The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of October 21, 2003 (IX)


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(202) 1. TAURAN, Jean-Louis
(1943-

Birth. April 5, 1943, Bordeaux, France. His baptismal name is Louis-Pierre. He received sacrament of confirmation on June 5, 1955, from Paul-Marie-André Richaud, archbishop of Bordeaux, future cardinal.

Education. Studied at hte Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiates in philosophy and theology; and doctorate in canon law, 1973); at the Catholic Institute, Toulouse; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native French, he speaks Spanish, English and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1969, Bordeaux, by Marius Maziers, archbishop of Bordeaux. Parish pastor in the archdiocese of Bourdeaux. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1975. Secretary in the nunciature in the Dominican Republic, 1975-1978. Secretary in the nunciature in Lebanon, 1979-1983. Staff member in the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church from July 1983. Participated in special missions in Haiti, 1984; Beirut and Damascus, 1986. Member of the Holy See delegation to the meetings of the Conference on European Security and Cooperation; Conference on Disarmament, Stockholm, Sweden; Cultural Forum, Budapest, Hungary, and its successive meetings in Vienna.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Telepte and appointed secretary of the Secretariat of State for the Relations with the States, December 1, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Veritate et Caritate. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Vinko Puljić, Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, of the Fathers of Schönstatt, and Julián Herranz Casado.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, October 21, 2003. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 2003. Took part, as representative of the pope, in the inauguration of the new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem Mausoleum, Jerusalem, on March 15, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the central celebrations of the Extraordinary Jubilee Year of the diocese of Le Puy-en-Velay, France, that took place on May 29, 2005 in the cathedral basilica of Notre Dame du Puy. Attended the Tenth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog on June 25, 2007; assumed the post on September 1, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Turkey. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Special papal envoy to celebration of the millennium of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, France, which took place on October 12, 2010. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, October 10 to 24, 2010, Vatican City; elected member of the Special Council for the Middle East of the Secretariat General of the Synod of Bishops, October 23, 2010. On November 23, 2010, he received a doctorate honoris causa from the Institut Catholique de Paris. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI in the office of cardinal proto deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2011. Several years ago, he began to suffer from what was diagnosed as Parkinson's disease. On June 19, 2012, he was confirmed for five years as president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. As cardinal protodeacon, he announced the election of the new pope and his papal name. He imposed the pallium on the new pope at the inauguration of the Petrine ministry of the pontiff on March 19, 2013. On April 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the arrival of the icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Budslau, Belarus, which took place July 5 and 6, 2013, in the National Shrine that is in the territory of the archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev. On June 26, 2013, the pope appointed him member of the Pontifical Commission concerning the Institute for the Works of Religion (Vatican Bank). On August 24, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the first centennial of the archdiocese of Lille, France, which took place on October 26 and 27, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR). Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches for another quinquennium on February 19, 2014. On March 15, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the consecration of the Shrine of Saint Augustine of Hippo in Annaba (once known as Hippo Regius), Algeria, recently restored, programmed for May 2, 2014, in the centennial of its elevation to the rank of basilica. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog and as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, was elevated pro hac vice to title. At the same time, he ceased as cardinal protodeacon.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3319.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Aver visto il Papa che prega, Appunti e riflessioni del cardinale Jean-Louis Tauran, presidente del Pontificio Consiglio per il Dialogo interreligioso, in Italian, (Testo raccolto da Giovanni Cubeddu) 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012; Le cardinal Tauran prend la défense de la jeune Pakistanaise accusée de blasphème, La Croix, 25/8/12 - 14 H 32; Cardinal Tauran in charge of pronouncing "Habemus Papam", video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-06 17:06:48; Cardenal anuncis el "­Habemus Papam!" luchando contra el Parkinson, ACI, 21 Mar. 13 / 12:21 pm.


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(203) 2. MARTINO, Renato Raffaele
(1932-

Birth. November 23, 1932, Salerno, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (civil and canon law); at the Pontifical Institute at the Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; at the Studio of the Sacred Roman Rota (postgraduate studies); and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1957, Salerno, by Demetrio Moscato, archbishop of Salerno. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, July 1, 1962. Attaché in the nunciature in Nicaragua. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, title later changed to chaplain of His Holiness, July 8, 1963. Secretary in the nunciature in the Philippines. Secretary, and later auditor, in the nunciature in Lebanon. In the secretariat of State, auditor of nunciature, second class, 1970-1975. Counselor in the nunciature in Brazil from 1975 until 1980.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Segerme and appointed pro-nuncio in Thailand and apostolic delegate in Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, September 14, 1980. Consecrated, December 14, 1980, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Gaetano Pollio, archbishop of Salerno and bishop of Campagna. His episcopal motto is Virtus ex alto. Permanent observer of the Holy See before the United Nations Organization in New York. President of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, October 1, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See; and of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Ariano Irpino, Italy, on May 20, 2006, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of S. Liberatore. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Singapore from June 21 to 23, 2006 for the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Received the prize "Pilgrim of Peace" of the International Center of Assisi for Peace among Peoples, in the church of the Immaculate Conception, Salerno, November 23, 2006. Received the special prize "Life" of the Aging society - Osservatorio della terza età, on January 12, 2007, in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Rome. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 5th centennial of the death of St. Francis of Paola that took place in Paola, Italy, from May 1 to 4, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On February 28, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation for reason of age from the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Migrants and Itinerants; the pope named as new president Antonio Maria Vegliò, titular archbishop of Eclano, until then secretary of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Cyprus. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Resigned the post of president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax for reasons of age, October 24, 2009. On July 2, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the millennium of the Abbey of Santissima Trinità, in Cava, Italy, programmed for September 4, 2011. On October 8, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the centenary of the cathedral of Yangon, Myanmar, programmed for December 8, 2011. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 23, 2012. Became protodeacon of the Holy Roman Church on June 12, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardenal Renato Martino es el nuevo Protodiácono, encargado de anunciar al Papa, ACI, 13 Jun. 14 / 12:45 pm.


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(204) 3. MARCHISANO, Francesco
(1929-2014)

Birth. June 25, 1929, Racconigi, archdiocese of Turin, Italy.

Education. Attended the Seminaries of Turin: ginnasio, Giaveno (1940-1945); philosophy, Chieri (1945-1948); theology, Turin (1948-1949) and Rivoli Torinese (1949-1952); Pontifical Lombard Seminary, Rome (1952-1956); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scripture, 1954); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis: L'interpretazione di "kekaritomene" Lc. 1,28 fino alla met` del secolo XII, 1957).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1952, at the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Sent to Rome temporarily to pursue studies in order to become a professor at the Seminary of Rivoli, 1956. The Roman temporarility became permanent when Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo called him to the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities of Studies appointing him aiutante di studio for the sections of "Seminaries" in 1956. He was charged first with the European countries and later with the Latin American ones; later with the nations of German and English language, the ones behind the Iron Curtain and the ecclesiastical colleges of Rome. For thirty two years, four times a week, beginning in 1957, he taught catechism to deaf and mute children in the Institute in via Nomentan; he also celebrated Sunday mass for them. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 4, 1961. Named head of the Office of Seminaries, May 7, 1968. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, June 3, 1969 until October 6, 1988. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 28, 1971. In 1971 he visited numerous nations fomenting the formation of the candidates to the priesthood and Catholic instruction. Taught catechism to deaf and mute children in Rome for thirty years.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Populonia and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Preservation of the Artistic and Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 6, 1988. Consecrated, January 6, 1989, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Edward Idris Cassidy, titular archbishop of Amanzia, substitute of the secretariat of State for General Affairs, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto was In Caritate Radicati et Fundati. President of the Foundation John XXIII, October 20, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, September 4, 1991. Appointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, May 3, 1993; the commission had been established on March 25, 1993. Promoted to archbishop, July 9, 1994. President of the Artistic-Cultural Commission of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000, March 17, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; by papal appointment. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; by papal appointment. Named archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, vicar general for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, April 24, 2002. President of the Permanent Commission for the Care of the Historical and Artistic Monuments of the Holy See, March 8, 2003. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 13, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Lucia del Gonfalone, October 21, 2003. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education; and of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, August 28, 2004. President of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, February 5, 2005. Relieved from the posts of vicar general of the State of Vatican City and of president of the Fabric of St. Peter's, February 5, 2005. In a funeral mass for Pope John Paul II celebrated the day after his exequies, the cardinal revealed that he had been cured of a grave illness of the throat after the late pope had prayed and touched him. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Resigned the post of archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 31, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on June 25, 2009. On July 3, 2009, he resigned, by reason of age, from the charges of president of the Permanent Commission for the Custody of the Historic and Artistic Monuments of the Holy See, and of president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, S. Lucia del Gonfalone, was elevated pro hac vice to title. He resided at Piazza of San Calisto 16 - 00153 Roma. He had been granted the honorary citizenship of Racconigi. He resided in Piazza S. Calisto 16, Rome.

Death. July 27, 2014, around 10 a.m., in Rome. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, took place on Wednesday July 30, 2014, at 8 a.m., in the Papal Vatican Basilica. Upon learning the news of the death, Pope Francis sent Archbishop Cesare Nosiglia of Turin a telegram of condolence (1). The pope presided the rite of ultima commendatio and of the valedictio. The burial took place in the tomb of the Clergy in Racconigi on July 31, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographas and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Italian; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. Marchisano: Una ferita la vendita delle chiese. Iniervista al Cardinale Francesco Marchisano, 'Il Consulente Re Online', December 2009, Rossoporpora; «Così abbiamo eletto Ratzinger»Tutti i segreti della Cappella Sistina by Giovanni Panettiere, Quotidiano Nazionale, 28 febbraio 2013; Addio al cardinale "miracolato" da Wojtyla by Giacomo Galeazzi, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 28/07/2014.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

A Sua Eccelenza Reverendissima
Mons. Cesare Nosiglia
Arcivescovo di Torino
Via Val della Torre 3 10149 Torino

Appresa la notizia della morte del Cardinale Francesco Marchisano, illustre figlio di codesta terra, desidero esprimere a Vostra Eccellenza, al presbiterio e allintera comunità diocesana, come pure ai parenti e agli amici del compianto Porporato, sentimenti di profondo cordoglio. Penso con affetto a questo caro pastore che per tanti anni ha prestato la sua solerte collaborazione alla Sede Apostolica, specialmente nella Congregazione per l'Educazione cattolica e poi quale Arciprete della Basilica Vaticana, infine come Presidente dell'Ufficio del Lavoro della Sede Apostolica. Egli lascia la testimonianza di una vita spesa nel'adesione generosa alla propria vocazione, quale sacerdote e Vescovo sollecito per le necessità dei fedeli e sensibile al mondo dell'arte e della cultura. Innalzo preghiere di suffragio perchè il Signore lo accolga nel gaudio e nella pace eterna, ed invio a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

FRANCISCUS PP.

An analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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(205) 4. HERRANZ CASADO, Julián
(1930-

Birth. March 31, 1930, Baena, diocese of Córdoba, Spain.

Education. Joined the Sacerdotal Society of the Holy Cross and the Opus Dei (1), 1949, while he studied medicine in Madrid; Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome (doctorate in canon law); University of Barcelona, Barcelona (doctorate in medicine); University of Navarra, Pamplona (doctorate in medicine).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 7, 1955, church of la Concepción, Madrid, by Juan Ricote Alonso, titular bishop of Miletopoli, auxiliary of Madrid. Professor of canon law, University of Navarra. Worked in the S.C. of the Council in catechetical and disciplinary matters concerning Latin America. In the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, was assistant of study of the commissions for the discipline of the clergy and the Christian people. Undersecretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law. Member of the Institute of Juridical Studies Martín de Azpilcueta and of the editorial board of the journal Studi Cattolici, Milan, and Ius Canonicum, Pamplona. Collaborator to the Dictionarium morale et canonicum, Rome, and to the Gran Enciclopedia Rialp, Madrid. Collaborator also to numerous publications on canon law. In the prelature of the Opus Dei has performed pastoral ministry in Italy, Spain, Hispanic America, England, Ireland, France and Kenya. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, later Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts, 1984. Consultor of the Congregation for Bishops and member of several special commissions of the Roman Curia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vertara, December 15, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Jean-Louis Tauran, Vinko Puljić, and Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, of the Fathers of Schönstatt. His episcopal motto is Domine ut videam. Promoted to archbishop, and named president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts, December 19, 1994; confirmed for another quinquennium, November 16, 1999. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, December 3, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts and president of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Elected honorary academician of Real Academia de Jurisprudencia y Legislación de España, January 15, 2007. On February 15, 2007, the pope accepted the resignation from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts that he had presented according to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 1750º anniversary of the martyrdom of Bishop Saint Fructuoso and Deacons Saints Augurio and Eulogio, known as the protomartyrs of Tarragona, Spain, which took place in that city on January 25, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on March 31, 2010. Resigned the presidency of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, May 11, 2010. President of the Commission of Cardinals to investigate the leak of reserved and confidential documents on television, in newspapers and in other communications media, April 24, 2012. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, S.Eugenio, was elevated pro hac vice to title.

Links. Interview, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Code of Canon Law, Vatican Radio, January 25, 2003, in Spanish; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Spanish Cardinal Julián Herranz talks about John Paul II's biggest record, video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-01 18:54:30; Cardenal Herranz asegura que hay más mártires ahora que en cualquier momento de la historia, ACI Prensa, Roma, 10 Jun. 12 / 06:31 pm; Presentaron a Benedicto XVI los resultados de la investigación sobre las cartas robadas by H. Sergio Mora, in Spanish, Zenit, el Mundo visto desde Roma, 18-06-2012; Lombardi: Commission is carrying out full scale investigation into Vatican document leaks by Alessandro Speciale, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012.

