec una letter de Paul VI. Paris: Lethielleux, 1983; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. The theology of Henri de Lubac : an overview. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1991. (Communio books). Note: Translation of: Henri de Lubac; Chantraine, Georges. Henri de Lubac. Paris : Éditions du Cerf, 2007-. (Études lubaciennes, 6). Contents: t. 1. De la naissance à la dèmobilisation. 1896-1919); Chantraine, Georges. "Henri de Lubac. Pourquoi ses oevres nous parlent." Nouvelle Revue Théologique, 121, (1999), 612-629; "Colloque Henri de Lubac à l'occasion du centenaire de sa naissance (1896-1996)". Gregorianum LXXVII (1997), 611-774; Durand, Jean-Dominique. Henri de Lubac : la rencontre au coeur de l'Église. Paris : Cerf, 2006; Gomes, Vitor Franco. Le paradoxe du désir de Dieu : étude sur le rapport de l'homme à Dieu selon Henri de Lubac. Paris : Cerf, 2005. (Études lubaciennes ; 4); Henri de Lubac et le mystère de l'Église : actes du colloque du 12 octobre 1996 à l'Institut de France. Paris : Cerf, 1999. (Etudes lubaciennes ; 1). Note: Responsibility of Jean-Marie Lustiger and Association internationale Cardinal Henri de Lubac; Résistance chrétienne au nazisme. Paris : les Éd. du Cerf, Normandie roto impr., 2006. (Oeuvres complètes / cardinal Henri de Lubac ; 34). Responsibility: cardinal Henri de Lubac ; sous la direction de Jacques Prévotat ; préface, introductions et notes de Renée Bédarida; Sprizzi, Marco; Henri de Lubac : la rencontre au coeur de l'église. Études réunies par Jean-Dominique Durand. Paris : Cerf, 2006; Fisichella, Rino. De Lubac : l'identitá ecclesiale del cristiano. Milano : Paoline, 2004. (Saggistica paoline ; 25): Voderholzer, Rudolf. Meet Henri de Lubac. Translated by Michael J. Miller. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2008; Wagner, Jean-Pierre. Henri de Lubac. Paris : Cerf, 2001. (Initiations aux théologiens).

