The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Gelasius I (492-496)
494 (I)


(1) 1. LORENZO (?-between 506 and 508)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Laurentio, Coelius Laurentius, Laurentis Coelius, Celio Lorenzo and Lorenzo Celio.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Praxidæ (S. Prassede). Archpriest of the Holy Roman Church. After the death of Pope Anastasius II on November 19, 498, a dual election to the papacy took place in Rome. The majority of the clergy, including those who had disapproved of the conciliatory behavior of Pope Anastasius II with regard to the Eastern Church, headed by Senator Faustus, as well as those favoring the Ostrogothic King Theodoric of Italy, an Arian, elected the Sardinian Deacon cardinalis Simmaco at the Lateran basilica. A minority of the clergy, including the philo-Byzantine party in the senate, headed by Consul Rufio Postumio Festo, who had just returned from his mission to Constantinople, elected the Archpriest cardinalis Lorenzo of S. Prassede at the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore.

Antipapacy. Consecrated Antipope Laurentius in the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore on November 22, 498, the same day on which Pope Symmachus was consecrated in the Lateran basilica. Both parties appealled to King Theodoric, who decided in favor of Pope Symmachus. Antipope Laurentius accepted the royal decision and submitted himself to the pope. On March 1, 499, at St. Peter's basilica, Pope Symmachus convoked a Roman synod, in which he promulgated an important decree on the papal elections. Archpriest cardinalis Lorenzo was the first one of the sixty eight presbyters subscribing the document. In the synod, Archpriest Lorenzo was named bishop of Nocera in Campagna, where he remained until 501. Archpresbyter Lorenzo's supporters accused Pope Symmachus before King Theodoric of having alienated ecclesiastical property to ensuring his own election; of being intimate with certain women; and of ordering the celebration of Easter on a date that differed from the usage of Alexandria followed by all the churches. The pope was summoned to Ravenna and prepared to meet the king, but fled to Rome when he detected what appeared to be a trap. His flight angered the monarch, who appointed Bishop Pietro of Altino as Roman visitor to administer the property of the Roman Church. Pope Symmachus agreed to appear before a synod of Italian bishops that King Theodoric summoned to judge the pontiff in Rome in 501, but did not concede that any synod had the right to judge the pope. While on the way to the Sessorian Palace, where the session was to be held, the papal party was set upon in the streets by the supporters of Lorenzo, and some of the clergy were either killed or wounded. The pope returned to St. Peter's basilica and refused to budge. The synod, known as the Synodus Palmaris (for having being held ad palmaria, in the atrium of St. Peter's basilica) started meeting in May, 501 and decreed in its 4th session that the pope could not be tried for the crimes of which he was accused and that his case must be left to the judgment of God. Since he was still the legitimate pope, the control of church property should be returned to him. The decision displeased the Ostrogothic king, who sanctioned the return to Rome of Laurentius as antipope, originating the Laurentian Schism. For the next four years Rome was the scene of brawls and violence. The Laurentians gained possession of almost all the churches of Rome, though not of St. Peter's basilica, and the antipope's portrait was placed among those of the legitimate popes. Both sides launched into a war of pamphlets. The writer Ennodius, then a deacon in Milan, wrote an apology to show that the cause of the bishops of Rome could be judged by God alone. This theme was developed in a series of apocryphal works, composed for popular consumption and known as the Symmachan Forgeries, that are based on a series of spurious historical precedents for what the synod of 501 had decreed. Peace was restored through the Alexandrian deacon Dioscorus, who interceded with King Theodoric and had control of the churches and ecclesiastical property returned to Pope Symmachus. The Laurentians gradually rallied to the legitimate pope. Laurentius was expelled from Rome by orders of King Theodoric and retired to an estate of his protector Senator Festo, where he later died; in his last years he devoted himself to an ascetic life.

Death. Between 506 and 508, (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 1; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330 and 344-346; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XXXVI, 61 and 277; Del Re, Niccolò. "Lorenzo, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 675; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 1; Ginetti, L. "Il Sinodo Palmare". Studi storici, VII (1898), 557-567; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 52; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, I, 43-46 and 260; Llewelyn, Peter A. B. "The Roman clergy during the Laurentian Schism (498-506) : a preliminary analysis." Ancient society, VIII (1977), 245-275; Moorhead, John. "The Laurentian Schism: East and West in the Roman Church." Church History, XLVII, no. 2 (June 1978), 125-136 ; Picotti, G.B. "I sinodi romani nello scisma laurenziano." Studi storici in onore di Gioacchino Volpe per il suo 80. compleanno. 2 vols. Firenze : 1958, II, 741-786; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 42; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 100; Sardella, Teresa. "Lorenzo, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, I, 473-475; Sardella, Teresa. Società, chiesa e stato nell'età di Teoderico : papa Simmaco e lo scisma laurenziano. Soveria Mannelli (Catanzaro) : Rubbettino, 1996. (Armarium ; 7; Variation: Armarium (Soveria Mannelli, Italy) ; 7).