(1) On August 23, 1982, Pope John Paul II erected the Personal Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei by the apostolic constitution Ut Sit.


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(206) 5. LOZANO BARRAGÁN, Javier
(1933-

Birth. January 26, 1933, Toluca, México. He received his first communion in the basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City.

Education. Studied at the Seminario of Zamora; and, from 1954 until 1958, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in philosophy and a doctorate in dogmatictheology. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks English and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1955, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Carlo Confalonieri, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities. In the diocese of Zamora, professor and prefect of studies of its seminary; charged with the permanent formation of the diocesan clergy. President of the Mexican Theological Society. Director of the Institute of Pastoral Theology of the Episcopal Conference of Latin America (CELAM), Medellín, Colombia. Member of the team of theological reflexion of CELAM. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979, as an expert.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tinisia di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of México, June 5, 1979. Consecrated, August 15, 1979, basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, by Cardinal Ernesto Corripio Ahumada, archbishop of México, assisted by Cardinal Miguel Darío Miranda Gómez, archbishop emeritus of México, and by José Esaúl Robles Jiménez, bishop of Zamora. His episcopal motto is Testi resurrectionis. Transferred to see of Zacatecas, October 28, 1984. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers, October 31, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese and was given the title of archbishop ad personam, January 7, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the Tenth World Day of the Sick, February 11, 2002, Vailankanni, India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregations for Bishops, for the Evangelization of Peoples, and for the Causes of the Saints, of the Pontifical Council for Culture, and of the Pontifical Commission for International Eucharistic Congresses. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Twelfth World Day of the Sick, Lourdes, France, February 11, 2004. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Thirteenth World Day of the Sick that took place in Yaoundé, Cameroun, on February 9 to 11, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Fourteenth World Day of the Sick, Adelaide, Australia, February 11, 2006. Special papal envoy to the Fifteenth World Day of the Sick, Seoul, South Korea, February 11, 2007. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On April 18, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation presented for reasons of age from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 26, 2013. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the new title of S. Dorotea on June 12, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photgraphs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. Barragan: next Pope needs at least same qualities as Benedict XVI, Rome Reports, 2013-02-16 11:18:04 .


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(207) 6. HAMAO, Stephen Fumio
(1930-2007)

Birth. March 9, 1930, Tōkyō, Japan. He was baptized when he was sixteen years old. His elder brother, Minoru, was a chamberlain to the emperor of Japan.

Education. Tōkyō State University, Tōkyō; Major Interdiocesan Seminary, Tōkyō, from 1949; Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano, Rome, from 1951 (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Gregorian University (canon law). He spoke English, French, Italian and Spanish, besides Japanese, and was learning Korean when he died. He taught Latin to Crown Prince Akihito, who later became emperor of Japan, but firmly opposed the new push for Latin in the Catholic Church.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1957, Rome, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano, Rome, by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. In the same ceremony was also ordained Emmanuel Wamala, future cardinal. Returned to Tōkyō and worked in the chancery; was secretary to the cardinal archbishop; vice-chancellor of the archdiocese; notary and vice-official of the ecclesiastical tribunal; responsible for ministry to students in the archdiocese; pastor of the cathedral; secretary of the Episcopal Commission for Liturgy; member of the presbyteral council; and member of the preparatory commission of the archdiocesan synod.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Oreto and appointed auxiliary of Tōkyō, February 5, 1970. Consecrated, April 29, 1970, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Tōkyō, by Bruno Wustenberg, titular archbishop of Tiro, pro-nuncio in Japan, assisted by Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, archbishop of Tōkyō, and by Luke Katsusaburo Arai, bishop of Yokohama. In 1970, he was a passenger on Japan Airlines flight 351, which was hijacked. Transferred to see of Yokohama, October 30, 1979. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Japan, 1995-1998. In 1996, he initiated the annual meeting of Japanese and Korean bishops that has continued. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Promoted to archbishop and named president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care for Migrants and Itinerants, June 15, 1998; resigned the pastoral government of the diocese of Yokohama, June 15, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. His sense of humor and his willingness to travel anywhere to spend time with refugees, seafarers, circus workers and Roman gypsies became distinctive marks of his ministry.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants for having reached the age limit, March 11, 2006. After returning from Japan on August 24, 2006, he underwent medical tests at Rome's Gemelli Hospital. The doctors there diagnosed lung cancer, and he decided to return to his homeland. Two days before departing for Tōkyō on October 9, he had a private audience with the pope. His work as consultor in the Congregation for the Causes of Saints helped advance the cause of 188 Japanese martyrs who would be beatified in 2008.

Death. November 8, 2007, in the evening, of lung cancer, Tōkyō. The funeral took place on Monday November 12, 2007, at noon, at the metropolitan cathedral of St. Mary, Tōkyō, with Cardinal Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, archbishop emeritus of Tōkyō, as principal celebrant and representative of Pope Benedict XVI. Some 1,800 people, including about 200 bishops and priests, took part in the concelebrated mass. The late cardinal was buried at the Catholic Cemetery of the Yokohama diocese, in a specially constructed tomb at the center of the cemetery.

Links. Brief biographical data, in English (at the end of the page), diocese of Yokohama; and some of his documents, in English, Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People.


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(208) 7. NICORA, Attilio
(1937-

Birth. March 16, 1937, Varese, archdiocese of Milan, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, where he obtained a licentiate in law in 1959; at the Theological Seminary of Venegono, Milan; at the Theological Faculty, Milan, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in the fall of 1964; sent to Rome after his priestly ordination, he stayed at the Pontifical Lombard Seminary and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, earning a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1964, Milan, by Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan. Further studies in Rome. Professor of canon law and public ecclesiastical law at the Major Seminary of Milan, Venegono; became is rector in October 1970. Counselor of the secular institute Milites Christi.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fornos minore and appointed auxiliary of Milan, April 16, 1977. Consecrated, May 28, 1977, metropolitan cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan, and by Giulio Oggioni, bishop of Bergamo. His episcopal motto is Ubi caritas libera servitus. Oversaw the 1984 revision of the concordat between Italy and the Holy See. Exonerated from the function of auxiliary bishop of Milan and placed at the disposition of the presidency of the Italian Episcopal Conference, February 11, 1987. President of the committee for the problems of the organisms and ecclesiastical goods, 1987. President of the episcopal commission for charity services and Italian Caritas, 1990. Transferred to the diocese of Verona, June 30, 1992. Delegate of the presidency of the Italian Episcopal Conference for juridical affairs, September 18, 1997. Exonerated from the pastoral government of the diocese, September 18, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; member of the commission for the message. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See and promoted to the rank of archbishop, September 2002. General ecclesiastical counselor of the Union of Italian Catholic Jurists.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named pontifical legate for the basilicas of San Francesco and of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi, February 21, 2006. Participated, in the name of the pope, in the funeral of Pasquale Macchi, prelate emeritus of Loreto, former secretary of Pope Paul VI, that took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, Italy, on Saturday, April 8, 2006 at 10.30 a.m. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Named president of the newly established Financial Information Authority on January 19, 2011. The pope relieved him from the charge of president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See on July 7, 2011, in order that he could dedicate himself full-time to the presidency of the Financial Information Authority. On November 10, 2011, he was named member of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On January 30, 2014, the pope accepted his request to be relieved from the post of president of the Financial Information Authority. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia, was elevated pro hace vice to title.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Intalian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Nicora lascia l'Autorit` di informazione finanziaria by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 30/01/2014.


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(209) 8. SCOLA, Angelo
(1941-

Birth. November 7, 1941, via Sant'Antonino, Malgrate, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. From a very poor family. Youngest of the two sons of Carlo Scola, a truck driver and a Socialist, and Regina Colombo, a housewife. The other child was Pietro, an elementary school teacher, who died in 1983. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks English, French, Spanish.

Education. Elementary and middle school in Malgrate, then, he attended the classical lyceum Manzoni of Lecco from 1955 to 1959; in 1958, in Lecco, he met Father Luigi Giussani, founder of the movement Communione e Liberazione, who exercised a great influence in Angelo's life. After the maturità, he registered himself in engineering at Politecnico di Milano. Before entering the seminary, between 1965 and 1967, he taught in high school. Abandoning the engineering career, he studied at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; thesis on Christian philosophy, 1967; while studying at the Catholic University, in 1965, he became a member of the presidency of the Italian Catholic Universitary Federation (FUCI), a federation of Catholic Italian University student groups, called by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo; in Milan, he did various odd jobs, among them, working as a proofreader at Mondadori publishing house; but he was also was involved with Communione e Liberazione and met Don Luigi Giussani, its founder, and with him he decided to become a priest; he studied at the Seminary of Saronno, Milan (theology); then, at the Seminary of Venegono, Milan (theology); and finally, at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, with a thesis on St. Thomas Aquinas.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 18, 1970, Teramo, by Abele Conigli, bishop of Teramo-Atri. Further studies, Fribourg, Switzerland; Monaco; and Paris, France. Successively, until 1991, active collaborator of Communione e Liberazione; director of the Institute of Studies for the Transition (ISTRA), Milan; collaborator in the establishment and member of the executive committee of the Italian edition of Rivista Internazionale Communio; pastoral ministry in Italy and abroad; from 1979, research assistant to the chair of Political Philosophy, and later, assistant to the chair of Fundamental Moral Theology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland; in 1982; later, professor of theological anthropology at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; and later, professor of Contemporary Christology at the Faculty of Theology, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30,1987, as an assistant to the special secretary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grosseto, July 20, 1991. Consecrated, September 21, 1991, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, assisted by Adelmo Tacconi, bishop emeritus of Grosseto, and by Abele Congli, bishop emeritus of Teramo-Atri. His episcopal motto is Sufficit Gratia Tua. Took possession of the diocese on the following September 28. Named rector magnifico of the Pontifical Lateran University and president of the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family, July 1995. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, September 14, 1995. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice on January 5, 2002; took possession of the patriarchate on the following Sunday March 3. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2002, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, October 21, 2003. In September 2004, he founded the Oasis International Studies and Research Centre, to promote better relations between Christians and Muslims. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Relator general of the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan on June 28, 2011. Cardinal Scola was apostolic administrator of Venice until September 7, 2011; then, he was succeeded as such by Beniamino Pizziol, bishop of Vicenza, former auxiliary of Venice, until the new patriarch was appointed. Cardinal Scola took possession of the metropolitan see of Milan by procurator (Monsignor Carlo Redaelli, vicar general) on September 9, 2011. He received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on September 21, 2011 in the Hall of the Consistory of the Apostolic Palace of Castelgandolfo. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 22, 2011. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. He is a prolific author who has published numerous works (1). Named member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, April 21, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On July 20, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 1700th anniversary of the Edict of Milan, which took place in Niš, Serbia, on September 20 and 21, 2013. He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014. On July 26, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 850th anniversary of the translation of the relics of the Wise Men from Milan to Cologne, Germany, programmed for September 28, 2014.

Bibliography. Tornielli, Andrea. Il futuro e la speranza. Vita e magistero del cardinale Angelo Scola. Milano : Piemme, 2011. (Incontri).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his bibliography, AngeloScola.it; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Cardinal Scola Is Going Back Home. To Milan by Sandro Magister, Chiesa; Ecco chi è il nuovo arcivescovo, Giugno 27, 2011, Vatican Insider, La Stampa, Milan; «Benedetto colui che viene nel nome del Signore» Il cardinale Angelo Scola è il nuovo Arcivescovo di Milano, archdiocese of Milan; "I miei dieci anni con Venezia", un'intervista di 'bilancio", video, in Italian, patriarchate of Venice; Scola, the theologian liked by Pope Ratzinger by Andrea Tornielli, in English, Vatican Insider, 06/22/2011; Cardinal Scola explains the last details from the World Meeting of Families, video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-22 18:38:11; Scola: è un dono del mondo a Milano by Luciano Moia, Avvenire, 28 maggio 2012; Cardinal Scola: Family 2012 was an extraordinary event that has left us with a huge responsibility, Vatican Insider, 06/ 4/2012; Cardinal Scola, intellectual from a humble background, Rome Reports, 2013-02-20 17:54:35; Il cardinale Scola e il ricordo di Costantino, Vatican Insider, 19/09/2013; Scola: non lasciamoci dominare dalla tecnologia. Dopo lo scambio degli embrioni, Avvenire, 24 aprile 2014.

