The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

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Pope Benedict XVI (2005-
Consistory of February 18, 2012

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February 18, 2012 (IV)
(63) 1. Fernando Filoni, titular archbishop of Volturno, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.
(64) 2. Manuel Monteiro de Castro, titular archbishop of Benevento, penitentiary major.
(65) 3. Santos Abril y Castelló, archpriest of the papal Liberian basilica and vice camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
(66) 4. Antonio Maria Vegliò, titular archbishop of Eclano, president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples.
(67) 5. Giuseppe Bertello, titular archbishop of Urbisaglia, president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and of the Governorate of Vatican City State.
(68) 6. Francesco Coccopalmerio, titular archbishop of Celiana, president of the Pontifical Council for the Legislative Texts.
(69) 7. João Braz de Aviz, archbishop emeritus of Brasília, Brazil, prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life.
(70) 8. Edwin Frederick O'Brien, pro-grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.
(71) 9. Domenico Calcagno, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Savona-Noli, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See.
(72) 10. Giuseppe Versaldi, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Alessandria, Italy, president of the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
(73) 11. George Alencherry, archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro Malabars, India.
(74) 12. Thomas Christopher Collins, archbishop of Toronto, Canada.
(75) 13. Dominik Duka, O.P., archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic.
(76) 14. Willem Jacobus Eijk, archbishop of Utrecht, Holland.
(77) 15. Giuseppe Betori, archbishop of Florence, Italy.
(78) 16. Timothy Michael Dolan, archbishop of New York, United States of America.
(79) 17. Rainer Maria Woelki, archbishop of Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany.
(80) 18. John Tong Hon, bishop of Hong Kong, China.
(81) 19. Lucian Mureşan, archbishop major of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia of the Romanians, Romania.
(82) 20. Julien Ries, priest of the diocese of Namur and professor emeritus of religious history at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium.
(83) 21. Prosper Grech, O.S.A., professor emeritus of several Roman Universities and consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
(84) 22. Karl Josef Becker, S.J., professor emeritus of the Pontifical Gregorian University and for many years consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.


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(63) 1. FILONI, Fernando
(1946-

Birth. April 15, 1946, Manduria, diocese of Oria, Italy. Son of Salvatore Filoni, who served in a sector of the ministry of Finance, and Severina Baglivo, who were from Galatone (Lecce), a small city near Nardò, where Fernando spent his childhood until his entrance in the local minor seminary.

Education. Completed his ginnasiali studies at the Minor Seminary of Nardò; then, he attended the lyceun of the Regional Seminary Pio XI of Molfetta; and completed his philosophical and theological studies in the Major Seminary of Santa Maria della Quercia of Viterbo. After his priestly ordination, he went to study at the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome, where he first obtained a licentiate in dogmatic theology and later a doctorate in canon law; at the same time, he obtained a doctorate in philosophy at the State University La Sapienza, in Rome; and a diploma in science and technique of public opinion at the Libera Università Pro Deo, now Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali (LUISS), in Roma, with specialization in journalism. Besides his native Italian, he knows English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1970, in the Shrine of SS. Crocifisso, in Galatone, by Antonio Rosario Mennonna, bishop of Nardò. Incardinated in the diocese of Nardò. Further studies in Rome. From 1970 until 1978, he taught religion at the state lyceums Livona and Socrate in Roma; at the same time, he was vicar of the parish San Tito (now San Leonardo Murialdo) in Rome. In 1979, he was admitted to the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, the diplomatic school of the Holy See. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See on April 3, 1981. In May 1981, he was named attaché of the nunciature in Sri Lanka; and later, its secretary. Auditor and counselor of the nunciature in Iran, from 1983 to 1985. Worked in the Secretariat of State at the Vatican from 1985 to 1989. Counselor in the nunciature in Brazil from 1989 until 1992. Counselor in the nunciature in Philippines section of Hong Kong, from 1992 to 2001.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Volturno and appointed nuncio in Jordan and Iraq, January 17, 2001. Consecrated, March 19, 2001, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, and by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State. His episcopal motto is Lumen gentium Christus. He remained in Baghdad during the last two years of the regime of Saddam Hussein, during the war, and for three more years. Named nuncio in Philippines on February 25, 2006. Named substitute for the General Affairs of the Church of the Secretariat of State, June 9, 2007. Named prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples on May 10, 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio on that same day. Took possession of his deaconry on February 26, 2012. Named member of the Congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith, for Catholic Education, and for the Oriental Churches on April 21, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialog on October 27, 2012. Named named member of the Pontifical Council for the Legislative Texts on November 24, 2012. On December 7, 2012 he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Shrine of Our Lady of Good Health in Vailankanni, India, and the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Indian Episcopal Conference (C.C.B.I.), programmed for February 9 to 11, 2013. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On September 21, 2013, the pope confirmed him as prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. On September 28, 2013, the pope named him special papal envoy to the celebration of the Fourth American Missionary Congress (CAM 4) and the Ninth Latinamerican Missionary Congress (COMLA 9), programmed in Maracaibo, Venezuela, from November 26 to December 1, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Filoni: The (courageous) diplomat with a missionary vocation , Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Il prefetto delle Chiese 'giovani' by Gianni Valente, in Italian, 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012; Un rosario per tutto il mondo, intervista con il cardinale Fernando Filoni, prefetto della Congregazione per lEvangelizzazione dei Popoli, in Italian, 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012.


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(64) 2. MONTEIRO DE CASTRO, Manuel
(1936-

Birth. March 29, 1938, Santa Eufémia de Prazins, Guimarães, Portugal.

Education. Studied humanities, philosophy and theology in the Archdiocesan Seminaries of Braga; then, in 1961, after having received the priestly ordination, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in June 1967; at the same time, he obtained a diploma in diplomacy from the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome; and in February 1969, he became advocate in the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 9, 1961, at the cathedral of Braga, by António Bento Júnior, archbishop of Braga. Further studies in Rome. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1967. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 1, 1968. Secretary of the nunciatures in Panamá from 1967 to 1969. Secretary of the nunciature in Guatemala from 1969 until 1972, Secretary of the apostolic delegations in Việt Nam and Cambodia from 1972 until 1975. Secretary of the nunciature in Australia from 1975 to 1978. Secretary of the nunciature in México from 1978 to June 1981. Worked in the Vatican Secretariat of State from June to November 1981. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, July 1, 1981. Counselor of the nunciature in Belgium from 1981 until 1985.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Benevento and appointed pro-nuncio to Trinidad and Tobago, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Jamaica, Grenada, Saint Lucia; and apostolic delegate in The Antilles, with residence in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, February 16, 1985. Consecrated, March 23, 1985, at the basilica of Samheiro, Braga, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Eurico Dias Nogueira, archbishop of Braga, and by Júlio Tavares Rebimbas, archbishop-bishop of Porto. His episcopal motto is Mane nobiscum Domine. In 1985 he was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of Infante D. Henrique, granted by Prime Minister Mário Soares of Portugal. Named pro-nuncio to Antigua and Barbuda, April 25, 1987. Named nuncio to El Salvador and Honduras, August 21, 1990. Resigned the nunciature to Honduras, April 12, 1991. In 1993 he received the Gold Medal of the City of Guimarães. Named nuncio to South Africa, Nambia and Swaziland, February 2, 1998. Named nuncio to Lesotho, March 7, 1998. Named nuncio to Spain and Andorra, March 1, 2000. From 1997, he was permanent observer of the Holy See at the World Tourism Organization. In 2003 he was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Christ, granted by the minister of Foreign Affairs of Portugal. In March 2006, he was extraordinary envoy in special mission to the inauguration of the president of the Republic of Portugal, Professor Doctor Aníbal Cavaco Silva. Named secretary of the Congregation for Bishops on July 3, 2009. Named secretary of the College of Cardinals on October 21, 2009. Named penitentiary major on January 5, 2012. He has also been decorated as commander of the Order of King Leopold, Belgium; commander of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; with the great cross of the Order "Maías Delgado", El Salvador; grand cross of the Order of "Isabel la Católica", Spain; grand cross of the Order of Malta "Pro Piis Meritis"; and grand officer of the Order of "Stella della Solidarietà Italiana".

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Domenico di Guzman on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for the Causes of the Saints and for Bishops; and of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Migrants and Itinerants on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on April 22, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On September 21, 2013, the pope accepted his resignation presented because of age limit from the post of penitentiary major. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, Jornal O Conquistador; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Arladica Vaticana; D. Manuel Monteiro de Castro comemorou bodas de ouro sacerdotais, in Portuguese, YouTube; Bodas de Prata Episcopais de D. Manuel Monteiro de Castro , in Portuguese, YouTube; Monteiro De Castro: The confessor of the Holy See, Vatican Insider, 02/15/2012; Cardinal Monteiro de Castro: "The mission of the Apostolic Penitentiary is to judge and forgive", Rome Reports.


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(65) 3. ABRIL Y CASTELLÓ, Santos
(1935-

Birth. September 21, 1935, Alfambra, diocese of Teruel, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Teruel; in 1961, he went to Rome to study and obtained a doctorate in social sciences at S. S. Tommaso d'Aquino University; and a doctorate in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1960. Further studies in Rome, 1961-1967. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1967. He worked in the nunciatures in Pakistan and in Turkey; and later, in the Secretariat of State. In the 1980s, he headed the Spanish language section of the Secretariat of State and was professor of Spanish to Pope John Paul II, whom he accompanied in several trips to Spanish speaking countries.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tamada and appointed nuncio in Bolivia, April 29, 1985. Consecrated, June 16, 1985, at the cathedral of Teruel, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Gabino Díz Merchán, archbishop of Oviedo, and by Ramón Búa Otero, bishop of Tarazona and apostolic administrator of Teruel. His episcopal motto is Pro Ecclesia cum Petro. Named pro-nuncio in Cameroun, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea,.October 2, 1989. Named nuncio in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, February 24, 1996. Transferred to the nunciature in Argentina, March 4, 2000. In 2002, he received the highest decoration of Yugoslavia, the Order of the Star of Yugoslavia, first class. On April 9, 2003, he also became nuncio in Slovenia and in Bosnia e Hercegovina. In addition, on April 12, 2003, he was named nuncio in Macedonia. On January 22, 2011, he was named vice camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Named archpriest of the papal Liberian basilica, Rome, November 21, 2011. He received the Encomienda de primera clase y Placa of the Order of Isabel La Católica; the grand cross of Civil Merit of Germany; the grand cross of the Cóndor de los Andes of Bolivia; the grand cross of San Jorge of the Provincial Diputation of Teruel; and a street in his native town was named after him.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Ponziano on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for the Causes of the Saints; for the Evangelization of Peoples; and for Bishops on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on May 20, 2012. On July 28, 2012, the pope named him special papal envoy to the celebration of the 950th anniversary of the diocese of Sapë, Albania, which took place on September 29, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR). On March 4, 2014, the members of the Cardinals Commission overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (I.O.R.) nominated him their president.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Msgr. Santos Abril replaces Card. Bernard Law as Archpriest of St. Mary Major, Video, Rome Reports; Santos Abril takes possession of the Basilica of St. Mary Major in Rome, Video, Rome Reports; Abril y Castelló: The globetrotting diplomat is now Vice Camerlengo, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.


