The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Gregory I the Great (590-604)

Living presbyters cardinalis and deacons cardinalis


(1) 1. LORENZO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Silvestro nelle Esquilie (Equitii). Librarian of the Holy Church (1). Protoprete or archpriest.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, cols. 408 and 418; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 1.

(1) He may be the same as Deacon cardinalis Lorenzo (580?).

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(2) 2. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio (Vestinæ).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 89; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 2.

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(3) 3. SPECIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio .

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 3.

(1) Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 84, lists at the same time a Candido as occupant of this title.

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(4) 4. DEUSDEDIT (?-618)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Subdeacon Stefano. He is also listed as Deodato; and as Adeodato I.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. He became a priest c. 575. (No other information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachius or Bizantis) in 590. He was the first presbyter cardinalis to be elected pope since John II. He was the candidate of the party opposed to the pro-monastic policies of Popes Gregory I and Boniface IV. He had been a priest for forty years when elected to the papacy and was already elderly.

Papacy. Consecrated Pope Deusdedit (or Adeodato I) on October 19, 615, five months after the death of his predecessor. The long vacancy of the papacy was due once again to the difficulty to obtain confirmation of the appointment by the Emperor of Constantinople. He promoted the clergy rather than the religious to ecclesiastical offices. He extended to all the churches of Rome the constitution of Pope Leo I the Great, which ordered to celebrate a second mass as it was done in the major basilicas, thus introducing an evening office parallel to the morning Eucharistic liturgy. During his pontificate, in August 618, Rome was affected by an earthquake; and shortly after by an epidemic of scab disease. He distinguished himself for his great charity toward the poor and the afflicted by the epidemic. There was a serious mutiny of the Byzantine forces in Italy, disgrunted at the failure of their pay to arrive. Exarch John and other government officials at Ravenna were assassinated. Pope Deusdedit remained loyal to Emperor Heraclius throughout the upheaval, and gave a warm welcome to the new exarch, Eleutherius, who restored order by eliminating the rebels en masse, when he visited Rome. According to John the Deacon, Pope Deusdedit granted the bishop of Concordia, who had taken refuge with his flock for fear of the Longobards, the island of Caorle, as a new seat of his bishopric. His pontifical lead seal, which represented the Good Shepherd with his sheep between the Alpha and the Omega, symbols of Christ as the beginning and the end of everything, on the front and on the back the words "Deusdedit Papa" on three lines, is the oldest preserved original. It seems that with him began the sealing of pontifical documents with this round piece of lead, like a coin or a medal, in Latin bulla, as a result of which the documents became known as "bulls." He ordained twenty eight bishops for various sees; fourteen priests; and five deacons.

Death. November 8, 618, possibly because of the epidemic, in Rome. Buried in Saint Peter's basilica. His epitaph was composed, a few years later, by Pope Honorius I and describes him as simple, devout, wise, and shrewd (1). On his deathbed he made the first recorded funerary bequest by a pope to his clergy; it is believed to have been the equivalent of a year's stipend to each.

Sainthood. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast was celebrated on November 8 together with that of Pope Nicholas I the Great. The recent Universal Calendar of the Church carries none of the three names by which he may have been known: Deusdedit, Deodato or Adeodato.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 110; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 4; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 69; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de Louis Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales. "Introduction bibliographique" : v. 3, I, 319-320; Morello, Giovanni. "Adeodato I (Deusdedit), papa, santo", Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 24; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 237.

Links. Biography by Leo Kelly, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Girolamo Arnaldi, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his image and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in English, The Lives of the Popes in the Seventh Century, The History and the Lives of the Popes; biography by Joseph Brusher, S.J., in English, Popes through the Ages; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, from the same source; his engraving, also from the same source; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Le Liber pontificalis, I, 390:

CUR TITULATA DIU TORPUERUNT IDRA SEPULCRI
ET POPULI NULLUS PERSTREPUIT GEMITUS ?
SEGNITIES NON CULPA FUIT QUICUNQUE REQUIRIS ;
NAM DOLOR INCLAUSUS PIUS LACERARE SOLET.
PANDE, DOLOR, GEMITUM, MERITISQUE QUIESCE BEATIS
UT LIBEAT SUMMI GESTA REFERRE PATRIS.
HIC VIR AB EXORTU PETRI EST NUTRITUS OVILE,
SED MERUIT SANCTI PASTOR ADESSE GREGIS.
PURA FIDES HOMINIS, VOTIS FUNDATA BENIGNIS
EXCUVIANS CHRISTI CANTIBUS HYMNISONIS ;
SIMPLICITAS SAPIENS VIVAX SOLLERTIA SIMPLEX,
SERPENTINA FUIT SIMPLICITATE VIGENS.
CUMQUE QUATER DENOS COMPLERET PRESBYTER ANNOS
PERFECTUM NUMERUM TERQUE QUATERQUE GERENS.
HOC TIBI PRO MERITIS SUCCESSOR HONORIVS AMPLIS
MARMORE CONSTRUXIT MUNUS EPITAPHII.

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(5) 5. ANDROMACO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Andronico.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 5.

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(6) 6. CRESCENTE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 49; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 142, no. 6.

