The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Zacharias (741-752)
Before 750 (IV)


(21) 1. STEFANO (?-757)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family from the region of S. Maria in Via Lata (via del Corso). Son of Costantino. Brother of Pope Paul I, his successor.

Education. After the death of his father, while he was still a child, he was admitted, together with his brother Paolo, in the school of the Lateran patriarchium and educated by its clergy during the pontificates of Popes Grgeory III and Zacarias.

Sacred orders. He received all the sacred orders up to the diaconate from Pope Zacarias.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church before 750.

Papacy. Elected pope on May 29, 752. Took the name Stephen II (III). Soon after the election of the new pope, Lombard King Astolfo, then master of the exarchate of Ravenna, who was determined to conquer the rest of Italy, began his march south to conquer Rome. The pope sent an embassy, headed by his brother, Deacon Paul, which managed in June to stop the advance and obtained the renewal of a twenty-year truce already granted to Roman Duchy by King Liutprand. But after a while, Astolfo repented of the concession and demanded payment of an annual tribute. To no avail a second embassy, led by the abbots of Monte Cassino and St. Vincenzo al Volturno, tried to negotiate of King Astolfo because it was not even received. Meanwhile, the new Byzantine Emperor Constantine V, sent several messages requesting the return of territories occupied by the Lombards. Pope Stephen II (III) sent the imperial messanger to King Astolfo, accompanied by his brother Deacon Paul, but even this embassy had no outcome. The Lombard king asked at this point the unconditional surrender of Rome and threatened to massacre its inhabitants in the face of military opposition. With the exchange of ambassadors, including one of the pope to the emperor requesting military aid, which was the last of its kind and fell into nothing, the situation became more and more dramatic; the time for a possible peaceful resolution before the firm stance of Astolfo was very short, but the dragging of their feet had become an art. Contemporizing with King Astolfo was part of the pope's strategy. The Roman people was in a justified state of alarm. The pope delivered a beautiful sermon in the manner of Pope Gregory the Great to highlight the danger for the holy places of the city, and led a procession through the streets of Rome behind a huge cross on which the document with which King Astolfo had committed to maintaining peace, had been posted

At the beginning of 753, the pope sent Frankish King Pepin, in great secrecy, a message with a pilgrim who was returning from Rome to his native France, in which the pope asked for a private meeting with the king. In the meantime, the papal chancery was conducting all the diplomatic preparations for the meeting;. Pope Stephen II wanted to present to King Pepin a specific request for military help against King Astolfo, but not for the reconstitution of an exarchate in Italy, or for the crumbling of the Byzantine power , from which the papacy had already suffered religious quarrels and military oppression. The pope wanted the lands occupied by the Lombard as properties of St. Peter because this was attested by an old imperial document, the Constitutum Constantini (1). In the summer of 753, came the answer from King to Pepin thorugh Abbot Drottedango of Gorizia. The monarch said that he was well disposed to meet with the pope and to fulfill the pontiff's wishes. Shortly after, the king sent to Rome Duke Autari Bishop Chrodegang of Metz, who escorted and companied the pope during the trip. On October 4, 753, the pope left Rome, but went first to Pavia, the capital of the Lombard kingdom, as the bearer of the numerous requests made by Emperor Constantine V, who had asked the pope to act as intermediary with King Astolfo, for the return of the Byzantine territories. Pope Stephen II (III), knew that the claim was totally useless and he was not interested to advocate one thing for which he would need false documents. The visit to Pavia was intended to mask the eyes of Byzantium of his true intentions. King Astolfo did not dare to impede the continuation of the papal trip, which official reasons were to help Kin Pepin to solve internal political problems; to solve which the pope lent his charitable work; to this, King Astolfo could not resist, considering that he was also an ally of the Franks. Officially Pope Stephen II (III) went to France to solemnly consecrate Pippin a second time, act that was necessary to silence the resentment of some layers of the Frankish people which still saw King Pippin in a usurper. The pontiff had made officially holy every aspect of his journey. On November 15, 753, the pope left Pavia and crossed the Alps (the first pope to do so) and was greeted at the border by the ambassadors of the Frankish king, Abbot Folrado of St. Denis, and Duke Rotardo. Then, the pontiff met Prince Charles. The meeting between King Pepin and Pope Stephen II (III) finally took place on January 6, 754 in the royal castle of Ponthion, south of Chalons-sur-Marne; the king went to meet the pope protrating before him and providing him the service ofstableman according to the ceremonial of the Byzantine court. The talks began and at Ponthion, the pope with the Constitutum Constantini in hand, asked for help from King Pepin to repossess the territories of St. Peter, with a commitment to the defense of the Church; the king made a solemn oath. But the actual contractor of the king is St. Peter, who is considered as a single entity with his successor and representative. So it was the Prince of the Apostles, the Keeper of the Gate of Heaven who had invested Pepin to defend his personal prerogatives and the privileges of his Church.