(1) This is his bibliography taken from Tornielli, Il futuro e la speranza. Vita e magistero del cardinale Angelo Scola, p. 1885-188: La fondazione teologica della legge naturale nello Scriptum super Sententmms di San Tommaso d'Aquino, Universitätsverlag, Freiburg Schweiz 1982; L'alba della dignità umana. La fondazione dei diritti umani nella dottrina di Jacques Maritain, Jaca Book, Milano 1982; Avvenimento e Tradizione. Questioni di ecclesiologia, Jaca Book, Milano 1987; "Vivid las preguntas" (Ejercicios 87), Comunión y Liberación, Madrid 1987; Identidad y diferencia. La relación hombre-mujer, Ediciones Encuentro, Madrid 1989; "La Centesimus Annus. Note per la lettura, Conversazione tenuta a Lecco, 12 maggio 1991", Quaderni di Lavoro Politico; Hans Urs von Balthasar: Uno stile teologico, Jaca Book, Milano 1991; "Sarete liberi davvero". Lettera Pastorale, in Toscana oggi/Rinnovamento 10 (29-11-1992) 42 (Supplemento); "E tutti saranno ammaestrati da Dio". Nota Pastorale, in Toscana oggi/Rinnovamento 11 (5-12-1993) 44 (Supplemento); "Ed io che sono?" Un Vescovo parla ai suoi giovani, Nuova Compagnia Editrice, Forlì 1994; Crisi della libertà e vita familiare, Centro Studi S. Lorenzo-1 Portici Editore, Grosseto 1995; Libertà e realtà. Il realismo cristiano, Associazione Amici della Nuova Scuola, Lecco 1996; Questioni di antropologia teologica, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Istituto Giovanni Paolo II-Edizioni Ares, Milano 1996; Questioni di antropologia teologica. Seconda edizione ampliata, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1997; Il mistero nuziale. 1. Uomo-Donna, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1998; Ospitare il reale. Per un "idea" di Università, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1999; Il mistero nuziale. 2. Matrimonio-Famiglia, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 2000; La persona umana. Antropologia Teologica, in collaborazione con G. Marengo e J. Prades López, Amateca v. 15, Jaca Book, Milano 2000; Uomo-donna. Il "caso serio" dell'amore, Marietti 1812, Genova 2002; Vagliate ogni cosa, trattenete ciò che è buono. Intervista con Hans Urs von Balthasar, Lateran University Press, Roma 2002; Il mistero nuziale: una prospettiva di teologia sistematica?, Lateran University Press, Roma 2003; Un anno dopo..., CID, Venezia 2003; Liberi davvero, Collana Fontana Vivace 1, CantagalliCID, Siena-Venezia 2003; Il volto missionario della parrocchia, Collana Fontana Vivace 2, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2003; L'esperienza elementare. La vena profonda del magistero di Giovanni Paolo II, Marietti 1820, Genova 2003; Ecclesiologia en perspectiva ecuménica, Subsidia 5, Facultad de Teologia San Dámaso, Madrid 2003; La gioia e la fretta, Collana Fontana Vivace 3, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2004; Contro la noia, Collana Fontana Vivace 4, CantagalliCID, Siena-Venezia 2004; Morte e libertà, Cantagalli, Siena 2004; Un pensiero sorgivo. Sugli scritti di Luigi Giussani, Marietti 1820, Genova 2004; Chi è la Chiesa? Una chiave antropologica e sacramentale per l'ecclesiologia, BTC 130, Queriniana, Brescia 2005; Voglia di vita, Collana Fontana Vivace 5, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2005; Eucaristia, incontro di libertà, Cantagalli, Siena 2005; Stupore eucaristico. Conversazioni dal Sinodo, San Paolo, Cinisello Balsamo 2006; Vagabondi o pellegrini, Collana Fontana Vivace 6, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2006; Tutto è vostro, Collana Fontana Vivace 7, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2006; Introduzione e Commento all'enciclica "Deus caritas est", Cantagalli, Siena 2006; Aspetti innovativi della riabilitazione neurologica: fondamenti antropologici delle implicazioni bioetiche, I.R.C.C.S. San Camillo, Venezia Lido 14 settembre 2006; Una nuova laicità. Temi per una società plurale, Marsilio, Venezia 2007; Il valore dell'uomo, Bompiani, Milano 2007 in collaborazione con G. Reale; La dottrina sociale della Chiesa: risorsa per una società plurale, Centro di Ateneo per la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. Contributi 1, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2007; Come nasce e come vive una comunità cristiana, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2007; Vogliamo vedere Gesù, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2007; La dottrina sociale della Chiesa: risorsa per una società plurale, Edizioni Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2007; Dio? Ateismo della ragione e ragioni della fede, Marsmlio, Venezia 2008. In collaborazione con P. Flores D'Arcais; Uno sguardo su Albino Luciani, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2009; Il Padre Nostro, Cantagalli, Siena 2009; Religioni, verità, libertà, Lectio magistralis di S.E. il Cardinale Angelo Scola, Patriarca di Venezia, Fondazione Magna Carta, Roma 2009; Maria, la donna. I misteri della sua vita, Cantagalli, Siena 2009; La vita buona. Dialoghi su laicità, scienza e fede, vita e morte alla vigilia del Redentore, Messaggero, Padova 2009, in collaborazione con A. Cazzullo; Buone ragioni per la vita in comune. Religioni, politica, economia, Mondadori, Milano 2010; Non uccidere, Il Mulino, Bologna 2011, in collaborazione con A. Cavarero; Famiglia risorsa decisiva. Padova : Edizioni Messaggero, 2012.


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(210) 9. OKOGIE, Anthony Olubunmi
(1936-

Birth. Tuesday June 16, 1936, Lagos, Nigeria. From a royal family of Uromi in Edo State. First child of Prince Michael Ohigbom Okogie, from Ishan, and Lucy Adunni Okogie (nee Afolabi), a Yoruba princess. His father belonged to the Esan ethnic group and his mother to the Yoruba.

Education. He began his education at the Holy Cross School; and later at Saint Patrick's Primary School, Sapele in present day Delta State; he had his secondary school education at Saint Gregory's College in Lagos, during which period he showed interest in the priestly vocation; he eventually transferred to Saint Theresa's Minor Seminary in Ibadan; after his training at the Minor Seminary, he went to Saints Peter and Paul Major Seminary, Ibadan (philosophy and theology); then, he was sent to the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, in 1963, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 11, 1966, Lagos, by Archbishop John Kwao Amuzu Aggey of Lagos. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Lagos; coadjutor of the cathedral parish; vicar economous of St. Patrick's parish, Idumagbo; diocesan director of Catholic schools and of the Work of Vocations; in charge of the radio programs of National Radio-Television; he was also at the war front during the Nigeria Civil War counselling soldiers and broadcasting religious programs; professor of religion, King's College; member of the episcopal senate; member of the pastoral commission.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mascula and appointed auxiliary of Oyo, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, August 29, 1971, cathedral of Saint Benedict, Oshogbo, by Owen McCoy, bishop of Oyo, assisted by Anthony Saliu Sanusi, bishop of Ijebu-Ode, and by Alexius Obabu Makozi, titular bishop of Fallaba, auxiliary of Lokoja. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lagos, April 13, 1973. He was enthroned as archbishop of Lagos on June 17, 1973. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. President of the Bishops Conference of Nigeria (CBCN), 1994-2000. President of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), at a time when the then military juntas were confronted with controversial policies over separation of state and religion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, October 21, 2003. Took possession of his title on May 22, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Ghana, November 19 to 20, 2005. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Some of the outstanding socio-political crusades of the cardinal that most Nigerians will remember him for include his offer to give life up in place of a Muslim woman who was condemned to death by stoning by an Islamic court for the crime of adultery. Cardinal Okogie offered to pay the sentence imposed on the woman, Safiya Hussainii Tungar-Tudu, in the northern state of Sokoto in a case which created an international outcry. The woman was allowed to go free. Honorary member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Lagos was accepted in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on May 25, 2012. The pope named as new archbishop of Lagos Alfred Adewale Martins, until then bishop of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Cardinal Okogie was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on Saturday August 4, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Ayeni, Victor Olanrewaju. Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie : a voice crying in the wilderness. Lagos, Nigeria : Potter's House, 2006; Ngene, Albert IAnthony Cardinal Okogie : "A man for all seasons". Lagos Island [Nigeria] : Silver Jose United Publications, 2005; Ogbeide, Omoluyi. Reluctant politician : most Reverend Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, Archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria. Ede, Osun State, Nigeria : Provincial Pastoral Institute Publications, 1996; Omojafor, Steve. Archbishop Olubunmi Okogie : ... devil or saint?. Lagos, Nigeria : STB & Associates, 1992; Tomori, Pascal. Anthony Olubunmi Okogie: the People's Bishop. Nigeria : Jeromelaiho & Associates, 1991?.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishops' Conference of Nigeria; photograph and biography, in English, edowrold.net; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; The Achebe Foundation Interviews #16: Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, in English, Nigerian Village Square; Nigerian cardinal blasts laxity of American culture, priesthood, Catholic World News (CWN), July 27, 2009, CatholicCulture; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie: Jonathan's govt confused, Nigeria News; Nigerian archbishop urges president to take action to fight insecurity by Peter Ajayi Dada, Catholic News Service, January 5, 2011; Anthony Cardinal Okogie at 75, June 10, 2011, Catholic News Service of Nigeria; Cardinal Okogie vows Christians will not flee from North, National Accord, Thursday, 12 January 2012 04:12; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie ill, flown to India, Surpirise blog, Monday, 30 January 2012; Sycophants Around Our Leaders are Ruining Nigeria - Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie by Etop Ekanem, Nigerian Vanguard, Africa Undisguised; Okogie condemns Islamic banking, wants licence revoked by Joseph Onyekwere, Thursday, June 30, 2011, The Guardian, Nigeria; Nigerian cardinal urges president to unmask sponsors of Boko Haram, The Catholic Review, Baltimore; Archbishop Proposes to Die in Place of Woman Sentenced to Stoning by Obed Minchakpu, Christianity Today, posted 2/01/2002 12:00AM; Lagos names road after Anthony Cardinal Okogie, he Guardian, Nigeria, Wednesday, February 22, 2012; Hommage du pape à un cardinal nigérian courageux, News.va/BL, InfoCatho.be, vendredi, 17 août 2012; Benedicto XVI saluda a Cardenal nigeriano por 46 aniversario de ordenación sacerdotal, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 20 Ago. 12 / 04:19am.


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(211) 10. PANAFIEU, Bernard
(1931-

Birth. January 26, 1931, Châtellerault, diocese of Poitiers, France. Son of André Panafieu, director of a bank, and Madeleine Doussière. His baptismal name is Bernard-Louis-Auguste-Paul.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Albi; and later at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Issy-les-Moulineaux; and at the Institut dÉtudes Sociales.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 22, 1956, for the archdiocese of Albi. Vicar of Saint-Sauveur-de-Mazamet and chaplain of the lyceum La Pérouse, Albi, 1962; chaplain of the university parish and responsible of the chaplaincy of public education; chaplain of students in Toulouse, 1967-1970; curé-doyen of Brassac, 1971-1974; secretary general of the presbyteral council of 1973-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Annecy, April 18, 1974. Consecrated, June 9, 1974, metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Cécile, Albi, by Claude Marie Josep Dupuy, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Jean Baptiste Étienne Sauvage, bishop of Annecy, and by Henri Clément Victor Donze, bishop of Tarbes et Lourdes. His episcopal motto is Parare viam Domini. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, November 30, 1978. Named coadjutor with right of succession of Marseille, August 24, 1994. Succeeded to the archbishopric of Marseille, see immediatamente soggeta to the Holy See, April 22, 1995. Member of the Académie des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Marseille, April 1996. Metropolitan archbishop when Marseille was elevated to that rank, December 16, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 12, 2006, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Georges Pontier, on June 11 2006. Commandeur of the Légion d'Honneur, August 28, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 26, 2011.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3210.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(212) 11. ZUBEIR WAKO, Gabriel
(1941-

Birth. February 27, 1941, Mboro, diocese of Wau, Sudan (now South Sudan). From the tribe Belanda Bviri from the south of the country. Son of Placido Wako Tagia, who died in 1990, and Felicita Juno.

Education. Initial studies at the primary schools in Mboro in 1947); and at Nyamlel, diocese of Wau from 1948 to 1950; attended intermediate school from 1951 to 1955 at St. Anthony's Minor Seminary, in Bussere, Wau; studied philosophy from 1956 to 1959) at St. Paul's National Major Seminary, Tore River, Yei; studied theology from 1960 to 1963 at the same seminary; later, studied theology at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, from 1968 to 1969; and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, from 1969 to 1971, where he obtained a licentiate in pastoral theology in 1971. He speaks English, Italian and German.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 21, 1963, Wau, by Ireneus Wien Dud, titular bishop of Barcuso, apostolic vicar of Wau, Sudan (1). In 1963, he became vice-pastor in Kwajok; and at the same time, named inspector for the Christian Religious Education in the schools of the Gogrial District. Nine months after his priestly ordination, all the missionaries were expelled from Sudan and he became rector of the Minor Seminary of Wau. Further studies in Rome from 1968 until 1971. From 1972 to 1974, in the apostolic vicariate of Wau, he was procurator economous; vicar-delegate of Bishop Dud; and provincial commissary of the Scouts.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Wau, December 12, 1974. Consecrated, April 6, 1975, metropolitan cathedral of St. Therese of the Infant Jesus, Juba, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, assisted by Ubaldo Calabresi, titular archbishop of Fondi, pro-nuncio in Sudan, and by Ireneus Wien Dud, archbishop of Juba. His episcopal motto is The truth will set you free. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. President of the Sudan Catholic Bishops Conference from 1978 to 1990; from 1992 to 1999; and again, since 2012. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Khartoum, October 30, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Khartoum, October 10, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Member of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog from 1985 to 1995; and consultor of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples from 1993 to 1998. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8,1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October to 30, 1987. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Councils Cor Unum; and for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". He narrowly escaped an assassination attempt during mass celebrating the feast day of Saint Daniel Comboni, on October 10, 2010, when a man identified as Hamdan Mohamed Abdurrahman rose during the Glory and rushed toward the prelate with a knife, but was stopped by the cardinal's master of ceremonies. The cardinal has frequently complained about the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in the country and criticized Arab groups for their anti-Black violence. Throughout more than two decades of conflict, the cardinal has been a constant voice of reason, calling for peace, mercy, and forgiveness in a land scarred by war. Nearly three million lost their lives as Sudan bounced from one war to another. Yet the cardinal's consistent message has been one of reconciliation. He is passionate about music, especially for liturgical celebrations. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He is the first Sudanese cardinal.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Khartoum; photograph and brief biographical data, in English, archdiocese of Khartoum; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his photograph and episcopal motto, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The apostolic vicariate of Wau was elevated to diocese on November 18, 1974 and Fr. Zubeir Wako would be named its first bishop.