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(7) 7. RUSTICO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Gabino e Susanna alle due Case.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 135; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 7.

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(8) 8. VILIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Vile and as Vilius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 8.

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(9) 9. PIETRO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere (Giulio e Callisto Pontifici).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 54; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 9.

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(10) 10. STEFANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 114; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 10.

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(11) 11. BASSO (?-before 603)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bassus

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto (1).

Death. Before 603 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 78; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 11.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 143, no. 11, says that Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 78, places a Bonifacio occupying the title at the same time but adds that Bonfiacio was the archpriest (not cardinalis). "Essai" also indicates that Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, col. 408, omits Basso and in his place lists Felice, who was presbyter cardinalis of S. Sixto en 603.

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(12) 12. PIETRO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 124; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 12.

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(13) 13. GIUSTO (?-before 604)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Juste and as Justin.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.

Death. Before 604 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 75; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 13.

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(14) 14 SPECIOSO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Specious.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 14.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 140, no. 8, says that he may be the same as Presbyter cardinalis Specioso (500), listed by Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 138, which given the long time span of ninety years, seems odd.

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(15) 15. MAURO (?-before 604)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Maur and as Maurus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Aquila e Prisca.

Death. Before 604 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 107; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 15.

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(16) 16. VITTORE (?-before 604)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Victor.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia in Trastevere (1).

Death. Before 604 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 16.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 143, no. 16, indicates tha Franceso Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. 66, omits him listing instead Bonifcacio Gotus, who was archpriest, but not presbyter cardinalis. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, col. 409, includes him in the list of archpriests.

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(17) 17. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono in Trastevere.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 92; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 17.

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(18) 18. AVENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Aventino.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 61 "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 18.

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(19) 19. FELICE (?-before 612)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Felix.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina nel Monte Aventino.

Death. Before 612 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 19.

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(20) 20. BONO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bon.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio nelle Esquilie.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 149; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 20.

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(21) 21. BASSO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bassus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Pudente e Pudenziana (Pastore).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 131; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 21.

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(22) 22. ALBINO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Albin.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro. He was the first titular of this ancient basilica.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 121; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 22.

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(23) 23. AVENTINO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Aventin.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme di Diocleziano.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 143; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 23.

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(24) 24. FORTUNATO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Fortuné and as Fortunat.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 152; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 24.

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(25) 25. ANDROMACO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Andromaque.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli (Eudoxiæ ad Vincula) (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 99; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 25.

(1) This very ancient title is mentioned in the Pontificate of Pope Symmachus, toward 498. It was erected in the church that replaced the one that Empress Eudoxia had demolished after the death of her husband Emperor Arcadius. It had in hts treachure the chains of Saint Peter the Apostle and that is why it took the name of S. Pietro in Vincoli. It was consecrated again by Pope Pelagius I in 556. The title still exists.

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(26) 26. GIOVINO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Gioviano.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 408 ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 265; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 33.

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(27) 27. SABINIANO (?-606)

Birth. (No date found), Bieda, Tuscany (or in Volterra, civitate Olera). Son of Bono.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Apocrisiarius (legate) in Constantinople until 597.

Papacy. Elected pope in March 604, he was consecrated on September 13, 604. He refused to help the starving Romans because he thought the past popes had spoiled them by giving them corn for free or for very low prices. He offered the Romans corn at inflated prices. Because of the people's anger about the corn, his burial, on the day he died, had to take place in a secret procession. The funeral cortege left from the papal residence at the Lateran and made a wide detour around the city to Saint Peter's basilica to avoid the Roman mob, who might have thrown his body into the Tiber river.

Death. February 22, 606, Rome. Buried n a tomb under the pavement of Saint Peter's basilica, Rome. His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old Saint Peter's basilica in the seventeenth century. Only fragments of the original epitaph remain in the Vatican grottoes, but fortunately it was recorded in its entirety (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21-22; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 419-422; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; Del Re, Niccolò. "Sabiniano, papa", Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 909; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 26; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 68; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 48; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 220.

Links. Biography by Horace Mann, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Antonio Sennis, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his image and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English, The Lives of the Popes in the Seventh Century, The History and the Lives of the Popes; his arms and engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving from the same source; another engraving also from the same source.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 48:

SAEVA VORAX NIL POSSE TVAS MORS ASPICE VIRES
VIVIT IN AETERNVM QVEM PEREMISSE PVTAS
NAM BONA DISTRIBVENS QVI NIL MIGRANDO RELINQVIT
PER TE POST MISSAS IRE VIDETVR OPES
HIC PRIMVM SVBITAM NON SVMPSIT LAVDE CORONAM
SED GRADIBVS MERVIT CRESCERE SANCTVS HOMO
ATOVE HOMINVM VITIVM BLANDO SERMONE REMOVIT
NEC IVDEX CVLPIS SED MEDICINA FVIT
PRAESVLE QVO NVLLVM TVRBAVIT BELLICVS HORROR
SAEVA NEC ANGELICI WLNERIS IRA FVIT
QVEM FAMIS IRA DAPES QVEM NVDVS SENSIT AMICTVM
VINCEBAT LACRIMIS OMNIA DIRA SVIS
HIC REQVIESCIT SABINIANVS QVI SED ANN I M V D VIIII
DP VIII K MART P C FOCAE AVG ANNO QVARTO IND VIII

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(28) 28. ANATOLIO (?-before November 27, 602)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. He succeeded Cardinal Sabiniano as apocrisiarius (legate) in Constantinople in 597. He died before Emperor Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus.