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(66) 4. VEGLIÒ, Antonio Maria
(1938-

Birth. February 3, 1938, Macerata Feltria, Italy. He grew up in the diocese of Pesaro.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Regional Seminary of Fano (liceali courses); obtained the diploma in maturità classica at Lyceum Mamiani of Pesaro, in 1957; went to Rome to study philosophy, theology and law at the Pontifical Lateran University, as student of the Major Roman Seminary, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy and theology; and a doctorate in canon law in June 1966. Later, from 1966 until 1968, he studied at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1962, at the cathedral of Pesaro, by Luigi Carlo Borromeo, bishop of Pesaro; incardinated in the diocese of Pesaro. Pastoral ministry in the parish of S. Maria di Loreto, in Pesaro. Further studies in Rome. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1968. Secretary at the nunciatures in Perú from 1968 until 1971; secretary at the nunciature in Philippines from 1971 until February 1975; and auditor at the nunciature in Sénégal from 1975 until May 1980. During four years, from 1980 until June 1984, he worked at the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. Then, in 1984 he was named counselor at the nunciature in Great Britain.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eclano and appointed pro-nuncio in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, July 27, 1985. Consecrated, October 6, 1985, at the cathedral della Assunzione, Pesaro, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Cardinal Achille Silvestrini, prefect of the Congregation for Oriental Churches, and by Gaetano Michetti, bishop of Pesaro. His episcopal motto is Adiuva me Domine. Pro-Nuncio in Sénégal, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, and apostolic delegate in Mauritania, October 21, 1989; he was also pro-nuncio in Mali from November 25, 1989. All the pro-nunciatures in which he was serving became nunciatures in December 1994. Nuncio in Kuwait from October 2, 1997 until December 13, 1999. Nuncio in Lebanon from October 2, 1997 until April 11, 2001. Apostolic delegate in the Arabian Peninsula from October 2, 1997. Named secretary of Congregation for the Oriental Churches, April 11, 2001. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples, February 28, 2009. In 2009, he organized the first European meeting of the pastoral care of the streets (users, street women, children, the homeless); the fourth World Congress of the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees; the meeting of the national directors of pastoral care for the circus and air workers; in 2010, the Second World Congress of pastoral pilgrimages and shrines; the continental meeting of Latin American migration; in 2011, the annual meeting of the regional coordinators of the apostolate of the sea, and the third World Congress of Pastoral Care for international students. He has intervened several times in the public debate in support of the rights of migrants, refugees, immigrants, displaced persons, or other persons disadvantaged because of their status in mobility. He has spoken out against piracy infesting the seas and has launched a campaign of solidarity with seafarers and their families affected by the tsunami in Japan. Promoted the update of the journal of the pontifical council "People on the Move"; and encouraged the creation of a web site of the council (www.pcmigrants.org), launched in September 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio on that same day.Named member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; for the Pontifical Council for the Laity; and of the Committee of Presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Family, April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on June 10, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On June 1, 2013, he was named member of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Vegliò: Diplomat and defender of refugees, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 02/20/2012.


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(67) 5. BERTELLO, Giuseppe
(1942-

Birth. October 1, 1942, Foglizzo, archdiocese of Turin, Italy.

Education. Obtained a licentiate in pastoral theology and a doctorate in canon law; studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, from 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1966, Ivrea, by Albino Mensa, bishop of Ivrea. Incardinated in the diocese of Ivrea. Further studies in Rome. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, February 1, 1971. He worked in the pontifical diplomatic representations as attaché in the apostolic delegation in the Region of the Red Sea, 1971 to 1973, and at the pro-nunciature in Sudan, also 1971 to 1973; secretary at the pro-nunciature in Turkey, 1973 to 1976; secretary at the nunciature in Venezuela, 1976 to 1981; and auditor in the Office of the Organization of the United Nations in Geneva, 1981 to 1987. Chaplain of His Holiness, February 9, 1976. In 1987, he headed the delegation of observers of the Holy See to the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries in Pyongyang, North Korea; he was the first Catholic priest to be able to visit the small Catholic community of that country, isolated since the Korean War.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Urbisaglia and named pro-nuncio in Ghana, Togo e Benin, October 17, 1987. Consecrated, November 28, 1987, at the parish church of Foglizzo, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Albino Mensa, archbishop of Vercelli, and by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea. His episcopal motto is Narrabo nomen tuum. Named nuncio in Rwanda, January 12, 1991; he worked tirelessly for a settlement of the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups and received from the Government of Rwanda a special recognition for the work of pacification that he carried out. In March 1995, he was named permanent Observer of Office of the United Nations and Specialized Institutions in Geneva, where he negotiated the ingress of the Holy See as permanent observer, in the World Trade Organization, becoming its first representative. In 2000, he guided the Vatican representation to the Tenth Conference of the United Nations on Commerce and Development (Unctad X), in Bangkok, Thailand. On December 27, 2000, he was named apostolic nuncio in México. On January 11, 2007, he was named apostolic nuncio in Italy and in the Republic of San Marino. On April 10, 2088, he was named knight of grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic. On September 3, 2011, he was named president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and of the Governorate of Vatican City State. He assumed the offices on October 1, 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for Bishops; for the Evangelization of the Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on June 17, 2012. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the foundation of the Sacred Hermitage of Camaldoli, Italy, which took place on June 19, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Bertello: Bertone's loyal globetrotter , in English, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.


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(68) 6. COCCOPALMERIO, Francesco
(1938-

Birth. March 6, 1938, San Giuliano Milanese, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Son of Alberto Coccopalmerio, from Scontrone, in Abruzzo, and Giuseppina Ceppi, from Sernio in Valtellina. He was baptized the following March 14.

Education. At the end of the academic year 1956-1967, he obtained the maturità classica at the state lyceum of Busto Arsizio (Varese); then, he studied at the Seminary of Milan, Vengono Inferiore, from 1957 to 1962; then, from 1962 to 1964, he studied at the Theological Faculty of Northern Italy, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1963; later, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, obtaining a doctorate in canon law in 1968, under the guidance of Father Wilhelm Bertrams, S.J., with the dissertation La partecipazione degli acattolici al culto della Chiesa cattolica nella pratica e nella dottrina della Santa Sede dallinizio del secolo XVII ai nostri giorni; and in 1970, a diploma in moral theology at the Alphonsianum, Redemptorist Institute of Higher Studies; in 1976, he obtained a doctorate in jurisprudence at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan, under the guidance of Professor Orio Giacchi. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks German.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1962, metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Ambrogio, Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan. Professor at the Minor Seminary of Masnago (Varese) from 1962 to 1963. Further studies in Rome. Successively, in the archdiocese of Milan he was adjunct at the Avvocatura Generale of the curia from 1966; and general advocate from 1980 until 1994. Professor of canon law at the Theological Faculty of Northern Italy from 1966 until 1999. From 1981, he was guest professor at the Faculty of Canon Law of the Pontifical Gregorian University. From 1985 he was pro-vicar general of the archdiocese of Milan.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Celiana and appointed auxiliary of Milan, April 8, 1993. Consecrated, May 22, 1993, cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., archbishop of Milan, assisted by Attilio Nicora, bishop of Verona, and by Giovanni Giudici, titular bishop of Usula, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto is Iustus ut plama florebit. He was episcopal vicar for Culture and Catholic Cultural Centers from 1993; president of the Diocesan Commission for Ecumenism and Dialog from 1988; episcopal vicar delegate for the following offices of the curia: Discipline of the Sacraments; Ecclesiastical Cultural Patrimony; Historical Archive from 1993; Regional Ecclesiastical Tribunal; archiepiscopal delegate to the Presbyteral Council and the Diocesan Pastoral from 1993. In the Italian Episcopal Conference, he was member of the Council for Juridical Affairs from 1993; and its president from 1999. From 1996, he was delegate of the Holy See for the Company of Saint Paul, a secular institute of pontifical right. Member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature from August 2000. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Legislative Texts and promoted to the rank of archbishop on February 15, 2007. Under his presidency, took place the celebration of the twenty-five years of the promulgation of the Code of Canon Law (1983-2008) and the twentieth anniversary of the entry into force of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (1990-2010). In 2008, he was named central consultant of the Union of Italian Catholic Jurists. He is founder, with the Jesuit Father Jean Beyer, of the journal Quaderni di Diritto Ecclesiale; and is the author of numerous scientific publications in which he mainly dealt with issues relating to the reflection on the identity of the law of the Church, the second book of the Code (in particular communion with Church and parish), communicatio in sacris and criminal law.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; and of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on April 26, 2012. On June 19, 2012, he was confirmed as president of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts until the age of 75. Papal delegate to the 718th anniversary of the Celestine Pardon, which took place in L'Aquila, Italy, from August 23 to 29, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 22, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Coccopalmerio: A lawyer in service of the Gospel , in English, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Coccopalmerio: «Con il Papa la Chiesa non ricade in errori passati», Vatican Insider, 5/04/2014.


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(69) 7. AVIZ, João Braz de
(1947-

Birth. April 24, 1947, Mafra, diocese of Joinville, Brazil. Son of João Avelino de Aviz e Juliana Hacke de Aviz. The family had eight children. His last name is also listed as Braz de Aviz.

Education. Entered the Minor Seminary "São Pio X", Assis, São Paulo, directed by the Fathers of the Pontifical Institute of the Foreign Missions (PIME), as a seminarian of the diocese of Londrina, on April 21, 1958; when the diocese of Apucarana was established on November 28, 1964, he became a seminarian of the new diocese, in which territory his family resided; he then attended the Major Seminary "Rainha dos Apóstolos", Curitiba, where he studied philosophy; and then he attended the Faculty of Palmas; later, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1967 to 1972, where he obtained a master's degree in theology; years later, he returned to Rome to continue his studies at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, from 1989 to 1992, obtaining a doctorate in dogmatic theology. Due to his views in favor of the theology of liberation, he almost abandoned seminary and the Church itself because of the ideological excesses that emerged in the early years of the movement.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 26, 1972, cathedral of Apucarana, by Bishop Romeu Alberti of Apucarana. Incardinated in the diocese of Apucarana. Pastoral ministry in several parishes of Apucarana, 1972-1984 (1). Spiritual director of the Seminary of Ipiranga. Rector of the Major Seminary of Apucarana, 1984-1985. Rector of the Major Seminary of Londrina, 1986-1988. Further studies in Rome, 1989-1992. Pastor of the cathedral "Nossa Senhora de Lourdes", Apucarana; and professor of dogmatic theology at the Theological Seminary "Pablo VI", Londrina, 1992-1994. In the diocese of Apucarana he was member of the presbyteral council and of the college of consultors as well as coordinator general of the diocesan pastoral..

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Flenucleta and appointed auxiliary of Vitória, April 6, 1994. Consecrated, May 31, 1994, cathedral of Nossa Senhora de Lourdes, Apucarana, by Domingos Gabriel Wisniewski, bishop of Apucarana, assisted by Silvestre Luis Scandian, archbishop of Vitória, and by Acácio Rodrigues Alves, bishop of Palmares. Transferred to the see of Ponta Grossa, August 12, 1998; took possession on October 15, 1999. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Maringa, July 17, 2002. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2003 at the papal Vatican basilica. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Brasília, January 28, 2004. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2005 at the papal Vatican basilica. He made numerous parochial visits and actively participated in the meetings of the vicariates; he also paid special attention to the apostolate for young people. In May 2010 he organized the 16th National Eucharistic Congress in coincidence with the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the archdiocese and of the city of Brasília. Named prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, January 4, 2011; on that same day, he became archbishop emeritus of Brasília and apostolic administrator of that see until the appointment of his successor.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Elena fuori Porta Prenestina on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for the Clergy; and for Catholic Education; and of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on May 20, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. He was confirmed as prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, arquidiocese de Brasilía; biography, in Portuguese, - Faculdade de Educação - UNICAMP; photograph and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; Teología de la liberación casi me hace dejar sacerdocio, dice Prefecto vaticano para vida consagrada, ACI, 03 Feb. 11 / 02:38 am; João Bráz de Aviz: The Liberation theologian receives the red biretta by Alessandro Speciale, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; João Braz de Aviz: A Brazilian at the service of a universal Church , Vatican Insider, 03/ 7/2012; Cardinal Joao Braz de Aviz, the Brazilian candidate that survived a shooting, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-25 13:19:36.