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) It is believed that in 1969, Pope Paul VI, an admirer of de Father de Lubac's works, had proposed making him a cardinal, but that Father de Lubac demurred, believing that Pope John XXIII's 1962 requirement that all cardinals be bishops was "an abuse of an apostolic office". Paul VI instead elevated Father de Lubac's junior colleague Father Jean Daniélou, S.J., in that consistory, having committed to grant the cardinalate to a Jesuit theologian. In 1983 Pope John Paul II offered Father de Lubac the cardinalate, this time with a dispensation from being consecrated a bishop. At 87, de Lubac accepted.
(2) This is a list of his works in chronological order taken from Wagner, Henri de Lubac, p. 245-249:
"Apologétique et théologie ", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 57, Louvain, 1930.
"Sur la philosophie chrétienne ", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 63, Louvain, 1936.
"Méditation sur le principe de la vie morale ", Revue apologétique, I. 65, 33e année, Paris, 1937.
Catholicisme, les aspects sociaux du dogme, coll. " Unam sanctam", Paris, Ed. du Cerf, 1938.
"Le motif de la création dans l'"Ëtre et les êtres" de M. Blondel", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 65, Louvain, 1938.
La Lumière du Christ, coll. "Le témoignage chrétien", Le Puy, Mappus, 1941.
Vocation de la France, coll. "Le témoignage chrétien ", Le Puy, Mappus, 1941.
"Un nouveau "front" religieux", in Chaine, Richard, Bonsirven, Israël et la foi chrétienne, Fribourg (Switzerland), Librairie l'Université, 1942.
Corpus mysticum, l'Eucharistie et l'Église au Moyen Âge, étude historique, coll. "Théologie ", 3, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1944.
Le Drame de l'humanisme athée, Paris, Ed. Spes, 1944.
Proudhon et le christianisme, coll. " La condition humaine ", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1945.
Surnaturel, Études historiques, coll. " Théologie ", 8, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1946.
Le Fondement théologique des missions, coll. "La sphère et la croix ", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1946.
"Sur un vieux distique. La doctrine du "quadruple" sens de l'Écriture ", dans Mélanges offerts au R. P Fernand Cavallera, Toulouse, Institut catholique, 1948.
" Le problème du développement du dogme ", Recherches de science religieuse, t. 35, Paris, 1948.
" Duplex hominis beatitudo (S. Thomas Ia, IIae q. 62, a, 1)", Recherches de science religieuse t. 35, Paris, 1948.
" Le mysthre du surnaturel ", Recherches de science religieuse, t. 36,Paris, 1949.
Histoire et Ésprit. L'intelligence de l'Écriture d'après Origène, coll. "Théologie ", 16, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1950.
Affrontements mystiques, Paris, Ed. du Témoignage chrétien, 1950.
Aspects du bouddhisme, coll. "La sphère et la croix", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1951.
La Rencontre du bouddhisme et de l'Occident, coll. " Théologie ", 24, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1952.
Catholicisme, 5e éd., Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1952.
Méditation sur l'Église, coll. "Théologie", 27, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1953.
Amida. Aspects du bouddhisme lI, Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1955.
Sur les chemins de Dieu, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1956 (édition considérablement au, gmentée du volume: De la connaissance de Dieu, publié aux Éd. du Témgignage chrétien en 1945).
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, Ire partie, livres I-II, coll. "Théologie", 42, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1959.
Paradoxes, suivi de Nouveaux Paradoxes, Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1959 (reprise augmentée de volumes publiés sous les mêmes titres en 1946 et 1955).
"Sur le chapitre XIVe du Proslogion", dans Spicilegium Beccense I (Congrès international du IXe centenaire de l'arrivée d'Anselme au Bec), Le Bec-Paris, Vrin, 1959.
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, IIe partie, livre I, coll. " Théologie ", 42, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1961.
La Pensée religieuse du père Teilhard de Chardin, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1962.
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, IIe partie, livre II, coll. "Théologie", 59, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1964.
La Prière du père Teilhard de Chardin, coll. "Le signe", Paris, Fayard, 1964.
Augustinisme et théologie moderne, coll. " Théologie ", 63, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1965.
Le Mystère du surnaturel, coll. " Théologie ", 64, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1965.
Teilhard, missionnaire et apologiste, Toulouse, Prière et vie, 1966.
L'Écriture dans la tradition, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1966.
Images de l'abbé Monchanin, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1967.
Paradoxe et Mystère de l'Église, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1967.
L'Eternel féminin, étude sur un texte de Teilhard de Chardin, suivi de Teilhard et notre temps, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1968.
Athéisme et sens de l'homme, une double requête de "Gaudium et Spes, coll. "Foi vivante", 67, Paris, Ed. du Cerf, 1968.
"Commentaire du Priambule et du chapitre I de la constitution dogmatique Dei Verbum" in La Révélation divine, coll. "Unam sanctam", 70, Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1968; texte réédité séparément sous le titre La Révélation divine, coll. "Traditions chritiennes", Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1983.
La Foi chrétienne, Essai sur la structure du symbole des Apôtres, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1969.
L'Église dans la crise actuelle, Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1969.
"L'apport de Teilhard à la connaissance de Dieu", in Teilhard de Chardin, coll. "Génies et réalités", Paris, Hachette, 1969.
Les Églises particulihres dans l'Église universelle, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1971.
Claudel et Péguy (in collaboration with J. Bastaire), Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1974.
Pic de La Mirandole. Études et discussions, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1974.
"Hommage à Hans Urs von Balthasar pour ses soixante-dix ans", Communio, I, i Paris, 1975.
Teilhard posthume, réflexions et souvenirs, Paris, Fayard, 1977.
La Postérité spirituelle de Joachim de Flore, t. I, Paris-Namur, Lethielleux, 1979.
Recherches dans la foi. Trois études sur Origène, saint Anselme et la philosophie chrétienne, Paris, Beauchesne, 1979.
Petite catéchèse sur nature et grâce, Paris, Fayard, 1980.
La Postérité spirituelle de Joachim de Flore, t. II, Paris-Namur, Lethielleux, 1981.
Thiologies d'occasion, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1984.
Entretien autour de Vatican II. Souvenirs et riflexions, Paris, France-Catholique, Éd. du Cerf, 1985.
Résistance chrétienne à l'antisémitisme. Souvenirs (1940-1944), préface par M. Sales, Paris, Fayard, 1988.
Mémoire sur l'occasion de mes écrits, Namur, Culture et vérité, 1989.
"Témoignage", in H. Bouillard, Vérité du christianisme, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1989. Théologie dans l'histoire, t. I: La Lumière du Christ, Avant-propos de M. Sales, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1990; t. II: Questions disputées et résistance au nazisme, Avertissement de M. Sales, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1990.
Surnaturel, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer; 1991, 2e éd., préparée et préfacée par M. Sales.
"La foi chrétienne: petite introduction au symbole des Apôtres", Communio, t. 16, 5-6, Paris, 1991.
(3) This is the text of the simple inscription in their tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

Cardinal Jean
DANIELOU
1905 - 1974
Cardinal Henri
DE LUBAC
1896 - 1991

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