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(213) 12. AMIGO VALLEJO, O.F.M., Carlos
(1934-

Birth. August 23, 1934, Medina de Rioseco, archdiocese of Valladolid, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Medical Faculty of Valladolid (medicine); soon after, he left and joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied philosophy in Rome; and at the Central University of Madrid he studied psychology. Received the diaconate from Cardinal Fernando Quiroga Palacios, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1960, Rome, by Miguel Nóvoa Fuente, titular bishop of Chitri, auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela. Further studies, Rome. In Madrid, pastoral ministry; further studies; professor of philosophy of science and anthropology in different educational centers. Provincial of the Franciscan province of Santiago, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tanger, Morocco, December 17, 1973. Consecrated, April 28, 1974, church of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid, by Cardinal Marcelo González Martín, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Félix Romero Menjíbar, archbishop of Valladolid, and by Francisco Aldegunde Dorrego, O.F.M., former archbishop of Tanger. His episcopal motto is Gratia et pax. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. In several occasions acted as mediator to solve conflicts between the countries of Magreb (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia) and Spain. Transferred to metropolitan see of Seville, May 22, 1982; received the pallium from Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, nuncio in Spain, on June 29, 1982 during the installation mass at the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; by papal appointment. President of the Episcopal Commission for the Fifth Centennial of the Evangelization of America. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992, as an invited guest. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Member of the Academies of Buenas Letras, Medicina and Bellas Artes of Seville. Decorated with the Orden al Mérito de los Padres de la Patria Dominicana, the highest decoration granted by the Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted a doctorate honoris causa by the Technological University of Cibao, Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted the silver medal of the Republic of Panamá, September 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On November 5, 2009, he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Sevilla in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. On June 4, 2011, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Jubilar Year of the 500th anniversary of the canonical erection of the first ecclesiastical circumscriptions in America: Santo Domingo and La Vega, Dominican Republic; and San Juan de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, programmed for August 7 and 8, 2011. On September 22, 2012, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the fifth centennial of the arrival in Puerto Rico of the first bishop, Don Alonso Manso, which took place in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on November 19, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 23, 2014.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 139.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Sevilla; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(214) 13. RIGALI, Justin Francis
(1935-

Birth. April 19, 1935, Los Angeles, United States of America. He is the youngest of the seven children of Henry A. Rigali and Frances Irene White. One of his sisters is a nun; and a brother is a Jesuit priest. Baptized in the parish of the Holy Cross, Los Angeles.

Education. He attended Catholic schools in Los Angeles; then, he studied philosophy and theology at the archdiocesan seminaries of Los Angeles: Los Angeles College, Los Angeles; Our Lady Queen of Angels Seminary, San Fernando; St. John's College and St. John's Seminary, Camarillo; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1961-1964 (doctorate in canon law, June 1964); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1964-1966 (obtained a diploma, 1966). Besides his native English, speaks correctly French, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 25, 1961, metropolitan cathedral of St. Vibiana, Los Angeles, by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, archbishop of Los Angeles. Associate pastor, Ascension parish, Los Angeles; associate pastor, Saint Raymond parish, Downey. Further studies, Rome, 1961-1964. Assistant priest at the patriarchal Vatican basilica during the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962 and 1963. Associate pastor, St. Madeleine's parish, Pomona, archdiocese of Los Angeles, summer of 1964. Started service at the English language section of the Vatican secretariat of State, November 25, 1964. Secretary of nunciature in Madagascar and apostolic delegation for the Islands of the Indian Ocean, La Reunion and Mauritius, September 1966 to February 1970. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 11, 1967. Returned to Rome, February 11, 1970, and was appointed director of the English-language Section of the Secretariat of State. He also became the English-language translator for Pope Paul VI, whom he accompanied on his trip to Iran, Dhaka (then East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), the Philippines, Australia, Samoa, American Samoa, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Sri Lanka (then Ceylon). Chaplain to the cloistered Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of Saint Joseph in Rome for several years. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1972-1973. Counselor of nunciature, July 1, 1979. He accompanied Pope John Paul II on several of his international trips, including the ones to the United States of America in 1979 and 1987. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, April 19, 1980. Member of the Order of the Knights of Malta, October 25, 1984.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed president of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, June 8, 1985. Consecrated, September 14, 1985, cathedral of Albano, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Achille Silvestrini, titular archbishop of Novaliciana, secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. His episcopal motto is Verbum caro factum est. Member of the Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, October 13, 1986. Secretary of Congregation for Bishops, December 21, 1989. Secretary of College of Cardinals, January 2, 1990. Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and seminaries. Transferred to metropolitan see of St. Louis, United States of America, January 25, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, July 15, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the bicentennial of the birth of Saint John Nepomucene Neumann, which took place in Prachatice, Czech Republic, on June 18, 2011. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Philadelphia was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI on July 19, 2011, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Charles Joseph Chaput, O.F.M.Cap., until then archbishop of Denver, his successor. Cardinal Rigali was apostolic administrator of Philadelphia until the installation of his successor on September 8, 2011. He then went to reside in Knoxville, Tennessee. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On July 26, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the solemn eucharistic celebration planned in the new cathedral of Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America, on August 24, 2014, on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the homonymous city.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(215) 14. O'BRIEN, Keith Michael Patrick
(1938-

Birth. March 17, 1938, Ballycastle, diocese of Down and Connor, Northern Ireland. Eldest of the two sons of Mark O'Brien and his wife, Alice. The other son is Terry.

Education. Started his primary education in Ballycastle; then, in 1949, he moved with his family to Scotland and attended Saint Stephens Primary School, Dalmuir; secondary school at Saint Patrick's High School, Dumbarton; then, the family moved to Edinburgh, where he completed his secondary education at Holy Cross Academy; after his second request to become a priest, Archbishop Gordon Joseph Gray of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh told him to first study at the University of Edinburgh (1), where he earned a bachelor of science in chemistry and mathematics in 1959; and later, he obtained a diploma of education at Moray House College of Education in 1966. He studied for the priesthood at Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, Roxburghshire.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1965, Edinburgh, by Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. He was vicar cooperator in Holy Cross, Edinburgh from 1965 to 1966. Between 1966 and 1971, he was employed by Fife County Council as a teacher of mathematics and science, while, at the same time, he was chaplain to Saint Columba's Secondary School, initially in Cowdenbeath and later in Dunfermline, teaching mathematics; and assisting in Saint Bride's parish, Cowdenbeath. Full time ministry at Saint Patrick's parish, Kilsyth, from 1972 until 1975; and at Saint Mary's parish, Bathgate, from 1975 until 1978. Spiritual director of Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, from 1978 until 1980; and rector, Saint Mary's College, the junior seminary at Blairs, Aberdeen from 1980 until 1985.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, May 30, 1985. Consecrated, August 5, 1985, metropolitan cathedral of Saint Mary, Edinburgh, by Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, assisted by Bruno Bernard Heim, titular archbishop of Xanto, apostolic delegate in Great Britain, and by Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow. His episcopal motto is Serve the Lord with gladness. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Grand cross and conventual chaplain of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, 1985. Knight commander with star of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Argyll and the Isles from 1996 to 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. In 2001, he was named grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem; and in 2003, appointed knight grand cross. In June 2001, after the unexpected death of Cardinal Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow, he was appointed acting president of the Bishops Conference of Scotland; and in March 2002, he was elected its president.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for Social Communications; for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for the Family. In 2004, he was granted an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Saint Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada; an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Saint Andrews; and an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Edinburgh. Named bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of the foundation of the church of Long Tower, in the city of Derry, Ireland, which took place on June 9, 2009. Director of the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund (SCIAF). Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese on February 18, 2013, according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law (2). Did not participate in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis, for personal reasons.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Catholic leader backs Scottish independence , scotsman.com, Sunday 15 October 2006 00:44; The 'Cardinal of Controversy', BBC News, Thursday, 31 May 2007, 15:17 GMT 16:17 UK.Cardinal urges referendum on gay marriage , The Tablet, 16 July 2012; Scottish cardinal calls for referendum on same-sex 'marriage' by David Kerr, CNA/EWTN News, Jul 16, 2012 / 03:25 pm; An eloquent silence, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-22; Edimbourg: Un geste symbolique mais éloquent, InfoCatho.be, mercredi, 22 août 2012; OBrien quits talks with government, The Tablet, 21 August 2012; Cardinal O'Brien calls on politicians to "sustain rather than subvert Marriage", Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-23; No alle nozze gay in Scozia, la lettera di O'Brien nelle chiese by Elisabetta Del Soldato, Chiesa, Avvenire, 28 agosto 2012; Top British Cardinal Faces Accusations of Committing Inappropriate Acts by Jon Burns, The New York Times, February 24, 2013 Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop by Robert Pigott, Religious affairs correspondent, BBC News, 25 February 2013; Britain's Cardinal Keith O'Brien to skip papal election by Kim Hjelmgaard and Cathy Lynn Grossman, USA TODAY, 11:36a.m. EST February 25, 2013; Vatican: Cardinal O' Brien resigns, Vatican Radio, 2013-02-25 12:11:54; Cardinal O'Brien will not take part in conclave, number of electors down to 115, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-25 21:49:29; British cardinal's resignation underscores challenge to Catholic Church/s moral authority by Anthony Faiola, The Washington Pots, February 25, 2013; Pope accepts cardinal's resignation; Scot to stay away from conclave by Cindy Wooden, Catholic News Service, Feb-25-2013; Top British Cardinal Resigns, a Day After Charges of 'Inappropriate Acts' by Rachel Donadio and John F. Burns, The New York Times, February 25, 2013; Disgraced Keith O'Brien faces Vatican 'trial', The Scotsman, Monday 24th February 2014; Scotland: Vatican launches investigation into Cardinal OBrien, Vatican Insider, 04/04/2014; Disgraced cardinal's archdiocese subject of Vatican investigation by Joshua J. McElwee, The National Catholic Reporter, Apr. 4, 2014.

(1) He had a murmur in his heart and the archbishop told him, "if you are able to survive the university, there is a chance that you could survive in the seminary".
(2) The cardinal's biography in the site of the archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, linked above, said that: "On approaching his 75th birthday and with health concerns, the Cardinal's resignation was tendered and subsequently accepted by Pope Benedict XVI nunc pro tunc. He relinquished pastoral governance of the Archdiocese on 25th February 2013." The pope had accepted his resignation on November 13, 2012, to take effect later - nunc pro tunc.


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(216) 15. SCHEID, S.C.I., Eusébio Oscar
(1932-

Birth. December 8, 1932, Luzerna, diocese of Joaçaba, Brazil. Son of Alberto Reinaldo Scheid and Rosália Joana Scheid. He was baptized on December 16, 1932.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Dehonians). Seminary of the Priests of the Heart of Jesus, Corupá; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; specialty : Christology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1960, Rome, by Inácio João Dal Monte, bishop of Guaxupé. Professor of theology, Christ the King Seminary and Northeast Regional Seminary, Recife, 1964-1965; of Dogma and Liturgy, Theological Institute of Taubaté, 1965-1981; of Religious Culture, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, 1966-1968. Coordinator of Catechesis, Taubaté, 1970-1974. Director of the Faculty of Theology in Taubaté.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of São José dos Campos, February 11, 1981. Consecrated, May 1, 1981, São José dos Campos, by Carmine Rocco, titular archbishop of Giustinianopoli di Galazia, nuncio in Brazil, assisted by Geraldo de Morais Penido, archbishop coadjutor of Aparecida, and by Honorato Piazaera, bishop of Lages. His episcopal motto is Deus é bom. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florianópolis, January 23, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; by papal appointment. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 25, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the 15th Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Florianópolis, May 18 to 21, 2006. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On February 27, 2009, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the metropolitan archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. The pope named Orani João Tempesta, O. Cist., until then archbishop of Belém do Pará, as successor. Cardinal Scheid was apostolic administrator of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro until the installation of the new archbishop on April 19, 2009. Ceased as ordinary for Catholic faithful of Oriental rite resident in Brazil who do not have their own ordinary, July 28, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 8, 2012.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Sebatião do Rio de Janeiro, second from the top of the page; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(217) 16. ANTONELLI, Ennio
(1936-

Birth. November 18, 1936, Todi, Italy.