(1) As a young priest, he was once on his way to a village to say mass when he stumbled upon an armored car robbery. He was shot during the crossfire, with 130 pellets perforating his lungs and intestines and one eye. Although he survived and surgeons were able to save his eye, he still has fragments of those bullets in his body.


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(70) 8. O'BRIEN, Edwin Frederick
(1939-

Birth. April 8, 1939, Bronx, New York, United States of America. Eldest of the three children of Edwin Frederick, Sr., and Mary Winifred O'Brien. The other two siblings were Kenneth and Tom, both deceased. He lost his father at fourteen. As his mother worked as a secretary and journal distributor, Edwin and his siblings were raised by a Jewish couple. When his mother remarried, they moved to Westchester County.

Education. He finished his elementary education at Our Lady of Solace School in 1953; he then studied at St. Mary's High School in Katonah, 1953 to 1957; he entered St. Joseph's Seminary in Yonkers, and obtained a bachelor of arts in 1961; a master of Divinity in 1964; and a master of arts in 1965; in 1976, he obtained a doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Angelicum, Rome (dissertation: "The origin and development of moral principles in the theology of Paul Ramsey", Angelicum U. Press, 1976); while in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical North American College.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1965, metropolitan cathedral of St. Patrick, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Incardinated in the archdiocese of New York. His first pastoral assignment was as a civilian chaplain at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Later, he was commissioned to become a military chaplain; and in 1970, he officially became an army chaplain with the rank of captain, serving with the 82nd Airborne Division. From 1971 to 1972, he served a tour of duty in Vietnam with the 173rd Airborne Brigade and the 1st Cavalry Brigade. From a base of operations in the middle of a jungle, he and a Protestant minister flew by helicopter to defensive outposts where they would provide for the spiritual needs of the soldiers. In 1973, he left the military and began his doctoral studies in Rome, which he completed in 1976. He returned to New York and was named vice-chancellor for the archdiocese and associate pastor at St. Patrick's cathedral. In 1979, he coordinated the visit of Pope John Paul II to New York; and for two years served as communications director of the archdiocese. He was rector of St. Joseph's Seminary from 1985 to 1989; and from 1994 to 1997. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, March 17, 1986. From 1990 to 1994, he served as rector of the Pontifical North American College in Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tizica and appointed auxiliary bishop of New York, February 6, 1996. Consecrated, March 25, 1996, metropolitan cathedral of St. Patrick, by Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor, archbishop of New York, assisted by Patrick Joseph Thomas Sheridan, titular bishop of Cursola, auxiliary of New York, and by John Gavin Nolan, titular bishop of Natchez, auxiliary of New York. His episcopal motto is Pastores dabo vobis. Named coadjutor of the Military Ordinariate of the United States of America and promoted to the rank of archbishop, April 8, 1997. Succeeded to the ordinariate, August 12, 1997. Resigned the titular see of Tizica, March 7, 1998. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, July 12, 2007, becoming its fifteenth archbishop. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2008, at the papal Vatican basilica. Named pro-grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem on August 29, 2011. Apostolic administrator of the see of Baltimore until the installation of his successor Bishop William Edward Lori of Connecticut on May 16, 2012.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino on that same day. Named grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem on March 15, 2012. Named member of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches; and for Catholic Education; and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on October 25, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; O'Brien's opportunity with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre by John L. Allen, Jr, National Catholic Reporer, August 29, 2011; O'Brien: A man of formation and testimony by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Cardinal Edwin O'Brien: "Christians of the Holy Land, feel themselves limited in so many ways', Rome Reports, 2012-07-19 18:13:52; Meet the Cardinal who served in Vietnam, Rome Reports, 2012-08-03 15:44:15.


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(71) 9. CALCAGNO, Domenico
(1943-

Birth. February 3, 1943, parish of Natività di Maria in Tramontana, Parodi Ligure, province of Alessandria, archdiocese of Genoa, Italy. From a peasant family. He was baptized four days later in that parish.

Education. After his initial studies at the elementary school of Tramontana, on October 10, 1954,after the death of his father, he entered the Minor Seminary of Genoa, thanks to the support of the local priest, Don Giovanni Conti; successively, he studied at the lyceum of the Major Seminary of Genoa, where he obtained the diploma Lyceum "Cristoforo Colombo" of Genova in 1962; he had a definte missionary vocation, which was opposed however not only by his mother but also by Cardinal Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa, who in fact sent him to study in Rome; on October 15, 1962, he entered the Lombardian Pontifical Seminary in Rome, studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University; after one year, he obtained a bachelor in philosophy; and after five years, the doctorate in Sacred Theology, magna cum laude, with a thesis on the original sin in Erasmus of Rotterdam, in relation with the Council of Trent (1).

Priesthood. Ordained, February 25, 1967, at the chapel of the Major Seminary of Genoa, by Cardinal Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa. After finishing his studies at Seminario Lombardo, he returned to Genoa in 1968. Named vice-pastor of Uscio; and at the same time, professor of Salms, Books of Wisdom, and Hebrew language at the Major Seminary of Genoa. From 1969 until 1989, he was named rector of the Oratory of S. Erasmo, Genoa QuintoI, continuing his teaching at the seminary in moral philosophy, natural theology, introduction to theology and fundamental moral theology. During the period of adaptation of the curriculum of the Seminary of Genoa to that of the Theological Faculty of Northern Italy, of which the Seminary of Genoa became a section, he left the teaching of philosophy and taught fundamental theology and dogmatic theology. For many years he was secretary of the Presbyteral Council of the archdiocese of Genoa. After the promulgation of the new Code of Canon Law, he was part of the working group that studied the adaptation of diocesan structures to the regulations of the new code. From 1980 to 1985, he taught fundamental moral theology at the Interdiocesan Theological Study in Alessandria. In 1985, he was charged with coordinating the organization of the visit of Pope John Paul II to Genoa. Because of his success in that charge, at the request of Cardinal Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa, the pope named Father Calcagno prelate of honor of His Holiness on November 8, 1985. In that same year, he was elected by the Diocesan Presbyteral Council member of the Administrative Council; and in addition, Cardinal Siri named him president of the D.S.C. At this time, he also consolidated and restructured the Oratory of S. Erasmo, a national monument. He was member of the Diocesan Commission fo the Doctrine of the Faith and episcopal vicar for the new activities with Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, archbishop of Genoa. Then, he was transferred to Rome to take over new national charges. At the national level, he has been member of the Italian Presbyteral Commission from 1975 to 1980; and its secretary from 1981 to 1992. In Rome, he was director of the National Office for the Missionary Cooperation between the Churches from 1989 to 1996. From 1996 until 1998, he was president of the Central Institute for the Soustenance of the Clergy. From the end of 1998 to March 2002, he was economous of the Italian Episcopal Conference and president of Collegio dei Conti of the Institute for the Soustenance of the Clergy. More recently, he has been president of the Collegio dei Revisori dei Conti of Italian Caritas; counselor to the administration of Libreria Editrice Vaticana; and member Council for the Economic Affairs of the Italian Episcopal Conference. He also taught an annual monographic course of eschatology at the Pontifical Urbanian University for ten years.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Savona-Noli, January 25, 2002. Consecrated, March 9, 2002, cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, archbishop emeritus of Genoa, and by Paolo Romeo, titular archbishop of Vulturia, nuncio in Italy. Named secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, August 31, 2007 and elevated to the rank of archbishop. Named president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, July 7, 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of Annunciazione della Beata Vergine Maria a Via Ardeatina on that same day. On April 21, 2012, he was named member of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City; of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Workers on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his deaconry on May 27, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; Calcagno, from school of Siri to the Roman Curia, Vatican Insider, 02/15/2012.

(1) One part of the thesis was published in the Serie minore of the collection that the Pontifical Lombardina Seminary published with Casa editrice Morcelliana, under the title "L'uomo decaduto e redento in Erasmo da Rotterdam".


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(72) 10. VERSALDI, Giuseppe
(1943-

Birth. July 30, 1943, Villarboit, archdiocese of Vercelli, Italy. He has a sister, Cesarina. His maternal uncle, Father Maggiorino Carenzo, was the parish priest of Montarolo, province of Turin, Italy.

Education. He entered the Seminary of Moncrivello, Vercelli, at eleven years of age; later, in 1972, after ordination, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a licentiate in psychology and a doctorate in canon law. In 1981, he obtained the title of advocate at the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1967, by Albino Mensa, archbishop of Vercelli. Vicar of the parish of Santissimo Salvatore in Vercelli. For two years he was responsible for the lyceal community of the Seminary of Vercelli. Further studies in Rome, from 1972 until 1976, when he returned to Vercelli and was given the charge of founding the Diocesan Consultory for the Family, of which he became the director. Successively, he was president of the Piedmontese Regional Federation of Consultants of Christian Inspiration. At the beginning of 1977, he was named pastor of the parish of Larizzate, in the city of Vercelli. In 1980 he was sent to teach canon law and psychology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, partially maintaining his activities in the archdiocese of Vercelli. Named referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in 1985; voter in 1990; and member in 2007; and also professor of anthropology at the Studio of the Sacred Roman Rota. On March 25, 1994, Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., of Vercelli, named him vicar general of the archdiocese, in which post was confirmed by the new Archbishop Enrico Masseroni. Named president, representing the archbishop, of the Foundation of the Museum of the Treasury of the Duomo and of the Capitular Archive; also, member of the organ of direction of the Foundation Cassa di Risparmio di Vercelli.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alessandria, April 4, 2007. Consecrated, May 26, 2007, in the cathedral of Vercelli, by Enrico Masseroni, archbishop of Vercelli, assisted by Fernando Charrier, bishop emeritus of Alessandria, and Natalino Pescarolo, bishop emeritus of Cuneo. His episcopal motto is Christi minister. He was installed on the following June 10. Member of the Council for Juridical Affairs of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Director of the Osservatorio giuridico-legislativo of the Episcopal Conference of Piedmont-Valle d'Aosta; and ecclesiastical assistant to the Association of Catholic Physicians of the Region of Piedmont. Named apostolic visitor to the Legionaires of Christ, June 27, 2009. Named president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See and promoted to the dignity of archbishop, September 21, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of Alessandria until the appointment of his successor. He has written numerous articles and books on matrimony.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio on that same day. Named honorary citizen of Alessandria in March 2012. Appointed member of the Congregations for Bishops; and for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life; and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature on April 21, 2012. Took possession of deaconry on June 15, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". On February 18, 2013, he was appointed papal delegate to the Congregation of the Sons of the Immaculate Conception. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Versaldi: From the rice fields of Vercelli to the Holy See, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.


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(73) 11. ALENCHERRY, George
(1945-

Birth. April 19, 1945, parish of Thuruthy, in Kottayam, archiepiscopal of Changanacherry (Changanassery) of the Syro-Malabars, India. He is the sixth of the ten children of Philipose and Mary Alencherry; two of his brothers, Jose and Francis, S.D.B., are priests; and a sister, Cherupushpam, S.A.B.S., is a nun. His parents were farmers. At baptism, he was given the name Geevarghese. As his elder brothers had already entered priesthood, his father did not allow that George would enter seminary due to financial difficulties. He was only able to pursue his studies thanks to Archbishop Mathew Kavukattu of Changanassery of the Syro-Malabars, who personally covered the expenses of his education.

