The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Vigilius (537-555)
553 (III)


(3) 1. ARATORE (?-ca. 556/560)

Birth. (No date found), Liguria. He is also listed as Aratore Poeta.

Education. Some sources erroneously say that he was a Benedictine monk and Milanese or Brescian. Having become an orphan at a young age, Bishop Lorenzo of Milan brought him to his house and received him as a son. He studied in MIlan under Deuterio. He translated the Acts of the Apostles in verse, which gained him the title of poet, and dedicated it to Pope Vigilius I; the pope ordered the work preserved in the archive of the Roman Church.

Early life. He was deputy of Gothic King Athalaric in Dalmatia. He resigned his post and entered the service of the Roman Church. He was ordained subdeacon by Pope Pelagius I.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Legate before Gothic King Theodoric.

Death. Ca. 556/560, (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 9-11; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 382-383; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 141, no. 3.

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(4) 2. RUSTICO (?-ca. 595)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family. Possibly nephew of Pope Vigilius.

Education. " ... uomo di grande abilità, e di somma dottrina ... " (1)

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fiesole.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Sent by Pope Vigilius to Constantinople, where he already had being the envoy of Pope Agapetus I, to participate in the council that was going to be celebrated in that city against Patriarch Anastasius, a Monophysite. He also subscribed the sentence against Severus and Zoarus issued by Patriarch Menna of Constantinople. After some time, he was bribed with a large sum of gold by the heretics or by Felice, monk of the monastery Gillitano, he turned against Pope Vigilius, because of his refusal to subscribe the condemnation of the Three Chapters. He was deprived by the pope of his rank as punishment for his writings, in which he tried to turn the faithful against the pope. Rustico returned to the pope repented and sorrowful and was received by the pontiff with paternal clemency, reinstating him to his former rank.

Death. Ca. 595, (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 11-12; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 383; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 141, no. 4.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 11, "a man of great ability and substantial doctrine".

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(5) 3. ANATOLIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. He corresponded with Deacon Fulgentius Ferrandus of Carthage, canonist and theologian.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 14; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 383; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 141, no. 5.

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(6) 4. STEFANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. He succeeded Deacon Pelagio as apocrisiarius in Constantinople. Together with Bishop Decio of Milan, he opposed Emperor Justinian's decree against the Three Chapters and many bishops who had subscribed it, retracted themselves du to Deacon Stefano's warnings. Among the bishops who were severely admonished by the apocrisiarius for having continue supporting the imperial edict, were Patriarch Menna of Constantinople and the patriarch of Antioch and Jerusalem. Bishop Facundus of Hermianiae wrote that those patriarchs had been forced to subscribe against their will.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 14; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 383; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 141-142, no. 6.

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(7) 5. PIETRO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. On May 12, 553, he subscribed the Constitutum of Pope Vigilius I, in which he declared null and void any condemnation of the Three Chapters adopted by the Council of Constantinople.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 14-15; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 7.

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(8) 6. TEOFANIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Teofane (1).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. He was legate of Pope Agapetus I to the Council of Constantinople, together with Deacon Pelagius (?). He subscribed the documents of a Roman council convoked by Pope Vigilius. He was legate before Emperor Justinian. Archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church (?). On May 12, 553, he subscribed the Constitutum of Pope Vigilius I, in which he declared null and void any condemnation of the Three Chapters adopted by the Council of Constantinople. He valiantly fought the doctrine of the Novatori defending the definitions of the first Ecumenical Councils. He supported with valor the party of the Roman Church against the attacks of Patriarch Epiphanius of Constantinople.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 14 and 15; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283 and 291; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 8.

(1) He may be two different persons. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 14 and 15, has a biographical entry, p. 14, for Teofanio (archdeacon) and another one, p. 15, for Teofane, (deacon). Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, lists him as Teofanio (archdeacon) on p. 283; and as Teofane (deacon) on p. 291. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 142, no. 8, lists him as Theophane, cardinal deacon in 553 and adds that Cristofori indicates, with a question mark, that he was first deacon (archdeacon).

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