Education. After completing his middle and ginnasiali studies at the Episcopal Seminary of Todi, he attende the Lyceum of the Regional Seminary of Assisi; then, his bishop sent him to Rome as student at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and completed his philosophical and theological formation at the Pontifical Lateran University; later, he studied at the State University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in classical letters.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1960, cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Todi, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the Italian seminaries; incardinated in the diocese of Todi. Professor, vice-rector and rector of the Seminary of Perugia. Professor of dogmatic theology in the Regional Seminary of Assisi from 1968 to 1983; professor of art history in the Superior Institutes of Assisi and Deruta; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic "Laureati" and pastor.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gubbio, May 25, 1982. Consecrated, August 29, 1982, cathedral of the Assumption, Todi, by Decio Lucio Grandoni, bishop of Orvieto and of Todi, assisted by Santo Bartolomeo Quadri, bishop of Terni e Narni, and by Antonio Fustella, bishop of Saluzzo. His episcopal motto is Voluntas Dei pax nostra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Perugia-Città della Pieve, October 6, 1988. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1995. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Perugia-Città della Pieve, May 26, 1995. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 21, 2001; occupied the see until June 7, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for the Laity, for the Pastoral for Migrants and Intinerants and for Social Communications. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 7, 2008, he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Florence from June 7, 2008 until the installation of his successor. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Malta. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Family on June 26, 2012. Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 15, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. On March 19, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the commemorative celebration of the 70th anniversary of the destruction-reconstruction of the Abbey of Montecassino, programmed for March 21, 2014. On July 19, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the consecration of the new Shrine of San Gabriele dell'Addolorata, Teramo, Italy, programmed for September 21, 2014.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Florence; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa dell Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Antonelli on International Day of the Family: "The role of the family cannot be replaced", video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-15 18:02:44; Cardinal Antonelli praises those few conscious families that go against the tide by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 05/24/2012; Cardinal Ennio Antonelli: World Meeting of Families will boost healthy family life, Rome Reports, 2012-05-27 08:00:00; "Normal" families are happier, says Cardinal Antonelli by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Cardinal Antonelli leaves the Pontifical Council for the Family, Rome Reports, 2012-06-27 16:49:34.


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(218) 17. BERTONE, S.D.B., Tarcisio
(1934-

Birth. December 2, 1934, parish of Ss. Pietro e Solutore, Romano Canavese, diocese of Ivrea, Italy. The fifth of the eight children of Pietro Bertone and Pierina Borio. His father was a farmer. He was baptized in that parish on December 9, 1934. His baptismal name is Tarcisio Pietro Evasio.

Education. Entered the Society of St. Francis de Sales of St. John Bosco (Salesians); Oratorio di Valdocco, Turin (middle studies); Salesian novitiate of Monte Oliveto, Pinerolo; religious profession, December 3, 1950. Salesian Theological Faculty, Turin (licentiate in theology with a dissertation on tolerance and religious freedom); Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome (licentiate in theology; doctorate in canon law; dissertation: Il governo della Chiesa nel pensiero di Benedetto XIV - Papa Lambertini, 1740-1758); the relator of his dissertation was Canonist Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B, future cardinal. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks French, German, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 1, 1960, Ivrea, by Albino Mensa, bishop of Ivrea. Further studies in Turin and Rome. Professor of Special Moral Theology, Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum (became Pontifical Salesian University in 1973), Rome, 1967; professor of canon law, 1976-1991. In the community of Pontifical Salesian University of Rome, director of theologians, 1974-1976; dean of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1976-1985; vice-rector, 1987-1989. Guest professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Institute Utriusque Iuris of the Pontifical Lateran University, 1978. Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and in the promotion of the laity in the Centers of Theological and Apostolic Formation, especially with intervention on subjects of social morality and the relation between faith and politics. Collaborated in the final phase of the revision of the Code of Canon Law and promoted its reception in the local churches. Directed the work group that translated the Code into Italian for the Italian Episcopal Conference and visited a hundred of Italian and foreign dioceses to present the "grand discipline of the Church". Since the 1980s, consultor in several dicasteries of the Roman Curia, especially in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in matters theologico-juridical. In 1988, he was appointed to a group of experts that assisted Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, future Pope Benedict XVI, in the negotiations with schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. Rettore Magnifico of the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, June 1, 1989 until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vercelli, June 4, 1991. Consecrated, August 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Vercelli, by Albino Mensa, archbishop emeritus of Vercelli, assisted by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea, and by Carlo Cavalla, bishop of Casale Monferrato. His episcopal motto is Fides custodiare Concordiam servare. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 29, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 13, 1995. Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 13, 1995. Charged by Pope John Paul II with the care of the publication of the third part of the "secret" of Fatima. Also, commissioned by Pope John Paul II to assist Emmanuel Milingo, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia, in August 2001, when he decided to return to the Roman Catholic Church after his civil marriage within the Moon sect. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, December 10, 2002. United to the see of Genoa are the posts of abbot perpetuo of S. Siro, of S. Maria Immacolata, and of S. Gerolamo di Quarto, and the title of "Legato Transmarino della Sede Apostolica."

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Suor Lucia de Jesus dos Santos, the last survivor of the three shepherds to whom the Blessed Virgin of Fatima appeared for the first time on May 13, 1917. The funeral mass was celebrated on Tuesday, February 15, 2005, at 4:00 p.m., in the cathedral of Coimbra, Portugal. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Awarded an honorary degree by the Catholic University of Salta, Argentina, July 19, 2005. Ceased as metropolitan archbishop of Genoa, August 29, 2006. Became secretary of State on September 15, 2006. Named member of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Vigilance of the Institute for Works of Religion (I.O.R.), October 14, 2006. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007; took the oath of office on July 7, 2007, in the Chapel of Urban VIII in the Apostolic Palace. Given the award "Gaudium et Spes" by the Order of the Knights of Columbus on August 6, 2007, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America during the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the order (1). Papal legate to the solemn closing celebrations of the 90th anniversary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, which took place on October 12 and 13, 2007. Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 10, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Pontifical legate to the celebrations of the 5th World Encounter of Families, which took place in Ciudad Méjico, Méjico, between January 13 and 18, 2009. On April 15, 2009, he was named knight of collar of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (2). Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Confirmed as secretary of State, January 15, 2010. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the Eucharistic Congress of Slovenia, which took place in Celje on June 13, 2010. Received a doctorate honoris causa in jurisprudence from the University "Magna Grecia" of Catanzaro on April 21, 2012. Awarded the International Award Conde de Barcelona, established by the foundation Conde de Barcelona of the Spanish newspaper "La Vanguardia", on September 25, 2012. On February 28, 2013, upon the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI from the pontificate, he ceased as secretary of State according to the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 16, 2013, the new pope confirmed him as secretary of State donec aliter provideatur. On August 11, 2013, the commune of Introd, in Valle d'Aosta, Italy, granted him the honorary citizenship. On August 31, 2013, Pope Francis, in accordance to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, accepted his resignation from the office of secretary of State, asking him to remain in office until October 15, 2013, with all the faculties proper to the office. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014.

Bibliography. Bertone, Tarcisio. La diplomazia pontificia in un mondo globalizzato. Prefazione di Papa Francesco. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013.

Links. Arms, photograph, biography and bibliography, in Italian, archdiocese of Genoa; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and another image of his arms, archdiocese of Genoa; Mgr. Bettazzi: "Bertone is trustworthy" by Giacomo Galeazzo, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Esclusivo: parla il cardinale Bertone, Famiglia Cristiana, 18/06/2012; Bertone: si cerca di destabilizzare la Chiesa. Ma è una roccia che resiste alle burrasche. Avvenire, Chiesa, 18 giugno 2012; Vatileaks: The Popes action irritated some; they are trying to destabilise the Church by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012; Vatileaks: Too many questions have been left unanswered dear Bertone by Marco Tossati, Vatican Insider, 06/21/2012; Cardinal Bertone calls for free and universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS, Vatican City, 22 June 2012 (VIS), news.va. Full text of the address in Italian, Press Office of the Holy See; L'ipotesi: Bertone lascia a ottobre Pronto un diplomatico straniero by Gian Guido Vecchi, in Italian, Corriere della Sera, 24 giugno 2012 | 14:49; Pope renews confidence in Cardinal Bertone by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Benoît XVI renouvelle sa confiance au cardinal Bertone by Isabelle de Gaulmyn, La Croix, 4/7/12 - 14 H 03; Papa rinnova fiducia a Bertone: «Ingiuste critiche verso di Lei», Chiesa, Avvenire, 4 luglio 2012; Pope voices confidence in embattled Bertone , The Tablet, 4 July 2012; He who eats Secretary of State dies by Marco Tosatti, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Pope (re)confirms trust in Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 04-07-2012; Benedict XVI renews his trust in Cardinal Bertone, L'Osservatore Romano, 2012-07-04, news.va; El papa expresa públicamente su aprecio al cardenal Bertone, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 04-07-2012; Emotional Cardinal Bertone to Pope: you brought God to man and man to God, Rome Reports, 2013-02-13 19:23:29; I sette anni del cardinale Bertone by Mimmo Muolo, Avvenire, 31 agosto 2013; Vaticano, la fine dellera Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 15/01/2014; When did Benedict XVI first think of resigning? Card. Bertone has the answer, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; Benedicto XVI le anticipó al cardenal Bertone su intención de renunciar by Rocío Lancho García, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 11 de febrero de 2014; Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone: Keeping the secret of Benedict XVI's resignation was a tremendous burden, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; L'ira di Francesco per il mega-attico del cardinal Bertone, La Repubblica, 2014-0420; Unease over Cardinal Bertone's luxury apartment, ucanews, April 21, 2014; El cardenal Bertone: 'no me dentengo a recoger las piedras que me lanzan', Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 27 de abril de 2014; Bertone: «Non ho un maxi-appartamento» by Domenico Agasso jr., Vatican Insider, 28/04/2014; Bertone replica alle accuse: gogna mediatica, Avvenire, 28 aprile 2014; Ex-No. 2 at Vatican defends spacious apartment, Miami Herald, Wednesday, 04.30.14; Bertone e i 15 milioni alla casa cinematografica Lux Vide by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 21/05/2014; Embattled Cardinal Bertone faces new scandal, ucanews, May 21, 2014; While Pope Francis rages over inequality, a cardinal builds a Vatican penthouse by Terrence McCoy, The Washington Post, June 17, 2014.

(1) Named after the constitution "Gaudium et Spes", issued by the Second Vatican Council, the award is the highest honor bestowed by the Knights of Columbus, the world's largest Catholic Fraternal Organization with nearly 1.7 million members. The Gaudium et Spes Award is awarded only in special circumstances and only to individuals of exceptional merit.The award was first given in 1992, when the late Mother Theresa of Calcutta was named as the first recipient. Since then, four more individuals have been honored with this award: the late Cardinal John O'Connor, former archbishop of New York; the late Cardinal James Hickey, former archbishop of Washington; Cardinal William Baum, former archbishop of Washington and major penitentiary emeritus; and Latin Patriarch Michael Sabbah of Jerusalem. The award recognizes individuals for their exemplary contributions to the realization of the message of faith and service in the spirit of Christ as articulated in the document for which it is named. The award comes with an honorarium of $100,000.
(2) This is the highest rank of honor of the order; currently, only fourteen of the 24,000 members of the order have received that distinction.


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(219) 18. TURKSON, Peter Kodwo Appiah
(1948-

Birth. October 11, 1948, Wassaw Nsuta, diocese of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. His father was a Catholic and his mother a Methodist; she became a Catholic after marriage. He is the fourth of ten children; he now has 30 nephews and nieces, the children of eight of his brothers and sisters (one brother died in a plane crash some years ago). His African name, Kodwo, means "Monday" in his native language; the local tradition is to name each child by the day of the week he or she is born on; since there were ten children in the family and seven days in a week, two of the children are named Friday and three are named Sunday; the cardinal is the only Monday.

Education. Studied at St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, Amisano; at St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Pedu (philosophy); at the Seminary of St. Anthony-on-Hudson, Rensselaer, New York (bachelor in theology); at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1976 to 1980 (licentiate in Sacred Scripture); 1987 to 1992 (doctorate in Sacred Scripture). Besides English and his native Fante, he also speaks French, Italian, German and Hebrew fluently, and has written knowledge of Latin and Greek.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 20, 1975, by John Kodwo Amissah, archbishop of Cape Coast. Professor in St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, 1975-1976. Further studies in Rome 1976-1980. Professor in St. Teresa's Minor Seminary again; professor of Sacred Scripture and vice-rector in St. Peter's Major Seminary, Pedu; pastoral ministry in a parish annexed to the seminary. Further studies in Rome, 1987-1992. While studying in Rome, he could not defend his doctoral dissertation because, when the archbishop of Cape Coast died suddenly, Pope John Paul II named Father Turkson to succeed him.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cape Coast, October 6, 1992. Consecrated, March 27, 1993, cathedral of Saint Francis de Sales, Cape Coast, by Dominic Kodwo Andoh, archbishop of Accra, assisted by Peter Poreku Dery, archbishop of Tamale, and by Peter Kwasi Sarpong, bishop of Kumasi. His episcopal motto is Vivere Christus est. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Treasurer of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM). Chancellor of the Catholic University College of Ghana. Member of the University Council of the University of Ghana, Legon; the National Sustainable Development Council of the Ministry of Environment; the board of directors of the Central Regional Development Committee; and the board of trustees of the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Educational Fund.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Liborio, October 21, 2003. He is the first cardinal from Ghana. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. He played a decisive role promoting the peace during the presidential election of December 7, 2008, when no candidate received more than 50% of the votes; and the run-off election on the following December 28. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World"; its relator general. Named president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax on October 24, 2009. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on June 12, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On September 24, 2013, he was confirmed by the pope as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitita et Pax until the end of the current quiquennium (October 24, 2014). He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On December 8, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the official ceremony in memory of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, former president of South Africa, which took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Tuesday December 10, 2013.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; The rising star of justice and peace by Robert Mickens, The Tablet, London, 31 October 2009; Cardinal Turkson defends gays against unfavourable Ugandan law , Vatican Insider, 03/ 4/2014.


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(220) 19. TOPPO, Telesphore Placidus
(1939-

Birth. October 15, 1939, Chainpur, diocese of Gumla, India. He was the eighth of the ten children of Ambrose Toppo and Sofia Xalxo.