Education. He did his primary studies at Saint Mary's School, in Thuruthy; and secondary studies at Saint Berchman's High School, in Changanacherry; in 1961, he entered the Archdiocesan Minor Seminary at Parel, Changanacherry; while at the minor seminary, he obtained his bachelors in economics with second rank from Saint Berchman's College. Studied at the University of Kerala, where in 1965, he obtained a bachelors of arts in economics; then, he was sent to Saint Joseph's Pontifical Seminary, Aluva, where he studied philosophy and theology; later, after his priestly ordination, he obtained a masters in theology at the Pontifical Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Alwaye; he also earned a Higher Diploma in Bible Studies (DSEB) and a doctorate in theology conjointly from La Sorbonne University and the Institut Catholique de Paris, France, in 1986. He is proficient in Malayalam, Tamil, English and French.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 19, 1972, by Antony Padiyara, archbishop of Chanagancherry, in Saint Mary's church, Thuruthy. He was incardinated in the archdiocese of Changanacherry. While pursuing higher studies at Aluva, he served as vicar of the church of Periyarmugham, archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly. After finishing his studies in Aluva, he was named assistant vicar of the cathedral church of Changanacherry as well as director of the Archdiocesan Faith Formation department. Then, he served from 1976 to 1978 as secretary of the Commission for Catechism of the Kerala Catholic Bishops' Council (KCBC). In 1978, he was sent to Paris for higher studies. He returned to India in 1986 and was named deputy secretary of Kerala Catholic Bishops Conference, occupying the post until 1993; concurrently, from 1986 to 1991, he was the director of the Pastoral Orientation Center at Palarivattam; and simultaneously, from 1986 to 1997, he was professor at Saint Thomas Apostolic Seminary, Vadavathoor, Kottayam; from 1994 to 1997, he was protosyncellus of the archdiocese of Changanacherry.

Episcopate. Elected first eparch of Thuckalay of the Syro-Malbars, November 11, 1996. Consecrated, February 2, 1997, in Padanthalummoodu, India, by Joseph Powathil, archbishop of Changanacherry, assisted by Lawrence Ephraem Thottam, bishop of Marthandom, and by Matthew Vattackuzhy, bishop of Kanjirapally. He was installed on the same day. His episcopal motto is Service in dialog of truth and love. Elected archbishop major of Ernakulam-Changanacherry by the Syro-Malabar Synod held at Mount St. Thomas, Kochi, on May 24, 2011. Pope Benedict XVI confirmed the election on May 25, 2011. He was installed on Friday May 27, in the afternoon, at a solemn mass at St. Mary's cathedral basilica, in the presence of Salvatore Pennacchio, titular archbishop of Montemarana, nuncio to India. He has served as secretary of the Synod of Bishops and chairman of the Syro-Malabar Major Archiepiscopal Commission for Catechism. He has also served as chairman of the Commission for Laity of the catholic Bishops' Conference of India (CBCI). He has written the book "Morality Today and Tomorrow" in Malayalam as well as numerous articles on various topics in English and Malayalam.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme Diocleziane on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for the Doctrine of the Faith and for the Oriental Churches on April 21, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Took possession of his title on October 14, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in English, The Syro-Malabar Church Internet Mission; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; George Alencherry is Major Archbishop, in English, The Hindu, Online edition of India's National Newspaper, Friday, May 27, 2011; Mar George Alencherry consecrated as Cardinal , video, YouTube.


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(74) 12. COLLINS, Thomas Christopher
(1947-

Birth. January 16, 1947, Guelph, Ontario. Son of George Collins, circulation manager of the newspaper "Guelph Mercury", and his wife, who was a legal secretary. He is the only son and the youngest of three siblings. His childhood home was situated on Durham Street, behind Our Lady Immaculate church, where he attended and served morning mass.

Education. He received his first education at St. Stanislaw's Elementary School in Guelph, after having already taught himself to read before he began the first grade; then, he did his econdary studies at Bishop Macdonnell Catholic High School; he the attended St. Jerome's College, Waterloo, Ontario, where he obtained a bachelor of arts in English, in 1969; then he went to St. Peter's Seminary, London, Ontario, obtaining a bachelor of theology in 1973; and the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, obtaining a master of arts degree in English, also in 1973); he received the diaconate: May 14, 1972; sent to study in Rome at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, he obtained a licentiate in Sacred Scripture in 1978; and a doctorate in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, in 1986 (dissertation: Apocalypse 22:6-21 as the Focal Point of Moral Teaching and Exhortation in the Apocalypse, Director: Rev. Ugo Vanni, S.J.).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 5, 1973, in the cathedral of Christ the King, Hamilton, by Paul Reding, bishop of Hamilton. Associate pastor, Holy Rosary Parish, Burlington, Ontario, 1973 ; associate pastor, Christ the King Cathedral, Hamilton, Ontario; teacher and chaplain, Cathedral Boys' High School, Hamilton, Ontario; lecturer, Department of English, King's College, University of Western Ontario, 1978. At St. Peter's Seminary, London, Ontario, he was lecturer in Sacred Scriptures, 1978; group leader and spiritual director, 1983; associate professor of Scripture, 1985; associate editor, Discover the Bible, 1989; dean of Theology Department, 1993; vice-rector; and rector, 1995 until 1997.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Saint Paul in Alberta, March 25, 1997. Consecrated, May 14, 1997, at the cathedral Christ the King, Hamilton, by Anthony Frederick Tonnos, bishop of Hamilton, assisted by Raymond Roy, bishop of Saint Paul in Alberta, and by John Michael Sherlock, bishop of London. His episcopal motto is Deum adora. Succeeded to the see of Saint Paul in Alberta, June 30, 1997; installed, June 30, 1997. Member of the National Commission of Theology, Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops (CCCB), 1997. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Edmonton, February 18, 1999. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Edmonton, June 7, 1999; installed, June 7, 1999. From 1999 to 2007, he was president of the Alberta Conference of Catholic Bishops; chairman of the Newman Theological College Board of Governors, Edmonton; chairman of the St. Joseph's College Board of Governors, University of Alberta, Edmonton; member of the Board of Directors, Caritas Health Group, Edmonton; and member of the Board of Directors, Alberta Catholic Health Corporation. Chairman of the National Commission of Theology, CCCB, 1999 to 2001. Member of CCCB Permanent Council, 1999 to 2003. Member of the Organizing Committee of World Youth Day 2002 in Toronto, Canada, 2000 to 2002. Apostolic administrator of Saint Paul, Alberta, March 26, 2001 until November 9, 2001. Chairman of the National Commission on Christian Unity, CCCB, 2001 to 2003. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Toronto, December 16, 2006; installed, January 30, 2007. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2007 at the papal Vatican basilica. In 2007 he became the chancellor of the University of St. Michael's College and of the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, in Toronto. He is the chair of the Board of Governors of St. Augustine's Seminary, and the chair of the Board of Directors of Redemptoris Mater Missionary Seminary; of the Catholic Charities and of the Catholic Cemeteries. In 2008, he was elected president of the Ontario Conference of Catholic Bishops. He has authored numerous publications, pastoral letters and reflections.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Patrizio on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education and of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on October 23, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR).

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Interview with Cardinal-Elect Tom Collins , video, YouTube; Martyrdom and the cardinalate , video, YouTube; Cardinal Collins receives biretta and ring, video, YouTube; Collins: The biblicist inspired by Carlo Maria Martini, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Cardinal Thomas Collins, leader of Canada's largest diocese, Rome Reports, 2013-02-20 14:20:22; Human and Divine: Cardinal Collins on preparing for Conclave, Vatican Radio, 2013-03-04 17:12:23; Canadian Cardinal Thomas Collins is still undecided on who to vote for, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-05 17:07:59.


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(75) 13. DUKA, O.P., Dominik
(1943-

Birth. April 26, 1943, Hradec Králové, East Bohemia, Czech Republic (then Czechoslovakia). His father was a soldier. His baptismal name was Jaroslav.

Education. After graduating from the gymnasium J. K. Tyla in 1960, he tried to study theology but it was prohibited because of political reasons. He worked from 1960 to 1962 in the factory "ZVU Hradec" and learned mechanics. From 1962 to 1964 he completed his military service and returned then to his work place. In 1965, after a long delay on appeals he was allowed to study philosophy and theology at the Theological Faculty Sts. Cyril and Methodius in Litoměřice. On January 5, 1968, he secretly entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) and took the name Dominik; made his temporary profession on January 6, 1969; in 1979 he obtained a licentiate in theology from the Pontifical Theological Faculty "Saint John the Baptist" in Warsaw, Poland.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 22, 1970, by Stepán Trochta, bishop of Litoměřice, and at that time Cardinal in pectore. For five years, he worked in the parishes of Chlum, Jáchymov and Nové Mitrovice (then archdiocese of Prague, now diocese of Plzeň). On January 7, 1972, he made the solemn profession in the Order of Preachers. In 1975, after wearing his religious garb in public, he was deprived of the state authorization to exercise his priestly ministry and destined for almost fifteen years, until the end of 1989, to work at the factory Škoda of Plzeń as designer. During that time, he worked secretly in his order as vicar provincial (1975 to 1986) and master of the novices (1976-1981). For his activity in the Dominican order and secretly publishing of books (so-called "samizdat"), he was arrested in 1981-1982 and imprisoned in Plzeń-Bory; in prison, he became a friend of Vaclav Havel, future president of the Czech Republic. From 1986 to 1998, he was provincial of the Dominicans in Bohemia and Moravia. After the fall of Communism, he was elected president of the Federal Conference of Superiors Major. From 1990 to 1998, he was member of the Accreditation Commission of the Czech Government. He taught biblical sciences at the Sts. Cyril and Methodius' Faculty of Theology of the Palacky University in Olomouc. From 1992 until 1996, he was vice-president of the European Union of Superiors Major.

Episcopate, Elected bishop of Hradec Králové, June 6, 1998. Consecrated, September 26, 1998, cathedral of the Holy Spirit in Hradec Králové, by Karel Otcenášek, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Hradec Králové, assisted by Cardinal Miloslav Vlk, archbishop of Prague, and by Giovanni Coppa, titular archbishop of Serta, nuncio in the Czech Republic. His episcopal motto is In Spiritu veritate. On October 28, 2001, he was awarded the First Grade Medal of Merit for the Czech Republic by the country's president. On June 2, 2003, he was awarded the Second Grade Cross of Merit by the minister of Defense of the Czech Republic. Beside leading the diocese of Hradec Králové, he was apostolic administrator of Litoměřice, Czech Republic, November 6, 2004 until October 4, 2008. On June 20, 2007, he was awarded the Grand Cross "Pro Piis Meritis" of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. On June 3, 2008, he received the First Grade Cross of Merit from the minister of Defense of the Czech Republic. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Prague, February 13, 2010; installed, the following April 10. After having served as vice-president from 2000 to 2004, he was elected president of the Czech Bishops Conference on April 21, 2010. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2011, at the papal Vatican basilica. He is member of the Ethical Forum of the Czech Republic; member of the Scientific Board of the Catholic Theological Faculty of the Charles University in Prague; of the Technical University in Liberec; of the University of Hradec Králové; and of the Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University in Hradec Králové. He is president of the Executive Council of the Czech Catholic Biblical Institute; member of the Center for Biblical Studies at the Evangelical Theological Faculty of the Charles University in Prague; member of the Confederation of the prisoners of State; editor-in-chief of the Salve - revue for theology, culture and spiritual life; member of the International Catholic Review Communio; and honorary president of the "Rodina sv. Zdislavy". He is a prolific writer (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life and of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on November 25, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Czech, archdiocese of Prague; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Duka: From dissent to the moral reconstruction of the Czech Republic, in English, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.

(1) Among his numerous books are: Zapas o cloveka ("Struggle for a Man"); Uvod do studia Pisma svateho ("Introduction to the Biblical Studies"); Skola vnitrni modlitby ("School of Interior Prayer"); and Uvod do teologie ("Introduction to the Theology"). His participation and 30-year-long organization of the translation of the Jerusalem Bible to Czech, published in 2009, is of great significance. During the Communist regime he secretly published studies in the "samizdat"; and articles in Sursum. He now publishes in Salve - revue for theology, culture and spiritual life; and in Monitor; he is also an author of tens of articles in Czech as well as in foreign books, magazines and newspapers.


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(76) 14. EIJK, Willem Jacobus
(1953-

Birth. June 22, 1953, Duivendrecht, diocese of Haarlem, The Netherlands.

