The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope John IX
Creation of 900 (II)


(4) 1. GUIDO (?-before 940)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Ostia in 900. Consecrated (no information found). He subscribed a privilege granted by Pope John IX in favor of the church of Lucca.

Death. Before 946, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 73; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 688, no. I; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 1; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. es cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 155, no. 1; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. IV.

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(5) 2. CRISTOFORO (?-904)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Leone. He is also listed as Christophorus, Christophore and Christophe.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso ca. 900.

Antipapacy. He led a palace revolution against Pope Leo V, deposing him and taking his place at the end of July, or in September or October 903. Took the name Christopher. In December 26, 903, by the bull "Cum Romanae", he confirmed the privileges granted by Pope Benedict III and Nicholas I in favor of the monastery Corbie, diocese of Amiens, petitioned by Abbot Francone through Bishop Otgarium. He was deposed and imprisoned by Pope Sergius III in January 904 with the help of militia of Alberico I of Spoleto and French supporters. Some authors say that he spent the rest of his life in a monastery and others say that he was murdered in prison. He did not create any pseudocardinals.

Death. January 904, probably strangled, together with Pope Leo V, by orders of Pope Sergius III, Rome. Buried in the Vatican basilica. His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries (1).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 690; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XL and 139; Del Rèe, Niccolò. Cristoforo, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 429; Duchesne, Louis ; Vogel, Cyrille. Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, II, LXIX, LXXVI and 235; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 155, no. 2; Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, ; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 119; Loré, Vito. "Cristoforo, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 60; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 69; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 444-445.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biograohy, in Italian; biography, in Italian, Sapere.it; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, from the same source; and another engraving also from the same source.

(1) Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, II, 235, note 2, indicates that Pietro Mallius, a 12th century church historian, says about Christopher's tomb "Hic requiescit in ecclesia b. Petri, de quo habetur hod epitaphium:

HIC PIA CHRISTOPHORI QUIESCUNT MEMBRA SEPULTI.

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