Links. Biography, in English, Britannica; brief biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia; biography by J. Barmby, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies; biography by Teresa Sardella, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papa, Trecanni; very brief biographical entry, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; and biography by Ekkart Sauser, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; Fragmentum Laurentianum, in Latin, .The Latin Library, The Classics Page.

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(2) 2. MARTINIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Marciano and Martianus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Cæceliæ (S. Cecilia). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 1; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 2.

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(3) 3. GENNARO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Coelius Ianuarius, Celio Gennaro Gennaro Celio and Gennaro Coelius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Vestinæ (Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio). (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 89; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 3.

(1) The title of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio, called Vestinae, was erected, or confirmed, ca. 402 by Pope Innocent I. It is currently known as Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio.

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(4) 4. GORDIANO (?-494)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Gordianus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Pammachii (Ss. Giovanni e Paolo) (1).

Death. 494, (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 110; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 4.

(1) This title, called also Pammachus or Byzantis (Bizantys was a friend of St. Jerome, father of Pammachius and son-in-law of St. Paola), was erected about this time. It still exists with the name of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo. There was a new occupant of that title in 495.

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(5) 5. PIETRO (?-before 499)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Petrus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title sancti Clementis (S. Clemente al Monte Celio).

Death. Before 499, (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 5.

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(6) 6. PAOLINO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Paulinus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Juli (S. Maria in Trastevere (Callisto e Giulio)). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 54; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 6.

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(7) 7. VALENTE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Valens and Valentus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title sanctæ Sabinæ (S. Sabina). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 7.

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(8) 8. PIETRO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).He is also listed as Petrus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Chrysogoni (S. Crisogono in Trastevere) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 92; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137, no. 8.

(1) The title of S. Crisogono was erected by Pope St. Alexander I ca 112.

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(9) 9. ASTERIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Asterius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Pudentis (Ss. Pudente e Pudenziana (Pastore)). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 131; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 137-38, no. 9.

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(10) 10. FELICE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Felix.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Æquiti (S. Silvestro) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 10.

(1) The title of S. Silvestro, also called Equitii, was erected ca. 314 by Pope St. Silvester I in the land of one of his presbyters called Equitius, in Carine, near the Esquilino. It still exists with the name of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.

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(11) 11. PROJETIZZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Projectitius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Damasi (S. Lorenzo in Damaso) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 11.

(1) Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. , lists him in 492.

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(12) 12. GIOVIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Johannes, Iovinus, Jovinus and Jovin.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Æmilianæ (Emiliana) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 187; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 12.

(1) The title of S. Emiliana was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I, who replaced it ca. 590 with the current title of Ss. Quattro Coronati.

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(13) 13. BONO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bonus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Crescentianæ (S. Crescenziana) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 187; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 40, no. 13.

(1) The title of S. Crescenziana or S. Crescenzio, was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I in Via Mamertina (II Region of Rome) and was confirmed ca. 366 by Pope St Damasus I. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I ca. 590, who substituted it with the current title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.

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(14) 14. PROBIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Probianus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Eusebii (S. Eusebio nell' Esquilino) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 149; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 14.

(1) The title of S. Eusebio nell' Esquilino was erected before before 492 and it still exists.

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(15) 15. SEBASTIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Sebastianus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Nicomedii (S. Nicomede) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 192; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 15.

(1) The title of S. Nicomede was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I en the Via Nomentana. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I, who substituted it with the current title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme ca. 590. Cristofori does not mention any titular before 1012 (?).

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(16) 16. MARCIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Martianus and Martinus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Cyriaci (S. Ciriaco alle Terme di Diocleziano) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 143; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 16.

(1) This title could have been erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I and if not, in the V Century. It was suppressed in 1477 by Pope Sixtus IV, who replaced it with the title of Ss. Ciro e Giulitta. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI restored the name of S. Ciriaco. The title was definitively suppressed in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. The title of Ss. Ciro e Giulitta (erected in 1477) was assigned in 1587 (with the name of SS. Quirico e Giulitta) to Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, who thus passed from one title to another. This latter title still exists.