Education. After having studied medicine and obtaining a doctorate at the University of Amsterdam, he entered the Major Seminary of Roermond, in Rolduc te Kerkrade, where he studied philosophy and theology. Received the diaconate on September 15, 1984, from Joannes Baptist Matthijs Gijsen, bishop of Roermond in that major seminary. From 1985 to 1987, he finished his courses in medicine, obtaining a doctorate at the University of Leiden. He went to Rome and in 1989, he obtained a doctorate in moral philosophy at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino; in 1990, the licentiate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 1, 1985, in the cathedral of St.-Christoffel, Roermond, by Joannes Baptist Matthijs Gijsen, bishop of Roermond. From 1990, he taught moral theology at the Major Seminaries of Rolduc and of 's-Hertogenbosch; at the same time, he was prefect of studies at Rolduc. From 1994 to 1995, he was president of the Institute "Mater Ecclesiae Domesticae" (MEDO), Rolduc, for studies on the family. From 1996 until 1999, he was first docente and then professor of moral theology at the Theological Faculty of Lugano, Switzerland; at the same time, he continued teaching at the Major Seminary of Rolduc. From 1997 to 1999, he was a member of the International Theological Commission.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Groningen-Leeuwarden, July 17, 1999. Consecrated, November 6, 1999, at the cathedral of Saint Joseph and Saint Martin, Groningen, by Cardinal Adrianus Johannes Simonis, archbishop of Utrecht, assisted by Franciscus Jozef Maria Wiertz, bishop of Roermond, and by Sergio Lasam Utleg, bishop of Laoag. His episcopal motto is Noli recusare laborem. Counselor of the Pontifical Academy for Life. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Utrecht, December 11, 2007. He was installed in the metropolitan cathedral of St. Catherine of Utrecht on January 26, 2008. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2008, at the papal Vatican basilica. Elected president of the episcopal conference of the Netherlands in 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Callisto on that same day. Named member of the Congregations for the Clergy and for Catholic Education on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on May 17, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography (2007), in Dutch, katholieknederland, RKK; photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(77) 15. BETORI, Giuseppe
(1947-

Birth. February 25, 1947, Foligno, Italy. Second of the four children of Antonio Betori, a teacher, and Lina Martelloni, who were active members of the Catholic Action of Foligno.

Education. He attended the middle school and the gymnasium of the Episcopal Seminary of Foligno; and the lyceum of the Regional Seminary Umbro in Assisi; then, he was sent to study theology Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, as a student at the Pontifical Lombard Seminary, where he obtained a license in theology in 1970; later, after his priestly ordination, he completed his postgraduate studies in Sacred Scripture at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, as a student of Collegio of S. Apollinare, earning a doctorate in Sacred Scriptures, summa cum laude, in January 1981, with the dissertation "Perseguitati a causa del Nome. Struttura dei racconti di persecuzione in Atti 1,12-8, 4" (published in that same year by the Institute "Analecta Biblica"); the relator was Father Dionisio Mínguez and the co-relator was Father Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 26, 1970, by Siro Silvestri, bishop of Foligno. Incardinated in the diocese of Foligno. From 1970 until 1991, he was member of the Presbyteral Council of the diocese of Foligno. Further studies in Rome. Diocesan Assistant of the Catholic Action from October 1973 to September 1979. From September 1977 to September 1991, he was member of the secretariat of the Umbrian Regional Center for the Pastoral; and its director from March 1981 to June 1985. Director of the School of Theological Formation of Foligno from 1980 to 1991. In 1980, he was named ordinary member of Accademia Fulginia. Professor of fundamental theology, Biblical science and exegesis of the New Testament at the Theological Institute of Assisi its director from 1982 to 1987. Simultaneously, parish priest of S. Michele Arcangelo in Cave, outskirts of Foligno, from August 1973 until January 1984. From December 1982, he was ecclesiastical assistant of the Center for Youth Pastoral "Istituto S. Carlo" of Foligno. He was canon of the chapter of the cathedral of S. Feliciano of Foligno from February 1984 to May 2001. From 1984 to 1991, he was member of Collegio dei consultori of the diocese of Foligno as well as member of Pastoral Council; and its secretary from December 1985 until September 1991. He was secretary general of the Diocesan Synod of Foligno, celebrated by Bishop Giovanni Benedetti from January 1986 to May 1991; he was a close collaborator of the bishop. From 1986 until 1991, he was member of the committee of the Italian Conference of Bishops (CEI) for the institutes of religious science. From October 1988 until September 1991, he was professor of Sacred Scriptures at the Superior Institute of Religious Science of Assisi. Director of the Regional Center for Pastoral. Assistant of the Center of Youth Pastoral of the Institute "S. Carlo", Foligno. From September 1991 until September 1996, he was director of the National Catechetical Office. Named chaplain of His Holiness on October 24, 1991. Coordinator of the secretariat of the Third Ecclesiastical Convention celebrated in Palermo from November 24 to 25, 1995. From 1995 to October 2008, he was member of the Commission of Vigilance of the Pontifical Lombard Seminary in Rome. Member of the preparatory committee for the celebration of the 23rd National Eucharistic Congress, held in Bologna from September 20 to 28, 1997, as member of the theological commission. From December 1997, he was dedicated to the preparation of the Fifteenth World Youth Day, held in Rome from August 15 to 20, 2000, as vice president of the Italian Committee responsible for organizing the event. In 1998, he was named ordinary member of the International Society of Franciscan Studies. Vice-President of the Italian Committee for the Fifteenth World Youth Day. Director of the Office of Catechism of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Undersecretary of the Episcopal Conference of Italy (CEI) from September 26, 1996 until April 5, 2001. At the request of the presidency and of the permanent council of the CEI, the pope appointed him secretary general of the conference.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Falerone, April 5, 2001, and appointed secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference (CEI). Consecrated, May 6, 2001, cathedral of S. Feliciano, Foligno, by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general of Rome, president of the Italian Episcoal Conference, assisted by Arduino Bertoldo, bishop of Floligno, by Ennio Antonelli, archbishop of Florence, by Antonio Buoncristiani, bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina, and by Giovanni Bendetti, bishop emeritus of Foligno. His episcopal motto is Deo et Verbo gratiae. On January 23, 2002, he was named member of Administrative Council of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, as representative of the CEI. As secretary general of the CEI, he prepared the Fourth National Ecclesiastical Congress celebrated in Verona, from October 16 to 20, 2006; and the encounter of Italian youth with Pope Benedict XVI in Loreto on September 1 to 2, 2007. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, September 8, 2008. Grand chancellor of the Theological Faculty of Central Italy and moderator of the Superior Institute of Religious Science "Ippolito Galantini". He resigned as secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference on October 25, 2008. Entered the archdiocese on October 26, 2008. Elected president of the Tuscan Episcopal Conference on February 10, 2009. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2009 at the papal Vatican basilica. On November 5, 2011, he survived an apparent assassination attempt (1). On December 10, 2011, he was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Culture for a five-year renewable term. Among his publications are La Parola nel tempo della missione. Bibbia, cultura, comunicazione, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano), San Paolo, 2007; and Leggere la Bibbia nella Chiesa. Dalla Dei Verbum a oggi, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano), San Paolo, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Marcello on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education and of the Pontifical Council for Culture on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on June 9, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith"; president of its commission for the message. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Florence; arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Betori: Cardinal Ruini's tenacious follower, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.

(1) According to his biography in Wikipedia, linked above: "An unidentified man confronted the archbishop outside his office, shot and wounded the prelate's secretary, and waved a gun at the archbishop before escaping. Fr Paolo Brogi, the archbishop's secretary, was reportedly in satisfactory condition after surgery to repair an abdominal wound. Archbishop Betori and witnesses stated that the gunman said something as he gestured toward the prelate with his firearm, but they could not understand his intent."


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(78) 16. DOLAN, Timothy Michael
(1950-

Birth. February 6, 1950, St. Louis. Eldest of the five children of the late Robert Dolan and Shirley Radcliffe.

Education. Initial studies at Holy Infant Grade School in Ballwin, Missouri; from 1964 to 1968, he studied at high school at St. Louis Preparatory Seminary South; then. he attended Cardinal Glennon College, where he earned a bachelor of arts degree in philosophy; in 1972, he was sent to Rome, where he obtained license in sacred theology at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), residing at the Pontifical North American College; from 1979 to 1983, he studied at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., where he obtained a doctorate in American Church History; before completing the doctorate, he spent a year researching the late Archbishop Edwin O'Hara, a founder of the Catholic Biblical Association. Archbishop O'Hara's life and ministry was the subject of his doctoral dissertation.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 19, 1976, for the archdiocese of Saint Louis. He then served as associate pastor at Immacolata Parish in Richmond Heights, Missouri, until 1979, when he furthered his studies at The Catholic University in Washington. On his return to St. Louis, Father Dolan was assistant pastor at Curé of Ars parish in Shrewsbury, from 1983 to 1985; and at Little Flower parish, Richmond Heights, from 1985 to 1987; during that time he was also liaison for Archbishop John L. May in the restructuring of the college and theology programs of the archdiocesan seminary system. In 1987, he was appointed to a five-year term as secretary to the apostolic nunciature in Washington, D.C. When he returned to St. Louis in 1992, he was appointed vice rector of Kenrick-Glennon Seminary, serving also as director of spiritual formation and professor of church history. He was also an adjunct professor of theology at Saint Louis University. In 1994, he was appointed rector of the Pontifical North American College in Rome, where he served until June 2001. While in Rome, he also served as a visiting professor of church history at the Pontifical Gregorian University and as a faculty member in the Department of Ecumenical Theology at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Natchez and appointed auxiliary of St. Louis, June 19, 2001. Consecrated, August 15, 2001, at the cathedral basilica of St. Louis, by Justin Francis Rigali, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by Joseph Fred Naumann, titular bishop of Capocilla, auxiliary of St. Louis, and by Michael John Sheridan, titular bishop of Tibica, auxiliary of St. Louis. His episcopal motto is Ad quem ibimus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milwaukee on June 25, 2002. He was installed as Milwaukee's 10th archbishop on August 28, 2002, at the cathedral of St. John the Evangelist by Archbishop Gabriel Montalvo, papal nuncio to the United States. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2003 at the papal Vatican basilica. Transferred to the metropolitan see of New York, February 23, 2009. Installed by Archbishop Pietro Sambi, apostolic nuncio to the United States at Saint Patrick's cathedral on April 15, 2009. He is the 13th bishop and 10th archbishop of the see of New York. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2009, at the papal Vatican basilica. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of the United States of America on November 16, 2010, for a three year term; occupied the post until November 12, 2013. In the Episcopal Conference of Catholic Bishops he was president of the board of directors of the Catholic Relief Services. He was also member of the Committee on Budget and Finance and of the Subcommittee on the Church in Africa; and consultor of the Committee on International Justice and Peace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications; and of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelization, April 21, 2012. Attended the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, in Vatican City, from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Took possession of title on October 14, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014.

Bibliography. Dolan, Bob. Life lessons from my life with my brother, Archbishop Timothy M. Dolan. Phoenix, AZ : Tau Publishing, 2011; Dolan, Timothy; Allen, Jr., John L. A people of hope: Archbishop Timothy Dolan in conversation with John L. Allen Jr. New York : Image Books, 2012. Contents: Who Dolan is. The Dolan story -- Challenges facing the Church. The sexual abuse crisis -- Women in the church -- Pelvic issues -- Faith and politics -- Authority and dissent -- Catholic faith and life. Affirmative orthodoxy -- Beyond purple ecclesiology -- Tribalism and its discontents -- Prayer and the sacraments -- Why be Catholic? -- Hope.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of New York; photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Milwaukee; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; How can anyone be silent on this key civil rights question? by Timothy M. Dolan, in English, Journal Sentinel Inc., Sept. 28, 2008; New York Archbishop Timothy Dolan by Lauren E. Bohn, in English, Time US, Thursday, Feb. 26, 2009; A New Leader for New York's Catholics, slide show, The New York Times; The Installation of Archbishop Dolan, slide show, The New York Times; The Gospel in the Digital Age, in English, his blog; Dolan: The American "pope", Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Cardinal Dolans Batman pose by Mauro Pianta, Vatican Insider, 05/18/2012; Archbishop Timothy Dolan: The most 'popular' American Cardinal, Rome Reports, 2013-02-19 19:17:48; Vatican Reporter: Next Conclave May Be Dolan's, CBS Local Media, St. Louis, March 25, 2013 8:12 AM.