The commitments made by King Pepin meant breaking the alliance with the Lombards against any alliance with the Lombards; and against any possible retaliation by the Byzantines there was the text of the Constitutum Constantini. However, the king had to submit his decision to the nobles of the Franks; Pope Stephen II (III) took up residence in the abbey of St. Denis and waited for the events. King Pepin held talks at two meetings: in March at Berny-Rivihre-sur-Aisne and in April in Quierzy, and here everything was decided. King Astolfo, who had started to suspect something, had convinced the king's brother, Carlomanno, who had become a monk, to become his ambassador before Frankish king and to remind King Pepin to respect the alliance with the Lombards. The poor monk was arrested by the pope for having illegally left his convent and ended his days in the monastery-prison of Vienne.The Treaty of Quierzy was redacted in an official document called Promissio Carisiaca or "pledge of Pippin "which unfortunately has been lost. The document, beyond confirming the promise of protection of Ponthion for the defense of the Church of Rome, listed the exact areas that would enjoy this protection. According to the Liber pontificalis, in the biography on Pope Adrian I, Pepin had made a gift to St. Peter of Corsica and the cities and lands located south of a line from Luni to Parma, Reggio, Mantua and Monselice, including the Lombard Tuscia and the Exarchate of Ravenna, and in addition Venice and Istria, and the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The treaty of Quierzy had essentially decided the conquest by the Franks of the Lombard kingdom, with delivery to St. Peter of the stolen assets of the Church of Rome and those already belonging to the emperor, such as the Exarchate of Ravenna and the Pentapolis.

The treaty was officially confirmed on June 28, 754 in St. Denis. Pope Stephen II (III) proceeded then to the solemn anointing King Pippin, Bertrada his wife, and his two sons Charlemagne and Carloman. King Pippin was acknowledged as "king by the grace of God"; the chrism of God's grace gave him a charisma to the "blood", sanctified by the pronunciation of excommunication against anyone who had recklessly tried to elect a king belonging to a stock other than the Carolingian. Moreover, the pope granted to the king and his sons the dignity of patricius Romanorum, a title which sanctified the promise of Ponthion. At this point, action against the Lombards should take place; King Pepin actually tried to resolve the issue peacefully, asking King Astolfo in three successive embassies to return the occupied territories. Seen the attempts were in vain, in August 754 King Pepin started for Italy accompanied by the pope. After passing the Alps, the clash between the two monarchs took place in Susa and King Astolfo was defeated; he shut himself up in Pavia asking to negotiate peace. King Astolfo promised under oath to return the Exarchate and Pentapolis to the "Romans"; as well as the papal territories he had occupied; King Pepin escorted the pope to Rome and returned to his lands, convinced he had accomplished his task. Instead, King Astolfo did not keep his oath and immediately put in place a new invasion against the Roman duchy. Pope Stephen II(III) sent a letter to King Pepin very annoyed on behalf of St. Peter, accusing him of having left Rome unprotected, expressing the fear of having being deceived and finally calling the Frankish king ingenuous for having believed the promises of King Astolfo. The pope also lamented having taken such a dangerous journey to go and consecrate in person a king so ungrateful; the pontiff concluded recalling that on the Day of Judgement the king would have to account to God and to St. Peter for having failed the promise made. Meanwhile, King Astolfo was advancing with all the military forces at his disposal and it seemed that not only he wanted to conquer Rome, but the whole of Italy. On June 1, 756, the Lombards proceeded towards the city from three directions; via Salaria, Latina and Trionfale. The surrounding country was ruthlessly sacked, the siege lasted fifty six days and King Pepin did appear. Pope Stefano II (III) sent him Abbot Verner, telling the monarch in other letters, the desperate situation of Roma. The tone was even more fiery and the pope said he was inspired directly by S. Peter in these representations. The letters ended with threats of excommunication. King Pepin decided to return to Italy. Only news that the Franks were coming persuaded King Astolfo to lift the siege of Rome and march back north to repel the enemy at the border, but the Lombards did not manage to defeat them, and had to put down their weapons and surrender at their discretion. King Astolfo was only granted ownership of Pavia, the rest of the kingdom was delivered to the pope. In the meantime, there were present in Rome three legates of Byzantine Emperor Constantine V, who, not knowing of the treaty of Quierzy and of the Constitutum Constantini, innocently forwarded to King Pepin a request to repossess the Byzantine territories that the Frankish king had regained. Pepin surprised the legates responding quite frankly that he had made two expeditions to Italy to reconquer those territories for the sake of St. Peter, to whom they belonged, and for the salvation of his soul; explained that there would not be sufficient treasures in all the world to induce him to betray his word to St. Peter and reiterated its intention to hand over all the territories to the pope. Those territories, in addition to those of the Exarchate, were Ravenna, Rimini, Pesaro, Cesena, Cattolica, Fano, Senigallia, Jesi, Forlimpopoli, Forli, Castrocaro, Montefeltro, Arteria, Monte di Lucaro, Serra dei Conti, Castello di S. Marino, Sarsina, Urbino, Cagli, Canziano, Gubbio, Comacchio, Narni, Rome and the surrounding area, the Campagna. And this time there was no possibility for King Astolfo to ignore his commitments as each territory was entrusted to the plenipotentiary of King Pepin, Abbot Fulredo, with the keys to the city and the delivery of hostages. The keys were deposited together with the new deed of donation of King Pepin in the Confession of St. Peter and the whole became the eternal property of the representative of the apostle and all his successors. It was the summer of 756 and the Papal State had begun.