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(17) 17. ANDREA (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Andreas.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Matthæi (S. Matteo) (1) (2). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 176; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 40, no. 17.

(1) The title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I, who substituted it with the already existing title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio but that substitution seems not to have taken place. The title of S. Matteo was reestablished on July 6, 1517 by Pope Leo X and finally suppressed by Pope Pius VI in 1776 because its church was in ruins and without revenues. In 1801, Pope Pius VII substituted it with the title of S. Maria della Vittoria nelle Terme di Diocleziano, which still exists.
(2) Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 176, calls him Matteo, possibly confusing the name of the presbyter with that of the title.

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(18) 18. ROMANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Romanus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Tigridæ (S. Sisto) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 72; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 18.

(1) The title Tigride was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I, who substituted it ca. 590 with the title of S. Sisto, which still exists.

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(19) 19. MARCELLO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Marcellus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Romani (S. Stefano al Monte Celio) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 118; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 19.

(1) The title of S. Stefano Rotondo al Monte Celio must have been in existence by the V Century (494). It is not certain that Pope Gregory I erected it in 590 to replace the ancient titles that he suppressed.

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(20) 20. ASELLO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Asellus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Vizanti (Ss. Gabino e Susanna) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found) Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 330; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 135; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 20.

(1) The title of Ss. Gabino (Gabinius) e Susanna was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. Its name was later modified and it is still known as the title of S. Susanna.

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(21) 21. ANASTASIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Anastasius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Anastasiæ (S. Anastasia) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 95; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 21.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 138, no. 21, says that he may be the same as Presbyter cardinalis Anastasio of the title of S. Anastasia (500).

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(22) 22. EPIFANIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Epiphanius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Apostolorum (Ss. XII Apostoli (Ss. Filippo e Giacomo)) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 22.

(1) This title, named originally Ss. Filippo e Giacomo, was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. It was confirmed by Pope Pelagius I ca. 555. Pope John III confirmed it again in 560 and named it Ss. XII Apostoli when he consecrated its newly built church on May 1.

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(23) 23. ACONZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Acontio and Acontius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Fasciolæ (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 75; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 23.

(1) Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. , lists him in 492.

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(24) 24. BENEDETTO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Benedictus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Gaii (S. Caio) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 191; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no.24.

(1) The title of S. Caio is one of the first 25 titles erected by Pope St. Alexander I ca. 112 but it kept the name only until the end of the III Century. It was suppressed by Pope Gregory I, who substituted it ca. 590 with the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati.

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(25) 25. DOMENICO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Dominicus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Tigride (Ss. Aquila e Prisca nel Monte Aventino) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 107; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, 25.

(1) The title of Ss. Prisca e Aquila was erected ca. 112 by Pope St. Alexander I. Aquila and his wife Priscilla (or Prisca) hosted the Apostle St. Paul, who cites them in his letters. They are inscribed in the Roman Martyrology and their feast is celebrated on July 8. The title exists under the name of S. Prisca.

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(26) 26. STEFANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Stephanus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Marcelli (S. Marcello) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 138, no. 26.

(1) The title of S. Marcello was erected ca. 304 by Pope St. Marcellus I. It also had the name of Lucina seconda because it was in the house of that holy Roman matron.

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(27) 27. EPIFANIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Epiphanius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Marcii (S. Marco) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 114; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 27.

(1) The title of S. Marco al Palatino was erected, or confirmed, or reestablished by Pope St. Mark in 337.

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(28) 28. ILARIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Hilarius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title Lucinæ (S. Lorenzo in Lucina) (1). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 3-4; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 49; "Essai de liste gén&233;rale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, 28.

(1) The title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina is an ancient one. It could have been, under another name, one of the titles established by Pope St. Alexander I ca. 112. It was confirmed by Pope Benedict II ca. 684. It was for a long time the title of the cardinal primo prete.

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(29) 29. PAOLINO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archpresbyter in the title of Fasciolæ (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo) in 494. In that same year he became its presbyter cardinalis.

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Fasciolæ (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo). Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 4; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 331; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 75; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 36.

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(30) 30. CIPRIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Cyprianus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the III and X ecclesiastical regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 29.

