(18) 1. TEOBALDO (?-1030)
Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Théobald, Theobaldus and Theobald II.
Education. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Albano in 995. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the suburbicarian see of Velletri in 996. He subscribed papal bulls issued on May 27, May 996; in 998/99 9; in 1015 (?); and in 1026. He attended the Roman Synod of April 6, 1027.
Death. 1030, (no place found). Buried (no information found).
Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 3 and 40; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 160, no. 17; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. V and XXII; Schwartz, Gerhard. Die Besetzung der Bistümern Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern mit den listen der Bischöfe 951-1122. Leipzig und Berlin : Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1913, p. 275.
(19) 2. KÄRNTEN, Brun von (ca. 970/972-999)
Birth. Ca. 970/972, Germany. Third son of Otto, duke of Carinthia and Franconia, and his wife Judith of Verdun. Nephew of Emperor Otto I. Cousin and chaplain of Emperor Otto III. He is also listed as Brunone and Bruno only; and as Brunone dei Duchi di Carinzia, and Bruno of Carinthia.
Education. He was educated at the court of the bishop of Worms, Hildibald, where he obtained a first-rate education; and had gained experience of business in the royal chapel. He became famous for his knowledge, and especially for his learning of the dialects which were to develop into the languages of modern Europe, which is mentioned in his epitaph.
Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).
Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title or deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church ca. 995 (1). He accompanied King Otto, as a royal chaplain, on his first trip to Rome. In Pavia, the king learned that Pope John XV, who had asked the king's help against the leader of the Roman of nobility, Crescenzio II Nomentanus, had died in early April 996. The Roman nobles sent a delegation to King Otto and asked him to name the candidate he would wish them to elect pope; the emperor at once mentioned his chaplain and cousin Bruno. He traveled to Rome accompanied by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz and Bishop Hildibald of Worms, royal chancellor. The Romans formally elected him.
Papacy. Enthroned as pope on May 3, 996, in the Vatican basilica. Took the name Gregory V, to indicate that Pope Gregory I the Great was his model. He was the first German pope. On May 21, 996, Ascension day, the pope crowned Otto III emperor and patrician, thus making him protector of the Church; the pontiff was twenty four years old and the emperor sixteen. When the new pope began to take the Roman Curia's point of view as his own, the relations with the emperor began to deteriorate; the monarch refused to renew the pact with the Holy See which Emperor Otto I had enacted in his own and his son's names, and to restore the Pentapolis, which was part of the donation of Pepin, to the Papal State, as the pope demanded. In return, the pope, in May 996, declared Gerbert, future pope Sylvester II, who had been suspended by Pope John XV, but who had become a close friend of Emperor Otto, an intruder on the see of Reims and his deposed predecessor Arnoul as the legitimate bishop. In early June 996, Emperor Otto left Rome, for a cooler climate; in the following July, the pope, aware of the resentment of the Romans by the selection of a foreign pope, feeling his position threatened, asked the emperor to return, but he declined, alleging bad health, and referred the pope to the dukes of Tuscany and Spoleto for protection. In early October 996, while the emperor was in Germany, the Romans led by Crescenzio II revolted against the pope and expelled him from the city; the pontiff sought refuge in Spoleto; he made two armed attempts to recover Rome but both failed. In January 997, Pope Gregory went to Lombardy; there he held meetings with local bishops; and probably also with Giovanni Filagatos, archbishop of Piacenza, who had recently returned from a diplomatic mission to Byzantium. In early February 997, the pope celebrated a synod in Pavia; during the gathering, Crescenzio was excommunicated. Later in same the month, arguing that the papal throne was vacant, Crescenzio and his followers, with the support from the Byzantine envoy Leo, had Archbishop Filagatos elected and installed pope with the name John XVI. The antipope was soon excommunicated by the Western episcopate. In February 998, Pope Gregory took possession of Rome; he presided over a synod at which Antipope John XVI, already appallingly mutilated, was deposed and imprisoned in a monastery; Crescenzio was beheaded in Castello Sant'Angelo. He excommunicated King Robert II of France for his marriage in 996, to Bertha, countess of Blois; they were first cousins and the union was considered incestuous. He created thirteen cardinals in three promotions.
Death. February 4, 999, of malaria, not poisoned, Rome. Buried ante secretarium iuxta Pelagium Papam, at the Vatican basilica (2). His remains were exhumed on January 15, 1609, and transferred to the Vatican grotte, where they were deposited in an ancient sarcophagus, which had been found under the floor of the basilica on August 14, 1607. The sarcophagus is now in the grotte, in the last chapel on the left, called Ottoniana, because Emperor Otto II is buried there.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 86-87; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 744, no. II; and 746-752; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 160, 18; Gregorovius, Ferdinando. Le tombe dei papi.. Roma : Edizioni del Centauro, 1931. Seconda edizione italiana riveduta e ampliata da C. Huelsen, p. 28-29; Huschner, Wolfgang. "Gregorio V." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 107-111; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 134-135; Moehs, Teta E. Gregorius V, 996-999; a biographical study. Stuttgart, A. Hiersemann, 1972. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 2); Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957, Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 163-164; Petruzzi, Caterina. "Gregorio V, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 570-571; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 75-76; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 489-495.
Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; image and biography, in English; biography, in German; biographies, in German; images and biography, in German; his genealogy; his engraving; another engraving; and another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; five engravings, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his tomb, grotte of the papal Vatican basilica; and another image of his tomb.
(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 86-87, who says that he was created cardinal by Pope John XVI (XV); Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, col. 744; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926, p. 160, 18; and his third biography in English, linked above. The other sources consulted do not mentions his cardinalate.
(2) This is the text of his original epitaph, still in existence, taken from Montini, Le tombe dei papi, p. 163:
+ HIC QVEM CLAVDIT HVMVS OCVLIS VVLTVQ (ue) DECORVM
+ PAPA FVIT QVINTVS NOMINE GREGORIVS
+ ANTE TAMEN BRVNO FRANCORVM REGIA PROLES
+ FILIVS OTTONIS DE GENITRICE IVDITH
+ LINGVA TEVTONICVS VUANGIA DOCTVS IN VRBE
+ SED IVVENIS CATHEDRAM SEDIT APOSTOLICAM
+ AD BINOS ANNOS ET MENSES CIRCITER OCTO
+ TER SENOS FEBRVO CONNVMERANTE DIES
+ PAVPERIBVS DIVES PER SINGVLA SABBATA VESTES
+ DIVISIT NVMERO CAVTVS APOSTOLICO
+ VSVS FRANCISCA VVLGARI ET VOCE LATINA
+ INSTITVIT POPVLOS ELOQVIO TRIPLICI
+ TERTIVS OTTO SIBI PETRI COMMISIT OVILE
+ COGNATIS MANIBVS VNCTVS IN IMPERIVM
+ EXVIT ET POSTQVAM TERRENAE VINCVLA CARNIS
+ AEQVIVOCI DEXTRO SVBSTITVIT LATERI
DECESSIT XII KAL. MART
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