Education. Studied at St. Xavier's College, Ranchi (English honours, 1965); at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (licentiate in theology); and at the University of Ranchi (master's in history). Besides his native tongue, Oraon, he knows he speaks: English, German, Hindi, Italian, Kurukh, Latin, Sadri, and Santhali.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 3, 1969, by Franciskus Von Streng, former bishop of Basel, Switzerland. Professor and assistant to the director of St. Joseph's High School, Torpa. Rector of the Minor Seminary of Ranchi from 1976. Founder of an apostolic school for the candidates to the priesthood from the Munda Tribe.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dumka, June 8, 1978. Consecrated, October 7, 1978, Dudhani, by Pius Kerketta, S.J., archbishop of Ranchi, assisted by Leo Tigga, S.J., bishop of Raiganj, and by Joseph Robert Rodericks, S.J., bishop of Jamshedpur. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Ranchi, November 8, 1984. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Ranchi, August 7, 1985. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù agonizzante a Vitinia, October 21, 2003. As an Oraon, of the Kurukh tribe, he is the first adivasi, or tribal cardinal of India. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India (1), January 12, 2004 unitl February 19, 2008. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. President-delegate of the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 2005. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See, June 23, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Links. Biographical data, in English, UCA News; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; The Church's scandals are having serious repercusions on Christians in India by Fabio Marchese Ragona, in English, Vatican Insider, 02/20/2012 .

(1) The bishops' conference is the organization that represents the three ritual traditions of the Catholic Church in India. It has 205 members of the Syro-Malabar, Syro-Malankaran and Latin rites.


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(221) 20. PELL, George
(1941-

Birth. Trinity Sunday June 8, 1941, Ballarat, Australia. Son of George Arthur Pell, manager of the Gordon Gold Mine and a nominal member of the Church of England, and Margaret Lillian Burke, a devout Catholic. They had twins, a boy and a girl, who both died in 1940. He has a younger sister, Margaret; and a younger brother, David.

Education. Initial studies at Loreto Convent, Ballarat, where he received his first communion in 1948; later, he studied at Corpus Christi College, Werribee; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of "Propaganda Fide", Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1967; at Oxford University, Oxford, England, where he earned a doctorate in church history in 1971; at Monash University, Clayton, Australia, where he earned a master's in education in 1982. He is a fellow of the Australian College of Educators; and was a visiting scholar at Campion Hall, Oxford University, in 1979; and at St Edmund's College, Cambridge University, in 1983. He was elected an honorary fellow of St Edmund's in 2003. In earlier years, he was a keen sports coach in soccer (Aussie Rules) and rowing. He is vice-patron of the Richmond Football Club and a long-term supporter and member of the Club since he signed to play with them in 1959. He received the diaconate on August 15, 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Oxford, from 1967 to 1970. Assistant pastor in the parishes of Swan Hill, 1971-1972; and Ballarat East, 1973-1983; administrator of the parish of Bungaree, 1984; and parish priest of Mentone, from 1984 to1996. Episcopal vicar for Education, diocese of Ballarat, 1973-1984; a founding member of the Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, from 1973 to 1984; director of the Aquinas Campus of the Institute of Catholic Education from 1974 to 1984; principal of the Institute (now merged into Australian Catholic University), from 1981 until 1984; editor of Light, the magazine of the diocese of Ballarat, from 1979 until 1984; member of the Academic Board of State College of Victoria and at different times a member of the Councils of the State College of Victoria - Ballarat, the Ballarat College of Advanced Education and Signadou College, Canberra. Rector of Corpus Christi College, the Provincial Seminary for Victoria and Tasmania, from 1985 to1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Scala and appointed auxiliary of Melbourne, March 30, 1987. Consecrated, May 21, 1987, St. Peter's metropolitan cathedral, Melbourne, by Frank Little, archbishop of Melbourne, assisted by Ronald Austin Mulkearns, bishop of Ballarat, and by Joseph Peter O'Connell, titular bishop of Sanctus Germanus, auxiliary of Melbourne. His episcopal motto is Be not afraid. Chairman of Caritas Australia, 1988-1997. Chairman of the committee charged with setting up the new Australian Catholic University, 1989; served as the University's Foundation Pro-Chancellor, 1991-1995. President of the University's board of owners, 1996. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Appointed by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, apostolic visitor to the National Seminaries of New Zealand, 1994; Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, 1995; the Pacific, 1996; and Irian Jaya and Sulawesi, 1998. Promoted to metropolitan see of Melbourne, July 16, 1996. Delegate, appointed by the prime minister, to the Constitutional Convention, February 1998. Decorated with the Grand Cross of Merit of the Order of Saint Lazarus and co-deputy National Chaplain of the order, 1998. Grand Prior of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Australian Lieutenancy - Southern, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Fellow of the Australian College of Education. Since 2001, he has been the chair of Vox Clara, the committee of English-speaking bishops who advise the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship on English-language translations.Transferred to metropolitan see of Sydney, March 26, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Cleared by the independent inquiry set up to investigate an accusation of sexual abuse against him, October 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005, by papal appointment. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was one of the three presidents delegates, and was substituting for Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, India, who was unable to attend. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on September 22, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Named prefect of the newly established Secretariat for the Economy on February 24, 2014. Became archbishop emeritus of Sydney on that same date. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014. Named member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples on September 13, 2014.

Bibliography. Livingstone, Tess. George Pell. Sydney : Duffy & Snellgrove, 2002.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Pell, from soccer prospect to priest, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-23 17:12:23; Cardinal Pell: We'e got to have a Pope who is able to speak to the world, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-07 17:34:30; Finance czar aims to steer Vatican 'off the gossip pages by John L. Allen Jr., The Boston Globe, July 09, 2014; Pell e le resistenze curiali: «C'è antagonismo in alcuni ambienti» by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 10/07/2014; È il numero uno della nuova curia, ma dice messa all'antica by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, 30 luglio 2014; Pope's finance chief talks Vatican reform by Francis X. Rocca, Catholic News Service, Aug-6-2014.


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(222) 21. BOZANIĆ, Josip
(1949-

Birth. March 20, 1949, Rijeka, Yugoslavia (now Croatia). Of a family of farmers. Son of Ivan Bozanić and Dinka Valković. His brother Antun is a priest. A member of his family, Bartul Bozanić, was bishop of Krk from 1839 to 1854. His name in Croat is Josipom Bozanićem.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Pazin (with classical grammar school); at the Theological Faculties of Rijeka and Zagreb (master's degree in theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1979-1985 (dogmatic theology); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (master's degree in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1975, Krk, by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. Secretary to the bishop of Krk, 1975-1976. Parish vicar, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1979-1985. Chancellor of the diocesan curia in Krk, 1986-1987. Vicar general, 1987-1989. Professor of canon law and dogmatic theology in the Seminary of Rijeka, 1988-1997.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Krk, Veglia, May 10, 1989. Consecrated, June 25, 1989, cathedral of the Assumption, Krk, by Cardinal Franjo Kuharić, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Josip Pavlisić, archbishop of Rijeka-Senj, and by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. His episcopal motto is Da život imaju. Succeeded to the see of Krk, November 14, 1989. Administrator of the archdiocese of Rijeka-Senj, June 5 to November 22, 1996. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, July 5, 1997. President of the Croatian Conference of Bishops. Vice President of the Council of European Bishops' Conferences. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations that took place in Zadar, Croatia, on January 15, 2005, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Saint Anastasia, patroness of the archdiocese of Zadar. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected one of the two vice-presidents of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe, for a quienquennium, October 6, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Bishop Svesti Kivrin (Saint Quirin), which took place in Krk, Croatia, on June 4, 2009. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on December 29, 2011. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On May 10, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 1150th anniversary of the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Czech territory, which took place in Velehrad, Czech Republic, on July 5, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Supervisory Commission of Cardinals on the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR) on July 9, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Croatian, Croatian Conference of Bishops; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(223) 22. PHẠM MINH MẪN, Jean-Baptiste
(1934-

Birth. March 5, 1934, Thanh Hoa, Ca Mau, diocese of Cantho (now Cân Tho, Cu Lao Gien), Việt Nam. His first name in Vietnamese is Gioan Baotixita.

Education. In 1944, he entered the Probatorium in Cu Lao Gieng, where he stayed for two years; then, from 1946 to 1954, he completed his secondary studies and the human and spiritual preparation at the Minor Seminary of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (1); from 1954 to 1956, he studied philosophy at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón (now Hôchiminh Ville); and from 1961 to 1966; teaching in a secondary school in Bac Liêu, from 1956 to 1961; studied theology at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón from 1961 to 1965; later, he also studied at Loyola University, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, from 1968 to 1971, where he obtained a master's of Education degree. Besides his native Vietnamese, he also speaks French and English.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1965, cathedral of Cân Tho, by Jacques Nhuyên Ngoc Quang, bishop of Cân Tho. Incardinated in the diocese of Cân Tho. Professor in the Minor Seminary of Beato Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho. Further studies in the United States, 1968-1971; returned to his country and was again named professor at the Minor Seminary of Cân Tho in 1971; occupied the post until the Communist invasion in 1975. Because of the change of political system in South Vietnam, the Catholic Church was persecuted and the seminaries were closed or confiscated by the State. During those years, he was placed in charge of the formation of priests. Then, in 1988, six major seminaries in Vietnam were allowed to be opened and he was named rector of the Seminary of Santo Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho; during his rectorship, he had to confront numerous difficulties, such as the lack of professors; the Seminary served the three dioceses of Cân Tho, Vinh Long and Long Xuyen; he occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1993.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of My Tho, March 22, 1993. Consecrated, August 11, 1993, Seminary of Cân Tho, by Emmanuel Lê Phong Thuân, bishop of Cân Tho, assisted by François Xavier Nguyên Quang Sach, bishop of Dà Nang, and by Joseph Nguyên Tuyên, coadjutor bishop of Bac Ninh. His episcopal motto is Như Thầy Yêu Thu'o'ng. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh (Hôchiminh Ville), March 1, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giustino, October 21, 2003. The government of Viêt Nam expressed its displeasure because the Vatican did not seek its permission to elevate the archbishop to the cardinalate and indicated that it was not going to recognize the promotion; four days later, it reversed itself and welcomed the appointment. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Health Workers. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 5, 2014. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted on March 22, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Tổng Giáo Phận Tp. HCM; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On September 20, 1955, the Vietnamese part of the apostolic vicariate of Phnom Penh was separated from the vicariate and became the new apostolic vicariate of Cân Tho, suffragan of Saigon.


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(224) 23. QUEZADA TORUÑO, Rodolfo
(1932-2012)

Birth. March 8, 1932, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala. Eldest of the three sons of René Quezada Alejos and Clemencia Toruño Lizarralde. The other two boys were José Fernando and Gerardo. He was baptized in the parish of "El Sagrario", with the names Rodolfo Ignacio de Jesús. His maternal uncle, Father Jorge Toruño, was Jesuit. His testimony influenced Rodolfo's vocation.

Education. Initial studies at Colegio de San José de los Infantes, Guatemala; then, he studied at Seminary of San José de la Montaña, San Salvador, El Salvador (philosophy); then, at the University of Innsbruck, Austria (licentiate in theology, 1959); and later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1962. He spoke Spanish, Latin, French, Italian and German.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1956, Guatemala, by Mariano Rossell y Arellano, archbishop of Guatemala. Coadjutor in the parish of the Sagrario of the metropolitan cathedral. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese. Defender of the Matrimonial Bond in the Archdiocesan Tribunal. Assessor of Juventud Estudiantil Católica (JEC). Assessor of Acción Católica Universitaria (ACUR). University pastor. Pastor of San Miguel de Capuchinas. Rector of the Shrine of Guadalupe. Chaplain of His Holiness, August 18, 1968. Rector of the Conciliar Seminary of Santiago, Guatemala. Rector of the Mayor National Seminary of the Asunción, Guatemala. He was professor of canon law at the Salesian Theological Institute, Guatemala; of professional ethics at the School of Social Service, University of San Carlos de Guatemala; of canon law at the Faculty of Law, Rafael Landívar University, Guatemala. Academic numerary of the Academy of Geography and History of Guatemala, 1967; member correspondiente of the Academis of History of Spain, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Argentina, Venezuela and Uruguay.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gadiaufala and appointed auxiliary of Zacapa, April 5, 1972. Consecrated, May 13, 1972, metropolitan cathedral of Santiago, Guatemala, by Girolamo Prigione, titular archbishop of Lauriaco, nuncio in Guatemala, assisted by Costantino Cristiano Luna Pianegonda, bishop of Zacapa, and by José Ramiro Pellecer Samayoa, titular bishop of Teglata di Proconsulari, auxiliary of Guatemala. His episcopal motto was Fortes in fide. Named coadjutor of Zacapa, with right of succession, September 11, 1975. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Succeeded to the see of Zacapa, February 16, 1980. Prelate of Santo Cristo de Esquipulas, June 24, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October to 30, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Guatemala, 1988-1992. He played a key role in bringing to an end the civil war that raged in his country for 36 years and cost thousands of lives. Together with Bishop Juan Gerardi, the future cardinal was a member of the National Reconciliation Commission; and its president, 1987-1993. Official conciliator between the government and the guerrillas of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unit, (1990-1994); the peace process culminated in 1996. President of the Assembly of the Civil Society, 1994. President of the Foundation Casa de la Reconciliación from 1998. Bishop Gerardi was murdered in April 1998. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guatemala, June 19, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Saturnino, October 21, 2003. President of the Second American Missionary Congress, Guatemala City, November 25-30, 2003. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Guatemala, January 31, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, on October 2, 2010. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Guatemala until the installation of his successor, Óscar Julio Vian Morales, S.D.B., until then archbishop of Los Altos, Quetzaltenango-Totonicapán, on December 4, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 8, 2012. He was called "El Cardenal de la Paz".