Shortly after, King Astolfo died and Pope Stephen II (III) communicated the news to King Pepin in a letter to really unworthy of a pope because of the ignoble tone with which he railed against a dead man, calling him tyrant, follower of the devil, who wanted to suck the blood of Christians, and devastate the churches of God, adding that the late king was wounded by a divine dagger and plunged into the abyss of hell.A new Lombard king was elected on March 7, 757, he was Desiderio, duke of Tuscany, who, given the circumstances of the time, decidedthat to make friends with the pope, and so he gave the pontiff some cities which were still Lombard like Bologna, Imola, Osimo, Ancona, Faenza and Ferrara. Pope Stephen II (III) willingly accepted the new king's offer. The former Lombard king, Ratchis, who had left the convent to claim his right to the throne of his dead brother, Astolfo, but terrified by the threats of excommunication, decided to take tha habit back. Pope Stephen II (III) had ended up being feared by the sovereigns and the increasingly fiery tone of his letters testified to that, hence the behavior of persons like Desiderio and and Ratchis.

Pope Stephen II (III) also made major contributions in the construction of religious buildings. He turned his family mansion into a monastery dedicated to St. Denis. He restored the basilica of S. Larenzo fuori le mura and in the atrium of St. Peter's basilica, he raised a bell tower covered with gold and silver plates. He also built in the basilica of the Prince of Apostles the chapel of Santa Petronilla, supposed daughter of the fisherman of Galilee, and the sanctuary was raised in honor of King Pepin, the adopted son of St. Peter. Finally, he founded a large number of inns for pilgrims. The pope died at the height of his political power.

Death. April 26, 757, Rome. Buried under the pavement of the atrium of St. Peter's basilica (2). His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 35; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 525-532; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XXXVIII; Delogu, Paolo. "Stefano II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, I, 660-665; Del Re, Niccolò. "Stefano II (III), papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1012-1013; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 147, no. 21; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 91-92; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, I, 440-462; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 131, no. 93; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 59; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 271-277.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); his image and biography, in English; biography, in English; his image and biography, in English, Christian History Timeline; biography, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli italiani; biography, in Italian, by Paolo Delogu, Enciclopedia dei papi; his image and biography, in Italian; biography, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, from the same source; engraving, also from the same source (the number designation is confused but the dates of the pontificate are correct); his engraving, iStockphoto;engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his emgraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same surce.