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(79) 17. WOELKI, Rainer Maria
(1956-

Birth. August 18, 1956, Cologne-Mülheim, Germany. Son of Alfons Woelki and his wife, Elisabeth. He has a younger brother and a younger sister. The reference to his home church, "Bruder Klaus" (Nicholas of Flüe, 1417-1487) is in his episcopal coat of arms; it is the wheel of the holy "Bruder" .

Education. Primary education from 1963 at the "Katholische Volksschule" in Cologne, Mülheim; finished secondary education with the "Abitur" at the Hölderlin-Gymnasium in Cologne-Mülheim in 1977. From 1977 to 1978, he did his military service in the Panzerartillerielehrbataillon 95 in Munster, Örtze. After graduation and military service, he studied from 1978 to 1983, philosophy and theology at the Theological Faculties of the Friedrich-Wilhlems-University of Bonn and of the University of Freiburg im Breisgau. Entered the major seminary of the archdiocese of Cologne in 1984. He was ordained deacon on June 20, 1984, in the church of St. Peter, D|sseldorf-Friedrichstadt, by Hubert Luthe, titular bishop of Egabro and auxilary of Cologne. In 2000, he obtained a doctorate in theology at the Pontificia Università della Santa Croce, of the Opus Dei, in Rome; his dissertation was on the ecclesiology of the local parish: Die Pfarrei - ein Beitrag zu ihrer ekklesiologischen Ortsbestimmung.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1985, for the archdiocese of Cologne, at the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne, by Cardinal Joseph Höffner, archbishop of that see. From 1985 to 1989, he was chaplain of Sankt Marien, Neuss. In 1985, he was also provost of the Kolpingfamilie, Neuss-Zentral. In 1989, for half a year, he was named military chaplain in Münster-Handorf. In 1990, he was named chaplain of Sankt Josef, Ratingen; he occupied the post for six months. From 1990 to 1997, he was chaplain and private secretary of Cardinal Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne; during this time he had to deal with many people who had turned their concerns to the archbishop. From March 1, 1997 until his election to the episcopate in 2003, he was director of "Collegium Albertinum", boarding school for major seminarians of the archdiocese of Cologne studying at the Theological Faculty of the University of Bonn. Named chaplain of His Holiness on November 21, 1999.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Scampa and appointed auxiliary of Cologne, February 24, 2003. Consecrated, March 30, 2003, metropolitan cathedral of Cologne, by Cardinal Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne, assisted by Klaus Dick, titular bishop of Guzabeta, former auxiliary of Cologne, and by Norbert Trelle, titular bishop of Egnazia, auxiliary of Cologne. His episcopal motto is Nos sumus testes. On November 11, 2003, he was named canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Cologne. Consultor of the Congregation for Catholic Education. In the Conference of German Bishops, he is member of the Commission for vocations and ecclesiastical ministries; and of the Commission for science and culture. From January 1, 2005, he was episcopal vicar for the permanent diaconate. From January 1, 2006, he was in charge of Pastoral Northern District of the archdiocese, which included the cities of Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, Neuss, Germany, Solingen and Oberbergischer Kreis, with a total of about 850,000 Catholics. On July 2, 2011, he was promoted by Pope Benedict XVI to the metropolitan see of Berlin, after his election by the high metropolitan chapter of Berlin. Installed as archbishop of Berlin on August 27, 2011. Member of the council "Vocations and Religious Services" and head of the council "Caritas" of the German Bishops Conference. Consultor of the Congregation for Catholic Education.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Giovanni Maria Vianney on that same day. At the time of his cardinalitial promotion he was the youngest member of the College of Cardinals. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education and of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity on April 21, 2012. Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI in the papal Vatican basilica on June 29, 2012. Took possession of his title on June 30, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Links. Photograph, arms and vita, in German, archdiocese of Berlin; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; interview, domradio.de.


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(80) 18. TONG HON, John
(1939-

Birth. July 31, 1939, Hong Kong. Of non-Catholic parents. He is the eldest of three children (with a sister and a brother who is currently living in Canada). When he was two tears old, the Japanese invasion made the family to move to Macao. Then his parents, because of the dangers of war, entrusted him to his paternal grandmother, who lived in a village in Guangdong province. When the war ended, the family was reunited in Canton. His mother was the first to receive baptism and she was followed by all the other members of the family. When his father contracted tuberculosis, the mother supported the family working as a teacher.

Education. He started elementary school in Canton; in 1951, he entered the seminary of St Joseph in Macao; in 1957, after finishing high school, he went to the Holy Spirit Seminary, Hong Kong, where he studied study philosophy and theology. then, he studied at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, obtaining a master's degree in philosophy; later, in 1964, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian University, where he obtained a licentiate and a doctorate in dogmatic theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 6, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI. When he returned to Hong Kong, he resided at the Holy Spirit Seminary, where he continued to live after his election to the episcopate. He was a professor of theology at the Faculty of Theology, of the Holy Spirit Seminary College, Aberdeen, from 1970-1973; its dean, 1973-1979; executive director of the seminary, Holy Spirit Study Centre, Aberdeen: Executive Director from 1980; chief editor of Tripod magazine from 1980; Council of Priests: elected member 1980-1981; Holy Spirit Seminary Extramural Studies Office, Aberdeen: Director 1983-1990; Council of Priests: elected member 1985-1987; Appointed Vicar General of Cardinal John Baptist Wu, bishop of Hong Kong, 1992; Board of Diocesan Consultor, 1992; Diocesan Personnel Commission, 1992; Council of Priests, Ex-Officio 1992; Administration of the Bishop's Office, 1992; Committee for the On-going Formation of the Clergy, chairperson 1994; Diocesan Commission for Pastoral Services to Filipino Migrants, chairperson 1994; The Hong Kong Catholic Board of Communications, chairperson 1994. In 1995, he participated in the negotiations conducted in view of the transition of Hong Kong, the former British colony, to the jurisdiction of the Popular Republic of China.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bossa and appointed auxiliary of Hong Kong (Xianggang), September 13, 1996. Consecrated, December 9, 1996, at the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Cardinal John Baptist Wu Cheng-chung, bishop of Hong Kong, assisted by Cardinal Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, archbishop emeritus of Tōkyō, Japan, and by Charles Asa Schleck, C.S.C., titular archbishop of Africa, secretary adjunct of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Dominis pastor meus. Rector of the Holy Spirit Seminary, 1999-2009. Named coadjutor bishop of Hong Kong, January 30, 2008. In August 2008, he participated at the opening of the Olympics in the stadium in Beijing, by official invitation. Succeeded to the see of Hong Kong, April 15, 2009. Co-ordination of the following Ministries / Apostolates and the work of Diocesan Bodies from 1996 Apostleship of the Sea Prison Chaplaincy Diocesan Ecumenical Commission The Hong Kong Catholic Board of Communications Hong Kong Catholic Social Communications Office The Diocesan Weeklies (Kung Kao Po / Sunday Examiner) Diocesan Audio-Visual Centre Holy Spirit Study Centre Applications and Extensions of Visas for Clergy, Missionaries and Religious at the Immigration Department and Consulate Applications for Sabbatical Leave / Further Studies of Diocesan Clergy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of Regina Apostolorum on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on April 22, 2012. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See on June 23, 2012. On June 30, 2012, he was named one of the three presidents delegate of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which took place from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Council for the Economy for a quinquennium on March 8, 2014.

Bibliography. Bransom, Jr., Charles N. Revue des ordinations épiscopales. Mango, Florida : Bransom, 1997, n. 5-6, p. 50; Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 186 and 246.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English and Chinese, diocese of Hong Kong; his photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Tong Hon: The seventh Chinese cardinal by Gerald O'Connor, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; AP Interview: New Hong Kong cardinal wants to serve as bridge between government, Vatican by Associated Press, Published: February 16, 2012, The Washington Post; Gratitude, patience, waiting. Three words for the Church in China. Interview with the new Cardinal John Tong Hon, Bishop of Hong Kong, by Gianni Valente, 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, from WITNESSES, Year XXIX, issue no. 01/02 - 2012.The Chinese cardinal who once danced on the streets to show his patriotismby Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 03/ 9/2012; Chiesa e China, la saggezza de Tong by Andrea Tornielli, in Italian, Sacri Palazzi, 03/12/2012; The Vatican and China can reach "win-win" accord Cardinal Tong says, Vatican Insider, 03/13/2012; Card. Tong: China-Vatican dialogue crucial to resolve situation of Shanghai's new bishop by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 07/14/2012; Cardinal Tong: China has honoured Matteo Ricci, now it is the Church's turn to do so by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 03/ 7/2014.


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(81) 19. MUREŞAN, Lucian (1931-

Birth. May 23, 1931, village of Ferneziu (now in the district of Baia Mare), eparchy of Maramureş, Romania. Tenth of the twelve children of Petru Mureşan and Maria Breban. He belongs to the Romanian Greek Catholic rite.

Education. He studied at the primary school in Ferneziu, from 1938 to 1944; later, from 1944 to 1948, in the lyceum Gheorghe Şincai. The education reform of 1948 prohibited all religions in the schools in the country; especially by Decree no. 358 of 1948 of the Grand National Assembly, the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, united with Rome, was brutally suppressed and declared illegal and because of this, Lucian's hope to train and become a priest became unachievable and he withdrew from school. Between 1948 and 1951, he attended woodworking school (fine furniture) in Baia Mare, and continued, part-time, his education to complete the lyceal studies. From 1951 to 1954, he did military service, which was compulsory at that time, in the aviation school in Turnişor (Sibiu). After finishing his military training, he was deployed to the jet aviation battalion in Craiova. In 1953, because of his belonging to the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, he was considered an undesirable person and transferred from the aviation battalion to work building the first hydroelectric plant of the country, in Bicaz. In 1954, he left Bicaz and waiting for an opportunity to study theology secretly, he worked in different places. At the suggestion of Bishop Julius Hossu and the blessing of Bishop Alexander Russu, at the proposal of Prof. Dr. Silviu Augustine Prunduş (released from prison in 1955), Bishop Iulia Marton Aron of Alba agreed to receive, as an exception, five young, one for each diocese of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, in the Institutul Teologic Romano-Catolic of Alba Iulia for the academic degree; among them was Lucian. In the fourth year of studies, the rector of the institute told him and the other student that remained from the original five, that they were expelled by the Department of Cults and that within 24 hours they were required to leave not only the Institute but also the city. In terms of ecclesiastical and canon laws there was no reason for expulsion. He returned to his native place. The expulsion coincided with the beginning of the persecution and prosecution by the Securitate. For a year he looked for work in mining companies and construction sites but was rejected on the grounds that he was a Catholic theologian. After a year, he managed to find a job as a laborer in the stone quarry in Ferneziu, where he works almost 10 years. When he was persecuted there, he transferred to the Department of Roads and Bridges, in the county of Maramureş, where he worked until his retirement in June 1990. Despite persecution, intimidation and threats, he did not give up his dream of becoming a priest, continuing underground studies, with former teachers from the theological academy who were fugitives. All underground students took their licensing exam. In 1964, a pardon decree was issued and the bishops were released from prison. Then his dream was fulfilled.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1964, by Ioan Dragomir, titular bishop of Palaeopoli in Pamfilia, auxiliary of Maramureş. Initially, exercised his pastoral ministry clandestinely, while working in the quarry and then in the Department of Roads and Bridges; his pastoral ministry was mostly dedicated to the youth and to those who wanted to become priests; later, he worked as a priest more openly especially in the diocese of Maramureş; the clergy of his rite asked him to reorganize its pastoral ministry. After the death of Bishop Dragomir on April 25, 1985, he exercised the function of provisional Ordinarius of the diocese of Maramureş until August 9, 1986; and from this date, at the selection and proposal of the diocesan chapter, he was installed in property by Metropolitan Archbishop Alexander Todea of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia of the Romanians. In December 1989, the Romanian Revolution occurred, the Communist government was forcibly overthrown and the head of state was executed. Shortly after, the Romanian Greek Catholic Church was legalized.