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(31) 31. ANASTASIO (?-496)

Birth. (No date found), of the fifth region (Caput tauri), Rome. Son of Pietro, a priest.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the IV and XI ecclesiastical regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Papacy. Consecrated Pope Anastasius II on November 24, 496. Until then, all the popes had taken a firm position against the Eastern Church because of its adherence to the Monophysite heresy of Eutiche, but the new pope, wanting to put an end to the schism, was prepared to make big concessions. This decision made the pope extremely unpopular in Rome, creating a division within both the clergy and the entire community. Some even considered the pope a heretic. Certain contrasts were also promoted by the faction which had resented Pope Gelasius I for his condemnation of the Lupercalia (1) and which hoped to obtain gains under a weaker pope. Also, the fact that the Consul Rufio Postumio Festo, sent by Ostrogothic King Theodoric of Italy, an Arian, to Constantinople to have himself recognized as king of Italy, promised the emperor that he would persuade the pope to sign the famous Henotikon (edict of union), which had been rejected by his predecessors; by the time Consul Festo returned to Rome, Pope Anastasius II had already died. The pope also gave rise to other suspect rumors by readmitting to the Church Photinus, a deacon at Thessalonica, who had been excommunicated as a follower of the Monophysite heresy. During his pontificate, he ordained sixteen bishops for diverse sees and twelve priests. The record of his disfavor was handed down through the centuries by the Liber pontificalis, according to which the pope was struck by the will of God (nutu divinu percussus est) precisely for having readmitted Photinus. The chroniclers of the 13th and 14th centuries said he died the same way as Arius, with his bowels scattered, and Platina himself reports how "as he made himself comfortable to unload his stomach, he sent his intestines down, and died." Following this tradition, Dante Alighieri in his Divina Comedia put him in the Inferno (XI, 6-9) among the heretics. The defenders of Pope Anastasius II, in an effort to redeem his figure, proposed the idea that in the Liber pontificalis there had been confusion between Pope Anastasius II and Emperor Anastasius I, a follower of the Monophysite heresy. At any rate, lacking the energy and basically incapable of maintaining the position of prestige which the see of Rome demanded, he was, because of his weakness, the decisive cause of the disorders which occurred in Rome at his death.

Death. November 19, 498, suddenly, of unknown causes, his enemies said it was a result of divine judgment, Rome. Buried under the pavement in the atrium of St. Peter's basilica (2). His tomb was destroyed probably during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Sainthood. In certain calendars he appeared as a saint on 19 November, in others on 8 September, but he is not recognized in the Universal Calendar.

Bibliography. Bertolini, Paolo. "Anastasio II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, I, 462-464; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332 and 338-338; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XXVI and 283; De Angelis, Maria Antonietta. "Anastasio II, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e present. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 57; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 30; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 49-40; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, I, 258-259; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 105, no. 50; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 42; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 95-96.

Links. Brief biographical entry, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Britannica; his image and biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Joseph Brusher, S.J., in English, Popes through the Ages; biography by G. H. Moberly, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies; biography by Paolo Bertolini, Enciclopedia dei papa, Treccani; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli italiani; his image and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; Inferno, Canto 11: The burning tomb of Pope Anastasius II, The Divine Comedy: Illustrations by Gustave Doré; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Corbis images; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; another engraving, from the same source; another engraving, also from the same source; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) The Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, observed on February 13 through 15 to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, transcribed from Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 42:

LUMINA NVNC SERVO QVI TENVI CVLMINA SEDIS
HIC MERVI TVMVLVM PRAESVL ANASTASIVS
PRESBYTERO GENITVS DELEGI DOGMATA VITAE
MILITIAEQVE DEI NATVS IN OFFICIIS
PONTIFICVM CASTO FAMVLATVS PECTORE IVSSIS
OBTINVI MAGNVM NOMEN APOSTOLICVM

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(32) 32. TARRENSE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Tarrensis; as Terrensis; and as Torrente.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon f the I and VIII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 31.

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(33) 33. CITONATO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Citonatus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the V and XII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 32.

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(34) 34. TERTULLO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Tertullius, Tertulle and Tertulles.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the VI and XIII ecclesiastical Regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 33.

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(35) 35. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Ioannes.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the II and IX ecclesiastical Regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 34.

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(36) 36. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Coelius Ioannes and Celio Giovanni.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Deacon of the VII and XIV ecclesiastical Regions of Rome. Subscribed the documents of the Roman Synod of March 1, 499, convoked by Pope Symmachus in St. Peter's basilica, which issued a decree regulating the papal elections.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 5; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. ,332; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 139, no. 35.

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