(1) As it has been noted, this document is a forgery, and credit for having first recognized the inauthenticity goes to Cardinal Nicholas von Cusa and Lorenzo Valla. The place of creation of the false document is to be found in Rome at the time before papal trip to the kingdom of the Franks. The document comes as a direct edict of Roman Emperor Constantine to Pope Sylvester I and his successors. When the emperor fell ill and was healed by the pope, Constantine decided to give the representative of Christ the principatus potestas, and to elevate the seat of St. Peter's throne above the ground giving it imperial dignity and honor. Accordingly, the Church was recognized as a separate religious state whose king is Christ, its founder, emperor of heaven, represented by the pope on earth that has the same functions an earthly emperor. Therefore, the imperial crown belonged to the pope, who did not want use it, allowing its use to Constantine, hence the many territorial gifts made by the emperor, which were to give body the rule of the Church: the Lateran Palace, with all the distinctives of the imperial dignity, and the potestas over the city of Rome, the provinces of Italy and the entire West. This is because Constantine reserved to his discretion the East with its capital Byzantium, where he moved with the consent of the pope because he did not consider appropriate that the emperor exercised his potestas in the same seat of the heavenly emperor. Finally, the appointment of a patricius Romanorum, or military defender of those territories belonged to the pope. This fake document would form the legal basis for claims that Pope Stephen II (II) intended to present to King Pepin during the trip, claiming a 'right' acquired by the representative of Christ on earth.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 59:

SUBIACET HIC STEPHANVS
ROMANVS PAPA SECVNDVS

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(22) 2. PAOLO (?-767)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family from the region of S. Maria in Via Lata(via del Corso). Son of Costantino. Brother of Pope Stephen II (III), his predecessor.

Education. After the death of his father, while he was still a child, he was admitted, together with his brother Stefano, future pope, in the school of the Lateran patriarchium and educated by its clergy during the pontificates of Popes Grgeory III and Zacarias.

Sacred orders. He was ordained a deacon by Pope Zacharias. He closely collaborated with his brother during the latter's pontificate.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church before 750. He held important diplomatic missions before the Lombards in times of extreme difficulty for the Church of Rome. In June 752, at the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Stephen II (III), he negotiated a forty-year peace between Rome and the Lombard King Astolfo, who had just occupied Exarchate of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, Byzantines provinces in central Italy. When Astolfo broke the peace and committed a series of violent acts to compel the inhabitants of Rome and its territory to submit, Deacon Paolo was sent together with a Byzantine ambassador to Ravenna, where the Lombard king was residing, to try to persuade him to return the territories invaded. His role is not known during the dramatic events of the years 754-756, when the Frankish king Pepin, prompted by Pope Stephen II (III), conducted two subsequent military campaigns in Italy against Astolfo, defeating him and forcing him to surrender to the pope the Byzantine territories that had occupied. In early 757, after the death of Astolfo, he negotiated an agreement with Desiderio, former royal delegate in Tuscany, who was a candidate to succeed the late Lombard king against his brother Ratchis. Desiderio requested the the papal support, both inside and outside of the Lombard kingdom before King Pepin; he promised to join the new political system based on the alliance between the papacy and the Frankish king, who after his victory controlled Italy in fact, and promised to enforce the commitments made by King Astolfo and transfer to the papacy the cities and areas in Emilia and the Marche region, annexed to the Lombard kingdom about thirty years earlier by King Liutprand. In March-April 757, when Pope Stephen II (III) fell ill, Deacon Paolo settled in Lateran patriarchium with a group of supporters not only to assist the dying pope, but also to guard the seat of government in view of the papal succession. Archdeacon Theofilatto, who aspired to the papacy, was promoted by the faction which made the occupant of the post of archdeacon the natural candidate to the pontificate. Deacon Paolo was instead backed by a party in which, in addition to the close associates of Pope Stephen II (III), were also members of the Roman lay nobility, who wished to ensure the continuation of the policies of the late pope, with the strengthening of papal rule in the former Byzantine of the Exarchate, Pentapolis, as well as in the Roman duchy. Because of his family background and his participation in the government of his brother, Deacon Paolo seemed the most suitable candidate to implement this program. On the death of Stephen II, he was indeed elected, because his party was "more valuable and stronger," as the papal biographer said, and managed to disperse the supporters of the archdeacon.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 29, 757. Took the name Paul I. In a letter to King Pepin, the new pope announced his election; the king replied with a congratulatory letter asking him to be godfather to his daughter Gisela. Sending a lock of hair of the girl was a tangible sign of royal favor to the pope. But te Frankish king also wrote a letter to the Roman nobility and people urging them to remain faithful to St. Peter, a clear sign that the king had learned of the ferment of popular opposition in the people and on the clergy to the philofrankish policy that the pope wishee to continue. The answer to this letter was probably entrusted to a papal notary, given the obsequious and official tone in which it was written, it said, in essence, that the Romans recognized the pope as their dominus and honored the king as the protector of the pope. The relations with the Lombards proceeded instead with great uncertainty. The delivery of Bologna, Imola, Osimo and Ancona, promised as donation to Pope Stefano II (III), still had not happened and King Desiderio wanted to settle old scores with the dukes Spoleto and Benevento. Iin fact, the Lombard king moved against them. The first, Alboirto, he was imprisoned; and the other, Liutprand, escaped from Benevento and found refuge in Otranto. Desiderio elected Arichi, his vassal, as duke of Benevento, and once he arrived in Naples, Desiderio met with the imperial envoy George, and began negotiations toward a Lombard-Byzantine alliance, which would have opposed the Franco-papal. But Byzantium was not too inclined to break with the Franks.