Episcopate. Elected eparch of Maramureş of the Romanians, March 14, 1990. Consecrated, May 27, 1990, in the esplanade of the Romanian Soldier Monument, in Baia Mare, by Alexandru Todea, archbishop of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia of the Romanians, assisted by Ioan Ploscaru, bishop of Lugoj of the Romanians, and by Guido del Mestri, titular archbishop of Tuscamia, former nuncio to Germany, in the presence of 100 priests and more than 20,000 faithful. The esplanade was symbolically adorned with a huge rosary of red carnations. It was the first meeting of the entire Greek-Catholic hierarchy gathered in a large-scale public event and in the presence of a papal representative. In the ceremony, a decree-law from the president of the Republic recognizing him as bishop was read. His episcopal motto is Fiat voluntas tuas. He opened the Baia Mare Theological Institute, in the academic school year 1990-1991. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia of the Romanians, July 4, 1994. On August 27, 1994, he was installed in Blaj. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. He initiated the reconstruction of the metropolitan cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, in Bournemouth, which was completed in 1994. He convoked and participated in the four sessions of the Fourth Provincial Council of the Greek Catholic Romanian Church, held between 1995 and 1998. Participated, in 1995, in the celebrations for the 50th anniversary of the Romanian Catholic Mission in Paris, for which he celebrated mass in Romanian in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre Dame. In August 1997, due to his effort, the remains of Bishop Ioan Inocenţi Micu were brought to the cathedral of Blaj (founded by him), Romania from Rome, where he had died in exile 252 years earlier. In 1997, he obtained the nihil obstat from the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints to open the canonization process of the seven Greek-Catholic bishops who were martyred during the Communist regime. Between 1998-2001 and then again in 2004, he was elected president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Romania, which includes the hierarchy of the Catholic Church of both rites, Latin (Roman Catholic) and Eastern (Greek Catholic). On May 7 to 9, 1999, he hosted Pope John Paul II during his visit to Romania. Attended Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. In the Jubilee Year 2000, he organized a national pilgrimage to Rome, which culminated with a concelebrated mass in Romanian with Pope John Paul II, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, with the participation of thousands of Romanian pilgrims. On May 26, 2003, he was named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Promoted to the rank of archbishop major on December 16, 2005, when Pope Benedict XVI recognized the self-governing status of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church, raising its traditional head, the metropolitan of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia, to the rank of major archbishop.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of S. Atanasio on that same day. He had reached age 80 before being created cardinal, so was not eligible to participate in a conclave. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on April 21, 2012. Took possession of his title on October 8, 2012.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Romanian, Biserica Romậnă Unitaăcu Roma, Greco-Catolică; Enthronement of the Romanian Greek Catholic Major Archbishop His Beatitude Lucian Mureşan, Eastern Rite Catholic Filipinos; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Mureşan: The promoter of dialogue, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; Il neo-cardinale romeno Lucian Mureşan: «Essere sacerdote, il dono più grande» by padre Andrian Danca - Radio Vaticana, in Italian, Avvenire, 18 febbraio 2012.


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(82) 20. RIES, Julien
(1920-2013)

Birth. April 19, 1920, Fouches, near Hachy (now Arlon), Belgium. Son of Firmin Ries, who was a farmer, and Clémentine Hardy. He was baptized in the parish Saint Hubert, Fouches. His baptismal name was Julien-Camille. A polyglot, he spoke French, Greek, Latin, German and Luxembourgish, among other languages.

Education. After finishing primary education in Fouches, he entered in 1933 the Séminaire Bastogne in Namur and graduated in 1939. From 1939 he studied for two semesters classical philology and philosophy at the University of Namur. In 1941, he entered the Theological Seminary of the Diocese of Namur and studied theology and philosophy. After his priestly ordination, he continued his studies in Namur and the Université Catholique de Louvain and earned a licentiate in theology in 1948; and a licentiate in Eastern philology and history in 1949. In 1953 he obtained a doctorate summa cum laude in theology at the same university; the title of his thesis, published in 1957 in Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, was "The influence of the writings of the New Testament of the Coptic Manichaean Eucologio Medinet Madi" (Les rapports de la christologie manichéenne avec le Nouveau Testament dans l'eucologe copte de Narmouthis (Medinet Mâdi)); it was supervised by Monsignors Lucien Cerfaux and Louis Théophile Lefort.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 12, 1945, at the cathedral Saint-Alban in Namur, by André Charue, bishop of Namur; he was incardinated in the diocese of Namur. From 1949 to 1950, he was chaplain in Martelange, Saint Martin, while studying for his doctorate. After finishing further studies, he was chaplain and teacher of religion at the Athénee Royal d'Athus from 1950 to 1959; then, pastor and dean of the parish of Saint Jacob in Messancy from 1959 to 1968; and pastor of the parish of Saint Materne in Suarlée from 1968 to 2000. Professor of history of religions at Université Catholique (in 1969 named Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve) from 1960 until 1985; after his retirement, he became visiting professor of the same chair from 1985 until 1990. In 1969, during the transfer of the French-speaking part of the university of Louvain and its reconstruction in Louvain-la-Neuve, he was responsible of the creation of the Center Cerfaux-Lefort in order to reorganize the university library. He served in the Centre until 2011, dealing with large collections of books and journals for Louvain-la-Neuve, for the countries of Eastern Europe and francophone Africa. On the occasion of his retirement he received four Commemoratives from his collegues. Visiting professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris and the Faculté de Théologie de Lugano (Switzerland). Together with Philippe Delhaye and Gustave Thils, he was founder of the Revue Théologique de Louvain in 1970; and it's secretary until 1976. From 1975 to 1980, he was head of the Institute for Oriental Studies and founder of Centre d'Histoire des Religions at that university. From 1979 to 1985, he was member of Pontifical Council for Religious Dialog. The Académie Française granted him the prize Dumas-Millier in 1986 for his publications on the theme of the Sacred Scriptures; and the prize Furtado in 1987 for the whole of his scientific work. Honored in 1996 with the Premio Capri-San Michele (Milan). Since 2000 he ws chaplain of the Familia Spiritualis Opus (The spiritual family "The Work") in Villers Saint Amand. After his retirement he was guest professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris, France, and the faculty of theology at the University of Lugano, Switzerland. In 2009, he donated his books and papers to the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan. He received an honorary degree from the Faculty of Education Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve. Received a doctorate honoris causa in philosophy and bioethics from the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan on October 27, 2010. Named prelate of honor of His Holiness in 2010. Member of the boards of the review The Museon (Louvain); and L'aventure humaine (Milan and Paris). Member of following scientific societies: Société asiatique (Paris); Société Ernest Renan (Paris); Association internationale des études patristiques (Oxford); International Association for the History of Religions (Beirut); International Association for Coptic Studies (Rome); Association des écrivains croyants d'expression française (Paris); Deutsche Vereinigung für Religionsgeschichte (Darmstadt); Società italiana di storia delle religioni (Rome); Forschungsgruppe fü Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte (Saarbrüücken); Association internationale pour l'étude des religions préhistoriques et ethnologiques (Valcamonica); Association belgo-luxembourgeoise d'histoire des religions; Accademia internazionale di scienza e cultura (Milan). He was grand officer of the Ordre de Léopold; grand office of the Ordre de Léopold II; and knight of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. He was the author of over 650 works, published in fifteen languages (1). Called "greatest living religions scholar" and "God's anthropologist", after the split of the Catholic University of Louvain, Monsignor Ries together with Monsignor Philippe Delhaye, founded the Centre Cerfaux Lefort in 1969, with the aim of collecting books and reviews for the University library. By the time of his resignation in 2011, Monsignor Ries had managed to collect some 1,600,000 volumes. The Centre d'Histoire des Religions of the University of Louvain was re-named after him. Together with the University of Louvain-la-Neuve (UCL), he created a center for education in Africa, sending it 75,000 books in 2011.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Belcastro on January 23, 2012. Consecrated on February 11, 2012, at the parish church Notre Dame in Villers Saint-Amand, by Giacinto Berloco, titular archbishop of Fidene, nuncio in Belgium, assisted by Remy Victor Vancottem, bishop of Namur, and by Guy Harpigny, bishop of Tournai. His episcopal motto was Caritas Christi urget nos.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Antonio di Padova a Circonvallazione Appia on that same day. He had reached age 80 before being created cardinal, so was not eligible to participate in a conclave. Took possession of his deaconry on October 20, 2012. The publishing house L'Editoriale Jaca Book, Milan, is preparing the Opera Omnia of the cardinal; the work will be divided into twelve thematic parts, which will include some of his still unpublished essays.

Death. February 23, 2013, at 1:20 p.m., in the clinic Notre Dame, Tournai, Belgium, after having been hospitalized since February 1, suffering from cardiac insufficiency. Upon learning of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Guy Harpigny, bishop of Tournai, a telegram of condolence (2). The funeral mass for the late cardinal, presided by Giacinto Berloco, titular archbishop of Fidene, nuncio in Belgium, and concelebrated by Guy Harpigny, bishop of Tournai, by Remy Vancottem, bishop of Namur, by Jean-Claude Hollerich, S.J., archbishop of Luxembourg, and by several priests, took place in the cathedral of Tournai. Present at the ceremony were Premier Ministre Elio di Rupo; Rudy Demotte, minister-president of the Region Wallonne, and Bourgmestre en titre of Tournai; a delegation of professors of the University of Louvain, in togas; representatives of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, in capes; and a large number of faithful. Nuncio Berloco also delivered the homily.The late cardinal was buried in the afternoon of March 2, in the cemetery beside the church of Notre Dame in Villers Saint-Amand.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; works and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Archivio Julien Ries, in Italian, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan; Inaugurazione con Julien Ries, in Italian, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, October 27, 2010; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Intervista a Julien Ries - Università Cattolica, in French and Italian, YouTube; Bibliografia Julien Ries, in Italian, Zam; photograph, works and biographical data, in French, Éditions du CERF, Paris; Books by Julien Ries, in English, Goodreads; his works, in Italian, Internet Bookshop Italia; "Mankind has been religious even from the time of the Australopithecus Lucy", in English, interview with Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, January 7, 2012; Monseigneur Julien Ries, video, interview in French, YouTube, January 7, 2012; L'Athois Julien Ries est Evêque avant d'être Cardinal..., in French, Cité des Géants, samedi, 11 février 2012; photo album of the episcopal consecration, Cité des Géants; Ordination Espicopale de Mgr Julien Ries, video, YouTube, 11 février 2012; Julien Ries: la vera sfida è sulla persona by Lorenzo Fazzini, in Italian, Avvenire, 15 febbraio 2012; Ries: God's anthropologist, Vatican Insider, 02/15/2012; Ecce Homo religiosus, InfoCatho.be, mardi, 07 août 2012; Ries: uomo e sacro, legame imprescindibile, Cultura, Avvenire, 21 agosto 2012; Le Cardinal Ries est décédé, Info.Catho.be, samedi, 23 février 2013; Belgische kardinaal Julien Ries is overleden , deredactie.be, 23 februari 2013 22:36; La muerte del cardenal Julien Ries, Vatican Insider, 02/23/2013; Le cardinal Julien Ries s'est éteint en Belgique, Radio Vatican, 2013-02-23 16:13:08.