Death. June 4, 2012, at 6:50 a.m., of a post-operatory cardiac arrest, in the private hospital "Hermano Pedro", in that city. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegam of condolence (1). The government of Guatemala declared three days of mourning. His body was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Guatemala. The body of the cardinal was buried in the chapel of Santiago Apóstol, patron saint of the archdiocese, in the left nave of the metropolitan cathedral of that city.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, archidiócesis de Guatemala; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Bulletin of the Vatican Press Office:
      Hondamente apenado por el fallecimiento del querido Cardenal Rodolfo Ignacio Quezada Toruño, arzobispo emérito de Guatemala, deseo hace llegar mi más sentido pésame al Pastor y a los Obispos Auxiliares, así como al Clero y los Fieles de esa Iglesia particular, como también a los Familiares del difunto purpurado, uniéndome a ellos con fervientes oraciones de sufragio para que el Señor conceda su paz a quien ha servido tan intensa y generosamente a la Iglesia durante su ministerio pastoral, como guía de la diócesis de Zacapa y prelado de Santo Cristo de Esquipulas, y después como arzobispo de esa sede metropolitana de Guatemala.
     Con la fe en el msiterio pascual de Cristo que ilumina y llena de esperanza los momentos de dolor, el el recuerdo de un Pastor entregado a la misión evangelizadora, me es grato impartir de corazón a cuantos lloran tan sensible pérdida una especial Bendició Apostólica.


      An analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(225) 24. BARBARIN, Philippe
(1950-

Birth. October 17, 1950, Rabat, Morocco. Son of M. Barbarin and Yvonne Maria Roques. His baptismal name is Philippe Xavier Christian Ignace Marie. He has six sisters (two religious) and four brothers.

Education. Studied at the secondary lyceum "Marcellin Berthelot", Saint-Maur, at Val-de-Marne; "Francs-Bourgeois" College, Paris, (bachelor); at the Major Seminary, Paris (philosophy); military service; at "Institut de Philosophies Comparées" (philosophy); at La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate in philosophy); at "Institut Catholique de Paris", in the Seminary "des Carmes", Paris (licentiate in theology). Received the diaconte on the Feast of Pentecost 1976. Besides his native French, he speaks correctly Italian, English, Spanish, German and Malagasy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1977, by Robert-Marie-Joseph François de Provenchères, bishop of Créteil, for the diocese of Créteil, France. From 1977 to 1985, vicar in two parishes: Notre-Dame d'Alfortville and Notre-Dame de Vincennes; 1985 to 1990, member of the pastoral group of the parish of Saint François de Sales d'Adambille en Saint-Maur and chaplain of the lyceum and school of Saint-Maur; diocesan delegate for ecumenism; and in addition, vicar in Saint-Hilaire de la Varenne; 1991 to 1994 pastor of Saint Léger Parish, Boissy Saint Léger; 1994 to 1998, in Madagascar as priest "Fidei donum" was a professor of theology at the Major Seminary of Vohitsoa, archdiocese of Fianarantsoa; pastor, Bry-sur-Marne, Créteil.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Moulins, France, October 1, 1998. Consecrated, November 22, 1998, cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame, Moulins, by Philibert Randriambololona, archbishop of Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, assisted by André Bernard Michel Quélen, bishop emeritus of Moulins, and by Daniel Camille Victor Marie Labille, bishop of Créteil. His episcopal motto is Qu'ils soient un. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 16, 2002; as such, he is chancellor of the Catholic University of Lyon. On December 31, 2002, he was named knight of the Légion d'Honneur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On May 8, 2007, he was named officer of the Ordre National du Mérite. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On April 15, 2012, he was named officer Légion d'Honneur. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3358.

Links. Photograph and biography, in French, archdiocese of Lyon; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le luci di Lione. Intervista con il cardinale Philippe Barbarin, by Gianni Valente. in Italian, 30Giorni, 01/02 - 2009; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin - Witness, in French with English subtitles, You Tube, uploaded on Jan 27, 2012; France : Mgr Barbarin hausse le ton, InfoCatho.be, JJD (avec news.va), mardi, 14 août 2012; Matrimoni gay, il cardinale Barbarin: choc di civiltà, si apra un dibattito pubblico, Chiesa, Avvenire, 14 agosto 2012; Francia: Prohibido rezar. El cardenal Barbarin responde a las críticas a una oración por la familia. By Anne Kurian, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 19-08-2012; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin: From Marocco and Madagascar, to Lyon France, video, Rome Repotrs, 2013-03-09 17:00:00.


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(226) 25. ERDÖ, Péter
(1952-

Birth. June 25, 1952, Budapest, Hungary. He is the first of the six children of Dr. Sándor Erdő and Mária Kiss.

Education. Initial studies at the lyceum of the Piarists Fathers, Budapest; later, he entered the Seminary of Esztergom; then, studied at the Central Seminary of Budapest; and finally, at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology, 1976; and in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 18, 1975, cathedral basilica, Budapest, by László Lékai, titular bishop of Giro di Tarasio, apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Esztergom; incardinated in the archdiocese of Esztergom. Vicar in the parish of Dorog. Further studies, Rome, 1977-1980. Professor of theology and canon law, Seminary of Esztergom, 1980-1988. Guest professor, Faculty of Canon Law, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1986-2002. Secretary of the Commission of Canon Law of the Hungarian Episcopal Conference, 1986; became its president, 1999. Chancellor of the Pontifical Hungarian Institute, 1987. Ordinary professor, Faculty of Theology, Catholic University Péter Pázmány, Budapest, 1988; dean of the same faculty, 1997. Chancellor of the Catholic University Péter Pázmány, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999, as an expert.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Puppi and appointed auxiliary of Székesfehérvár, November 5, 1999. Consecrated, January 6, 2000, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State for General Affairs, and by Marcello Zago, titular archbishop of Roselle, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Initio non erat nisi gratia. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom-Budapest, December 7, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Balbina, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Hungarian Episcopal Conference for a period of five years, September 7, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebrations that took place in the Shrine of Mariapócs, Hungary, on December 3, 2005. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, on April 6, 2006. Elected president of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe, for a quienquennium, October 6, 2006; confirmed for another quienquennium, September 30, 2011. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Member, by papal appointment, of the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City. On October 19, 2011, the apostolic nunciature in Perú announced that he would be apostolic visitor to intervene in the dispute between the Pontifical Catholic University of Perú (PUCP) and the archbishopric of Lima. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On June 1, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the sixth centennial of the evangelization of the "Samorgizia" (occidental region of Lithuania), which took place in conjunction with a Eucharistic Congress in Telšiai, from August 2 to 4, 2013. On October 14, 2013, he was named relator general of the Third Extraordinary General Assemby of the Synod of Bishops that will be held in the Vatican from October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The challenges of the family in the context of the evangelization". He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 206, 210 and 330.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Offrice of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e beati; his photograph and arms, archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest; Péter Pázmámany Catholic University; winner of the prize Galileo Galilei, Italian Rotary Club, Pisa, October 3, 1999; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il card. Erdo (Ccee): dichiarazione congiunta cattolico-ortodossa sia di aiuto per l'Europa, Chiesa, Avvenire, 18 agosto 2012; Satisfacción del cardenal Erdö por el acuerdo entre la Iglesia católica polaca y la ortodoxa rusa, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 20-08-2012; Cardinal Péter Erdö, archbishop raised under totalitarian Communist regime, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-02 11:00:00; Cardinal Erdö: Pope Francis will give a social and spiritual push to the Church, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-22 14:03:02.


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(227) 26. OUELLET, P.S.S., Marc
(1944-

Birth. June 8, 1944, Lamotte, diocese of Amos, Canada. Son of Pierre Ouellet, a school director, and Graziella Michaud. They had eight children. His baptismal name is Joseph Armand Marc.

Education. Studied at Collège de Berthier, 1958-1959; then, at Ècole Normale of Amos, 1959-1964 (two years of philosophy); later, at the University of Laval, where he obtained a bachelor in education in 1964); then, at the Major Seminary of Montréal, from 1964 until 1968, earning a licentiate in theology in 1968); later, he attended the Pontifical University San Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1974; and finally, the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in dogmatic theology in 1983. He speaks French, English, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1968, in his home parish, Amos, by Gaston Hains, titular bishop of Belesana, coadjutor with right of succession of Amos. Vicar in the parish of Saint-Sauveur de Val-d'Or, Abitibi, from 1968 to 1970. Professor of philosophy at the Major Seminary of Bogotá, Colombia, from 1970 to 1971; the seminary was then directed by the Sulpicians. Entered the Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice (Sulpicians) in 1972. Furthher studies in Rome, 1972-1974. Professor at the Major Seminary of Manizales, Colombia, from 1974 to 1976. Professor at the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1978-1983. Professor at the Major Seminary of Cali, 1983-1984. Rector of the Major Seminary of Manizales from 1984 to 1989. Rector of the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1990-1994. Rector at Saint Joseph Seminary, from 1994 to 1996. Professor of dogmatic theology at the John Paul II Institute of Studies on Marriage and the Family, Rome, from 1996 to 2002.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Agropoli and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 3, 2001. Consecrated, March 19, 2001, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, and by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Ut unum sint. Member of the editorial board of the North American edition of the theological journal Rivista Internazionale Communio. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Québec on November 15, 2002; and took possession of the see on January 26, 2003. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2003, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was the relator general; elected member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, June 30, 2010. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Québec, June 30, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until taking up his duties at the Congregation for Bishops. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the baptism of Grand Chief Henri Membertou of the Mik'maq, which took place in Chapel Island, Nova Scotia, diocese of Antigonish, Canada, on August 1, 2010. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. Special papal envoy to the opening celebrations of the pilgrimage to the "Sacra Tunica" (Holy Robe), in the fifth centenary of the first public display of the same, which took place in the cathedral of Trier, Federal Republic of Germany, on April 13, 2012. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the 50th International Eucharistic Congress programmed for Dublin, Ireland, from June 10 to 17, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as prefect of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; and on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 724-725.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in French, archdiocese of Québec; photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Québec; and another picture of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Could he be the first Canadian pope? by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 04/29/2012; Classroom Exercises on Who Will Be the Next Pope by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, Rome, June 10, 2012; Cardinal Ouellet meets survivors of abuse at Irelands' famous pilgrimage site by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 06/13/2012; Cardinal Ouellet's Homily at the Closing Mass of the Eucharistic Congress, Zenit, the World seen from Rome, 2012-06-17; Cardinal Marc Ouellet, the man in charge of the world's bishops, Rome Reports, 2013-02-21 15:15:13.


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(228) 27. COTTIER, O.P., Georges Marie Martin
(1922-

Birth. April 25, 1922, Carouge (or Céligny), diocese of Lausanne (1), Switzerland, where the family had resided for three generations. His father, Louis, was a master watchmaker, as had been his grandfather, Emmanuel.

Education. Primary studies at Carouge. Attended collège in Genève, obtaining the classical maturity in 1941; then, studied at the Faculty of Letters at the University of Genève, obtaining a doctorate in classical letters in 1944. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in 1945; studied at the Pontifical Collegio S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, until 1952, obtaining a bachelor in philosophy and a doctorate in theology; in 1952, he returned to Genève, furthering his theological studies at the University of Genève; in 1959 he defended his doctoral dissertation "L'athéisme du jeune Marx et ses origines hégéliennes", at the Faculty of Letters of that university.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 2, 1951, Rome. In 1962, he became lecturer of philosophy at the Faculty of Letters, University of Genève. He participated as an expert at the Second Vatican Council, first as private expert of Charles de Provenchères, archbishop of Aix en Provence, France; and in the last session (1965), as an expert to the council, together with Cardinal Charles Journet. He was visiting professor at the University of Montréal in 1969; at the Institute Catholique de Paris from 1974 to 1975; at the Sacro Cuore University, Milan, from 1985 to 1986; and at the University of Padua in 1986. From 1973 until 1990, he was responsible of the courses of modern and contemporary philosophy at the University of Fribourg. Director of the Dominican Center of Genève. In the 1980s, he collaborated on numerous occasions with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Opposed to the theology of liberation, he had an active role in the preparation of the second document issued by the Vatican against such theological movement. Published in April 1986, the document expresses reservations concerning its conformity with the Church's tradition. Consultor of the Pontifical Council for the Dialog with Non-Believers; as such, participated in colloquies in Ljubljana, Budapest, Strassbourg and Moscow. He was also consultor to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and to the Pontifical Council for Culture. Member of the International Theological Commission in 1986; secretary general from March 1989 until October 2003. Theologian of the Pontifical Household, December 1989 until October 2003. Moved to Rome in 1990. Preached the spiritual exercises of Lent for the pope and the Roman Curia, March 1990. Honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, October 28, 1992. Director of the journal Nova et Vetera, founded by Cardinal Journet. Member of the Pontifical Academy of Science; of the Pontifical Academy "San Tommaso d'Aquino"; of the Pontifical Academy of Theology; of the Institute of Synthesis of the Görres Society of Germany; of the Foundation "Cardinal Journet" of Fribourg; of the Cercle Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, until 1990; and of the Committee for International Encounters of Genève. He was president of the historical-theological commission established by the Central Committee of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tullia, October 7, 2003. Consecrated on October 20, 2003, church of S. Sabina, Rome, by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, O.P., archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Bernard Genoud, bishop of Lausanne, Genève et Fribourg, and by Archbishop Paolo Sardi, titular archbishop of Sutri, nuncio with special charges. His episcopal motto is Veritas et misericordia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, October 21, 2003; reappointed, April 21, 2005; ceased, December 1, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Orden de Predicadores; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Talk given by His Eminence Cardinal Georges Marie Martin Cottier at the Round Table Presentation of the LEV publication. John Paul II. The Development of a Theology of Communication, February 4, 2009 in the Sala Marconi at Vatican Radio headquarters in Rome; Cottier: e iniziò un'era nuova by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire (Quelli del Concilio/1), 25 aprile 2012; Hacer algunas renuncias y aceptar los cambios que la Iglesia propone. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II. By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 09-07-2012; En su petición de perdón, el papa Juan Pablo II tuvo una gran intuición. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II (parte 2). By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 11-07-2012; Los papas Juan XXIII y Pablo VI dieron mensajes que dejaron atrás la doctrina de la guerra justa. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II (parte final). By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 13-07-2012; «Nei suoi gesti una profonda libertà spirituale», in Italian, L'Intervista, Avvenire, 22 marzo 2013.