Death. Before November 27, 602, Constantinople. Buried at an unknown place in that city.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 418; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 22; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de lise générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 27.

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(29) 29. BONIFACIO (?-607)

Birth. (No date found), most probably in Rome. From a family of Greek origin. Son of Iohannes Cataadioce. He is also listed as Bonifacio Catodici.

Education. Monk of the monastery of S. Sebastiano, Rome. (No further educational information found).

Cardinalate. Archpriest of the title of S. Sisto. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Later transferred to the order of cardinal priests. In 1603, he was sent as apocrisiarius (legate) before Emperor Phocas in Constantinople, with whom he established friendly relations. In the letter sent by Pope Gregory I to the emperor, the cardinal is called Difensore della Chiesa.

Papacy. Consecrated Pope Boniface III on February 19, 607, after almost a year of vacancy of the see of Rome. He obtained from Emperor Phocas a formal declaration that Rome, the see of Saint Peter, was head of all the churches. The occasion was marked by the erection in Rome of a gilded statue of the tyrannical emperor with an adulatory inscription. Another proof of good relations between Pope Boniface III and the emperor was the latter's ending of his predecessors' policy of tolerance towards the schism in Venetia-Istria caused by the Three Chapters controversy, and his instruction to exarch Smaragdus to take strong measures against its followers. He celebrated in Saint Peter's basilica a synod, attended by seventy two bishops, thirty three priests, deacon and all the clergy of Rome, which issued a constitution that prohibited anyone under pain of excommunication (sub anathemate), during the lifetime of a pope or of a bishop, to treat of or to discuss the appointment of his successor, adding that no steps were to be taken to provide for a successor until three days after the burial of the deceased. The acts of the council are lost, and it is not known what may have been the occasion for the decree.

Death. November 10 (or 12), 607, Rome. Buried in Saint Peter's basilica, Rome (1). His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the basilica in the seventeenth century for the construction of the new basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 19-20; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 423-426; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; De Angelis, Maria Antonietta "Bonifacio III, papa", Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 151; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 28; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p.68-69; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de Louis Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales. "Introduction bibliographique" : v. 3, I, 316; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 48-49; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 220.

Links. Biography by Thomas Oestereich, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Paolo Bertolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 12 (1971), Treccani; his image and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English, The Lives of the Popes in the Seventh Century, The History and the Lives of the Popes; biography by Joseph Brusher, S.J., in English, Popes through the Ages; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same source; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his arms and engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Le Liber pontificalis, I, 316:

POSTQVAM MORS, CHRISTI PRO NOBIS MORTE PERISTI
IN DOMINI FAMVLOS NIL TIBI IVRIS ERIT
PONE TRVCEM RUBIEM, NON EST SAEVIRE POTESTAS;
AVT QVID VICTA FVRIS NIL NOCITVRA PIIS ?
HOC SIQVIDEM MELIVS DIMISSO VIVITVR ORBE
CVM TAMEN VT VIVAT HIC SIBI QVISQVE FACIT
HOC SITA SVNT PAPAE BONIFATII MEMBRA SEPVLCRO
PONTIFICALE SACRVM QVI BENE GESSIT OPVS
IVSTITIAE CVSTOS, RECTVS PATIENSQVE, BENIGNVS
CVLTVS IN ELOQVIIS ET PIETATE PLACENS
FLETE ERGO MECVM PASTORIS FVNERA, CVNCTI
QVOS TAEDET CITIVS HIS CARVISSE BONIS
HIC REQVIESCIT BONEFATIVS QVI SEDIT MENSES VII DIES XXII. DEPOSITVS
PRIDIE IDVS NOV., IMPERANTE DOM(NO) N(OSTRO) FOCA P(ER)P(ETVO) AVG(VSTO)
ANNO VI, INDICT(IONE) XI.

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(30) 30. ONORATO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).He is also listed as Honorat.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Named archdeacon by Pope Gregory I in 591, when Deacon cardinalis Lorenzo was deprived of that post. Apocrisiarius (legate) in Constantinople in place of Lorenzo.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 22; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 418; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essi de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 30.

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(31) 31. PIETRO, O.S.B. (?-606)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church (1).

Death. March 12, 606 (no place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 22-24; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 418-419; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 31.

(1) According to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 143, no. 31, some sources contest his cardinalat.

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(32) 32. GORDIANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Married Silvia, future saint. They had a son, Gregorio, future Pope Gregory I and saint. He is also listed as Gordiano Aniceto and as Anicio Gordiano.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was a Roman senator. Entered the ecclesiastical state with the consent of his wife.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 24-25; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 419-420; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 283; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 32.

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(33) 33. AGAPITO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Agapito Rustico.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Protodeacon in 590.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried at an unknown place.

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 143, no. 34.

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