(1) The most complete and updated list of his works (until 2008) is in the book Religious Anthropology, section "Expressions of culture and art", pp. 132-176.
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken fron the Press Office of the Holy See:

Son Excellence Monseigneur Guy Harpigny
Évéque de Torunai

Apprenant avec émotion le décés du Cardinal Julien Ries, je vous adresse mes vives condoléances ainsi qu'à sa famille et à ses proches. Que le Seigneur accueille dans la lumière de la vie éternelle cet éminent homme de foi qui a fidèlement servi l'Èglise. Par l'enseignement et la recherche, particuliérement dans le domaine de l'histoire de religions dont il était un spécialiste reconnu, il a toujours eu le souci de témoigner de sa foi parmi ses contemporains, dans un espirit de dialogue. En gage de reéconfort, je vous adresse une particulière beénédiction apostolique, ainsi qu'à la famille du cardinal défunt, à ses proches, aux religieuses de la Famille de l'Œuvre qui l'ont entouré, et à toutes les personnes qui prendront part à la célébration des obseèques.

Benedictus PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(83) 21. GRECH, O.S.A., Prosper
(1925-

Birth. December 24, 1925, Vittoriosa (Birgu), Malta. Son of Vincent Grech and Amelia Gatt. His baptismal name was Stanley. He is an only child. His first name is also listed as Prospero.

Education. Primary education at Mater Boni Consilii school, Paola; and at St. Catherine's, Sliema; secondary education at Malta Lyceum; then, went to the University of London; and later, in 1942, to the Royal University of Malta, where he started studying medicine but gave it up during the first year; then, served as anti-aircraft gunner of the University Home Guard (RMA) during the Second World War. Entered the Order of Saint Augustine (Augustinian) in the province of Malta in 1943; professed, October 8, 1944; took the name Prosper; he studied philosophy for two years at St. Mark's Priory, Rabat, Malta; sent to Rome in 1946, he studied theology for four years at Collegio Internazionale Agostiniano S. Monica; in 1951, he attended a summer course on educational psychology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, and obtained a diploma; he obtained a licentiate in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and in 1953, he earned a doctorate in theology from the same university with the thesis "The Atonement and God in Modern English Theology"; in 1954, he obtained a licentiate, summa cum laude, in Sacred Scriptures from the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; and in that same year, he did an archeological visit to the Holy Land; he conducted research in Semitic languages at Oxford University, 1957-1958; and at Cambridge University, 1958-1959, as research assistant to Professor A. J. Arberry, to help him in his studies on Maltese literature and on Dun Karm; continued Hebrew studies under Professor Winton-Thomas. Besides his native Maltese, he knows English, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1950, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1950 to 1954. Returned to Malta in 1954 and taught for two years at the Augustinian Theological College and at Mater Admirabilis Training College, in Rabat. Further studies in England, 1957 to 1959. Returned to Malta in 1959 and for another two years taught at the Augustinian Theological college and at Mater Admirabilis. Invited twice to deliver lectures on apologetics by the Royal University of Malta to science students. He delivered various public lectures on cultural subject at the British Institute, Valletta. In 1961, he was sent to Rome to complete his thesis in biblical studies, but was selected as secretary of the Vatican Vicariate by Peter Canisius van Lierde, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan and vicar of His Holiness for Vatican City. In that position he took part in the conclave that elected Pope Paul VI on June 21, 1963. In 1965 he was named president of the Istituto Teologico Augustinianum, and lectured there as ordinary professor. He continued his studies and writings on biblical matters. In 1970, together with Father Agostino Trapé, he founded the Istituto Patristico Augustinianum in Rome; in 1971 he was elected its first president and held the post until 1979; he is still a lecturer at the institute. He was member of the commission for the preparation of the document Sapientia christiana, at the time the magna carta of all pontifical universities. Also in 1970, he was invited to lecture on hermeneutics at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, which he did until 2002. From 1971 until 1989, he also lectured in biblical theology at the Pontifical Lateran University. He organized, chaired or participated in, by means of lectures and papers, numerous international and local congresses on the Bible and hermeneutics and on patristics, in Italy and abroad. Member of the Societas Novi Testamenti; and of the Association Patristique Internationale. Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith from 1984 to the present. Invited to lecture at the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome; at the Consiglio Nazioinale delle Ricerche; and to collaborate with the Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani. In 1998, he was nominated apostolic visitor to seminaries in India. From 2002 to 2003, he was member of ecumenical commissions for talks with representatives of the Orthodox Church in Sofia, Bulgaria. In 2003, he was nominated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, member of the Pontifical Theological Academy. In 2004, he was nominated member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. He received his country's highest decoration, the National Order of Merit, in the rank of Companion, from President George Abela of Malta, on December 13, 2011, in ceremonies at the presidential palace commemorating the 37th anniversary of Malta as a republic. Currently, he is a lecturer at Libera Università Maria Ss. Assunta (LUMSA), in Rome. Currently, he is a member of Collegio Santa Monica, Rome. He is listed in Who's Who in Biblical Studies and Archeology, 1993; and in International Who's Who. He was still riding his scooter in Rome until very recently (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of San Leone on January 18, 2012. Consecrated, February 8, 2012, at 6 p.m., in St. John's co-cathedral in Valletta, by Paul Cremona, O.P., archbishop of Malta, assisted by Cardinal-elect Giuseppe Versaldi, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Alessandria, president of the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, and by Mario Grech, bishop of Gozo. Present at the ceremony were President George Abela of Malta; the prime minister, Lawrence Gonzi; the leader of the opposition, Joseph Muscat; and a large congregation which included many Augustinian priests led by their Superior General Father Robert F. Prevost, O.S.A. His episcopal motto is In te Domine speravi. On the following day, February 9, at 7:15 p.m., he led the mass of the eve of the feast of the Shipwreck of St. Paul, in the Church of St. Paul, Valletta. On February 10, he returned to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Maria Goretti on that same day. He had reached age 80 before being created cardinal, so was not eligible to participate in a conclave. Took possession of his deaconry on April 21, 2012. On August 10, 2012, he was named honorary canon of the collegiate parish church of St. Lawrence, in his native Vittoriosa, Malta, on the saint's liturgical feast day, where he celebrated a pontifical mass. At the end of the mass, the mayor presented a "Ġieħ il-Birgu" (tribute from the city of Vittoriosa or Birgu) to the cardinal. A commemorative plaque in the parish church was also unveiled at the end of the ceremony (2). On November 15, 2012, by decree of Fra' Matthew Festing, prince and grand master of the of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, he was admitted into the order in the rank and dignity of a bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion. The ceremony was held at the Magistral Palace, Via Condotti, Rome.

Links. His works, PhilPapers, Online research in philosophy; Ordinazione episcopale di P. Prospero Grech, in Italian, Ordine di Sant' Agostino, 22. Gennaio 2012; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Malta Ready to Celebrate its 2nd Cardinal in History, in English, Zenit, 2012-02-01; Prospero Grech: nuova evangelizzazione, sfida decisiva by Gianni Cardinale, in Italian, Avvenire, 17 febbraio 2012; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Prosper Grech: The Augustinian theologian, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012; The Meditation of Cardinal Prosper Grech to the members of the 2013 Conclave, March 12, 2013, Order of Saint Augustine.

(1) He was weaving his fearless way in and out of the Roman traffic and taking no prisoners. Asked how he survived the truly frightening vista of Roman driving, his laconic reply was "I just give them some artillery language ...!" (he having been an anti-aircraft gunner in the War). Information kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque, courtesy of Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

IN TE DOMINE SPERAVI

F'DIN IL-KNISJA KOLLEĠĠJALI TAL-BELT VITTORIOSA
DDEDIKATA LILL-IMĦEĠĠEĠ LEVITA
NHAR IS-26 TA' DIĊEMBRU 1925
TGĦAMMED IBEN IL-KNISJA
U KIBER U SSAĦĦAĦ FIL-FIDI U L-GĦERF
FL-ORDNI AGOSTINJAN
ILLUM 10 TA' AWWISSU 2012
QASAM MAGĦNA L-FERĦ TAL-FESTA B'PONTIFIKAL SOLENNI
L-EMINENZA TIEGĦU
IL-KARDINAL PROSPERO GRECH O.S.A.
PRINĊEP TAL-KNISJA LI KIXEF U BIEREK
DIN L-IRĦAMA TA' TIFKIRA GĦAŻIŻA
LI TORBTU B'IMĦABBA MAL-PATRUN LORENZU
U MA BELTNA


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(84) 22. BECKER, S.J., Karl Josef
(1928-

Birth. April 18, 1928, Cologne, Germany. He was the third of four siblings. The other children were Constantin, Heinz and Anneliese. His middle name is also listed as Joseph.

Education. Initial studies at Dreikönigsgymnasium, Cologne, which he left in 1946; he was a class mate of future Bishop Hubert Luthe of Essen. Entered the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) on April 13, 1948, after having studied classical philology for three semesters. After the novitiate in Cologne, he studied philosophy at the Jesuit University of Pullach (today University for Philosophy in Münich) from 1950 to 1953; and from 1955 to 1959, he studied theology at the University for Philosophy and Theology Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt (Main). His doctoral dissertation in theology was "Die Rechtfertigungslehre nach Domingo de Soto. Das Denken eines Konzilstellnehmers vor, in und nach Trient", which he defended in 1963; it was published in 1967.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1958, Frankfurt. Further studies and third probation, 1958 to 1965. From 1963 to 1969, he was professor of theology at the Jesuit Faculty of Hochschule Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1969 to 2003. Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith since September 15, 1977. He participated in the preparation of the important ecumenical document "Dichiarazione comune sulla giustificazione". More recently he has been member of the working group constituted by the Commission Ecclesia Dei to conduct the colloquies with the Society of Pius X, of the followers of excommunicated Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. In 2010 he published with Professor Ilaria Morali, also from the Gregorian University, and twenty five collaborators, "Catholic Engagement with World Religions", work of orientation on the theology of religions. He has enjoyed the respect and trust of Pope Benedict XVI since the latter, as Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, was prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Episcopate. He requested to be exempted from receiving the episcopal consecration, normally required when promoted to the cardinalate, because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 2012; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of S. Giuliano Martire on that same day (1). He had reached age 80 before being created cardinal, so was not eligible to participate in a conclave. His cardinalitial motto is Quarere Deum in omnibus. Took possession of his deaconry on April 22, 2012.

Bibliography. Sentire cum ecclesia. Homenaje al Padre Karl Josef Becker S.J.. Edited by Enrique Benavent Vidal, Ilaria Morali. Valencia, Spain : Facultad de Teología San Vicente Ferrer 2003. (Series Valentina ; 49; Variation: Series Valentina ; 49). Language: Spanish; Articles in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish; introduction in Spanish.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; brief biographical data, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; An Examination of Subsistit in: A Profound Theological Perspective by Fr. Karl Josef Becker, S.J., in English, Taken from: L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 14 December 2005, page 11, Eternal Word Television Network; German Jesuit named to the College of Cardinals, in English, Jesuits, 09 January 2012; The New Jesuit Cardinal, on World Religions by Francis X. Clooney, S.J., in English, America, Posted at: Saturday, January 14, 2012 06:45:03 PM; Only Karl Josef Becker, SJ after all?, in English, Blog Whosoever Desires; Becker: The Gregorian University theologian, Vatican Insider, 02/14/2012.

(1). On February 3, 2012, the Press Office of the Holy See informed that for reasons of health he would not be created cardinal in the consistory of February 18, 2012 but in another moment. On February 9, 2012, domradio.de reported that he would take part in the consistory February 18, 2012.


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