(1) On October 17, 1924, the diocese of Lausanne was united to that of Fribourg, which had also the title of Genève since January 30, 1821.


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(229) 28. JOOS, Gustaaf
(1923-2004)

Birth. July 5, 1923, Sint-Niklaas, diocese of Gent, Belgium. The youngest of eight children, he had three brothers who were priests, one of whom was a missionary in Japan.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law, 1949). He became a friend of Karol Wojtyla, future Pope John Paul II, while both resided at the Belgian College in Rome between 1946 and 1948 (1).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 28, 1946, Gent. Vicar in Beveren-Waas, December 13, 1949. Professor in Aalst (Centre d' Information pour Brancardier Ecclesiastiques), September 5, 1951. Professor at the Major Seminary of Gent, July 3, 1959. Notary at the ecclesiastical tribunal of the diocese of Gent, August 8, 1959. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Gent, September 29, 1961; ordinary canon, September 22, 1967. Pastor in Landskouter, August 11, 1970 until his death. Judicial vice-vicar of the diocese of Gent, 1970; judicial vicar, November 5, 1984. Judge of the Interdiocesan Court of the Belgian Church, Amberes, February 1, 1994 until his death.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ieper, October 7, 2003. Consecrated, October 11, 2003, chapel of the bishopric of Gent, by Arthur Luysterman, bishop of Gent, assisted by Paul Van den Berghe, bishop of Antwerpen, and by Jozef De Kesel, titular bishop of Bulna, auxiliary of Malines-Brussels. His episcopal motto was Diliges me.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pier Damiani ai Monti di San Paolo, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. November 2, 2004, at his home adjacent to the rural parish of Landskouter, Oosterzele, which he led since 1970, when he fell ill after saying mass. His funeral mass was celebrated at the cathedral of Saint-Bavon de Gand on Friday November 12, at 11 a.m., by Luc Van Looy, bishop of Gent. In accordance to the cardinal's wishes, the final absolution was held in his parish church in Landskouter prior to the burial in the local cemetery (2).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At that time, young Father Joos was studying canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University, while Father Wojtyla was writing his doctoral thesis under the direction of Dominican Father Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange.
(2) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

D.O.M.
Gustaaf Kardinaal Joos
* Sint-Niklaas 5 juli 1923
+ Landskouter 2 november 2004
Pastoor van Landskouter
1970 - 2004
Kardinaal benoemd
2003


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(230) 29. ŠPIDLÍK, S.J., Tomáš
(1919-2010)

Birth. December 17, 1919, Boskovice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic).

Education. Studied at the University of Brno, Moravia, academic year 1938-1939 (philosophy); all universities in Czechoslovakia were closed by Germany on November 11, 1939. Entered the Society of Jesus; novitiate in Benesov near Prague, 1940; occupied by the Nazis in 1942, the novitiate was transferred to Velehrad, Moravia. Took religious vows, September 24, 1942; finished his philosophical studies in Velehrad, 1942-1945; studies interrupted at later times because of forced youth labor; after finishing his philosophical studies he was prefect of Velehrad's secondary school, 1945-1946, fulfilling the period called magister in the Society of Jesus; Czech and Russian languages. Sent to Maastricht, Holland, for his theological studies. Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome (doctorate, June 1955).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1949, Maastricht. Finished his third probation period as a Jesuit in Florence, 1950-1951. Called to Rome to ministry at Vatican radio in the programs broadcast to the countries behind the Iron Curtain, 1951. For thirty-eight years, spiritual director of the Pontifical Nepomuceno Seminary, the former Bohemian Seminary. Professor of patristic and Eastern spiritual theology at various universities in Rome and around the world from June 1955. In the academic year 1989-1990, he became a professor emeritus. In 1989 he was chosen "Man of the Year, 1990" by the American Bibliographical Institute of Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, and, a year later, the same institute chose him as "The most admired person of the decade". On July 26,1992, the city of Uh. Brod, Czechoslovakia, awarded him honorary citizenship. He was invited to Russia many times. In April 1994, on the occasion of the publication of his Russian Ideas, the city of Troyes, France, awarded him the medal of the city as a commemoration of honorary citizenship. In 1993, the Society of Byzantine Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, named him an honorary member. In the 1994-1995 academic year, he was named the first holder of the seat of Eastern Theology at the Pontifical Oriental Institute; the inaugural lecture, "The Person's Return to Eastern Spirituality", was held on November 14, 1994. He preached the Spiritual Exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia in March 1995, encouraging the pope to write the encyclical Ut Unum Sint on ecumenism. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, May 1997, as one of the greatest authorities on theology and Eastern spirituality; and in December 1997, he received another one from the theological department of the University of Olomouc, Czech Republic. In October 1998, Václav Havel, president of the Czech Republic, decorated him with the medal of the Order of Masaryk, one of the highest honors of the country. In May 1999, the University of Prague conferred on him a doctorate honoris causa. Consultor of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Consultor of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life. A prolific writer, he was an expert on the spirituality of Eastern Christianity (1).

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agata de' Goti, October 21, 2003. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Addressed the cardinals at the opening of the conclave in the Sistine Chapel, April 18, 2005.

Death. Friday April 16, 2010, at 9 p.m., in Centro Ezio Aletti, Rome, where he had resided since 1991. The Centro is attached to the Pontifical Oriental Institute. The body of the cardinal was exposed in the chapel of the Centro, via Paolina 25, until the evening of Monday April 19. The exequial mass took place on Tuesday April 20, at 11:30, in the papal basilica of Saint Peter at the Vatican, and was presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and concelebrated by nineteen other cardinals present. At the end of the ceremony, Pope Benedict XVI went to the basilica and addressed those present. The pontiff presided over the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. After the ceremony, the body of the late cardinal was transported to Velehrad, in Moravia, Czech Republic, a place particularly loved by him because its relation to the evangelization of Saints Cyril and Methodius, and because it is a crossroad of peoples and culture. Upon learning of the death of the cardinal, the pope prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, superior general of the Society of Jesus, order to which the late cardinal belonged. The body of the cardinal arrived in Olomouc in the evening of April 21, 2010. The body was exposed in the chapel of Loreto, in the metropolitan cathedral of St. Wenceslas, Olomouc. On April 29, at 6 p.m., a mass was celebrated in the cathedral. The last farewell to the deceased cardinal took place on Friday April 30, at 4 p.m., in a mass celebrated in the Basilica of the Assumption and St. Cyril and Methodius, in Velehrad. The pontifical requiem mass was presided over by Archbishop Jan Graupner of Olomouc. Then the remains of the late cardinal were buried in the Royal Chapel, in that basilica.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Lipaonline; photograph and biography, also in Italian, Centro Aletti; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is a list of some of his works, taken from his first biography in Italian, linked above: A due polmoni. Dalla memoria spirituale d'Europa, 1999; A partire dalla persona. Una teologia per la nuova evangelizzazione, 1994; L'arte di purificare il cuore, 1999; Il cammino dello Spirito, 1995; Conosci Cristo?. Attualità della sua Persona, 1997; Conosci il Padre?, 1998; Conosci lo Spirito?, 1997; La fede secondo le icone, with Marko Ivan Rupnik, 2000; L'idea russa. Un'altra visione dell'uomo, 1995; Lezioni sulla Divinoumanità 1995; La Madre di Dio, 2002; Narrativa dell'immagine, with Marko Ivan Rupnik, 1996; Noi nella Trinità, 2000; Pregare nel cuore. Iniziazione alla preghiera, 2006; La preghiera, secondo la tradizione dell'Oriente cristiano, 2002; Il professor Ulipispirus e altre storie, 2005; Lo starets Ignazio: un esempio di paternità spirituale, 2001; L' "uomo di Dio", 2003; Il vangelo delle feste. Riflessioni sul vangelo domenicale e festive, 2003; Il vangelo di ogni giorno. Riflessioni sul vangelo del tempo ordinario, 2001; La saggia civetta e le sue storie, 2004; Alle fonti dell'Europa. Miscellanea I, 2004; L'eucarestia farmaco di immortalità, 2005; Conosci il Padre, Cristo e lo Spirito?, 2005; "Sentire e gustare". Letture per gli Esercizi, 2006; In principio era l'arte: Alle Fonti dell'Europa. Miscellanea II, 2006; "Maranathà". La vita dopo la morte, 2007; Una conoscenza integrale. La via del simbolo, with Marco Ivan Rupnik, 2010.


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(231) 30. NAGY, S.C.I., Stanisław
(1921-2013)

Birth. September 30, 1921, Bieruń Stary, Wadowice, archdiocese of Kraków (now archdiocese of Katowice), Poland. His father was Hungarian and his mother was Polish. His baptismal name is Stanisław Kazimierz.

Education. Entered the Congregation of Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Dehonians), in Zgromadzenia, 1937; studied at the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, where he obtained the magisterium in 1948; and at the Catholic University of Lublin, where he earned a doctorate in 1952; specialized in moral theology and ecumenism.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1945, Kraków, by Bishop Stanisław Rospond, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Kraków. At the Catholic University of Lublin (1): professor; habilitacja, 1968; professor extraordinary, 1979; professor ordinary, 1985. Rector of the Minor Seminary of the Sacred Heart, Kraków, 1947-1950. Rector of the Major Seminary of the Sacred Heart, Tarnow, 1952-1958. Since 1958, director of conferences, Catholic University of Lublin. In 1970, named director of the newly created section of comparative theology and ecumenism. Director of the branch of fundamental ecclesiology, 1972-1991. Director of the department of theology, Catholic University of Lublin, 1972-1974. Professor at the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Wroclaw, 1973. Redactor of the section on ecumenism of the Encyklopedii Katolickiej and member of the editorial board of Roczników Teologicznych. Member of the Catholic-Lutheran Mixed Commission appointed by the Secretariat for Christian Union and the Lutheran Federation. Several times, president of the section of fundamental theology of the Commission of Studies of the Polish episcopate. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; as an assistant to the special secretary. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1991-1996. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; as an auditor. On September 28, 2003, received the medal of the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Wroclaw.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Hólar, October 7, 2003. Consecrated, October 13, 2003, Wawel cathedral basilica, Kraków, by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, assisted by Cardinal Marian Jaworski, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins, Ukraine, and by Józef Kowalczyk, titular archbishop of Eraclea, nuncio in Poland. His episcopal motto was In te Cor Jesu speravi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. June 5, 2013, in the morning, in the convent of the Priests of the Sacred Heart (Dehonians) in Kraków, ul. Saska 2 (Saska street 2). Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Nagy, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz a telegram of condolence (2). The funeral took place on June 11, 2013, at 11 a.m., in the Shrine of Blessed Pope John Paul II, next to the Shrine of the Divine Mercy, in Kraków, Poland, to where the body had been transported the day before. The mass was presided by Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz, archbishop of Warsaw; the homily was given by Archbishop Józef Michalik of Przemyśl, president of the Polish Bishops Conference. After the mass, the body of the late cardinal was placed in a sarcophagus in the crypt of that shrine, beside the sarcophagus of Cardinal Andrzej Maria Deskur, who died in 2011 (3). Taking part in the ceremony also were Cardinals Franciszek Marcharski, archbishop emeritus of Kraków; Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków; and Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, archbishop emeritus of Wrocław; the apostolic nuncio to Poland, Celestino Migliore, titular archbishop of Canosa; the auxiliary bishops of the archdiocese of Kraków; Józef Wróbel, S.C.I., titular bishop of Suas, auxiliary of Lublin; and other Polish bishops.

Links. His photograph and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Witnesses - Kardinal Stanisław Nagy, in Polish, You Tube.

(1) The future Pope John Paul II taught moral theology in that university.
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Signor Cardinale Stanisław Dziwisz
Arcivescovo di Cracovia

Nell'apprendere la notizia del decesso del venerato Cardinale Stanisław Nagy, desidero esprimere a Lei, all'intera comunità diocesana, ai familiari del benemerito Porporato e alla Congregazione dei Padri Dehoniani la mia sentita partecipazione al loro dolore pensando con affetto a questo caro Fratello che ha servito generosamente il Vangelo e la Chiesa, specialmente nel mondo accademico, quale apprezzato studioso ed esperto docente di discipline teologiche. Ricordo con gratitudine la sua feconda collaborazione, cordiale amicizia e reciproca stima con il Beato Giovanni Paolo II, come pure la sua intensa attivit` ecumenica. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne uomo di Chiesa nel gaudio e nella pace eterna, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica..

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.

(3) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

STANISŁAW KARDYNAŁ
NAGY
SERCANIN
30 IX 1921 · 5 VI 2013

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