Despite the situation, King Desiderio went to Rome, invited by Pope Paul I. The pope tried to appease the wrath of the Lombard king and at the same time reminded him of the surrender of the four cities. King Desiderio replied evasively; rather he claimed the hostages that King Astolfo had to sendt to King Pepin as a guarantee of the truce. The pope pretended to agree and, once freed of the Lombard king, sent a letter to King Pepin lamenting the devastation done by the Lombards and recommended not to return the hostages. The situation did not seem to find an outlet. King Desiderio continue keeping the promised cities and the patrimony of the Church. Pope Paul I continued to send complaints to King Pepin, though did not have the convincing power of his brother. The Lombard king became more defiant in the territory of Senigallia and installed a garrison in a castle in Campania.Byzantium, which had not abandoned hope of regaining imperial Italy, operation that would have needed to make to the detriment of the new Papal State, preferred to await events, while avoiding any direct confrontation withKing Pepin. Rather, the empire tended increasingly to raise disagreements with Rome in the religious sphere. In a council celebrated in Constantinople in 754, the condemnation of the veneration of images was renewed. Ignoring the views of the pope, Emperor Constantine v sent ambassadors to the court of King Pepin with the task of convincing the Frankish king to approve the decisions of that council in the West. But King Pepin did not even minimally addressed the issue. Pope Paul I renewed his inviolable orthodox faith and in 767 convoked a council which approved the veneration of images. At the same time, the pope gave King Pepin the ideal title of defender of the Orthodox faith, which traditionally was reserved for the Byzantine emperor. Thus the pope completed the political and ideological separation of the papacy from the empire. Pope Paul I was interested, like his brother, in the construction of religious buildings, linking his name in particular to the construction of the convent of S. Silvestro. He also thought about his tomb and built the oratory of the Blessed Virgin in the Vatican to be buried in it.

Death. June 28, 767, of heat exhaustion, at the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome. The violent disturbances that followed his death made it impossible to immediately take him to St. Peter's basilica, where he had arranged his burial in a chapel he had built near the door that led to S. Petronilla. He was temporarily buried in that basilica. In the following month of October, his remains were transported along the Tiber to St. Peter's basilica and buried in the chapel of S. Maria de Cancellis, situated in the western angle of the southern transept (1). The chapel was enclosed with a bronze railing and was considered so sacred that women were not allowed to enter it. His tomb was destroyed probably during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Sainthood. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology in the 14th century, his feast is celebrated on June 28.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 35; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 533-540; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XXXVIII; Delogu, Paolo. " Paolo I, santo." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, I, 665-670; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 147, no. 22; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 92-93; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, I, 463-467; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 132, no. 94; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 59; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 277-283; Scano, Gaetana. "Paolo I, papa, santo." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 794.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, (Britannica); his image and biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli italiani; biography by Paolo Delogu, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi; his image and biography, in Italian, Santi Beati; his image and biography, in Italian; biography, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, iStockphoto; engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; another engraving from the same source.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 59:

HIC REQVIESCIT PAVLVS PAPA

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