The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Formosus (891-896)
At an unknown date between 891 and 896 (II)


(9) 1. BENEDETTO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in a promotion celebrated at an unknown date between 891 and 896. Participated in the Roman Council celebrated by Pope John IX in 898.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Sacrorum conciliorum nova, et amplissima collectio : in qua praeter ea quae Phil. Labbeus, et Gabr. Cossartius S.J. et novissime Nicolaus Coleti in lucem edidere ea omnia insuper suis in locis optime disposita exhibentur, quae Joannes Dominicus Mansi lucensis, congregationis matris dei evulgavit. Editio novissima ab eodem Patre Mansi .... Paris : H. Welter, 1901-1927. 54 v. in 57, vol. XVIII, pt. 1, col. 223.

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(10) 2. PIETRO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli (Eudoxiæ) in a promotion celebrated at an unknown date. Participated in the Roman Council celebrated by Pope John IX in 898.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Sacrorum conciliorum nova, et amplissima collectio : in qua praeter ea quae Phil. Labbeus, et Gabr. Cossartius S.J. et novissime Nicolaus Coleti in lucem edidere ea omnia insuper suis in locis optime disposita exhibentur, quae Joannes Dominicus Mansi lucensis, congregationis matris dei evulgavit. Editio novissima ab eodem Patre Mansi .... Paris : H. Welter, 1901-1927. 54 v. in 57, vol. XVIII, pt. 1, col. 223.

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(11) 3. BONIFACIO (?-896)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Adriano, bishop of an unknown see.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He had been degraded as a subdeacon by Pope John VIII. He was then rehabilitated, but the same pope degraded him as a priest for immorality and he was never rehabilitated.

Cardinalate. Presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title in a promotion celebrated at an unknown date. He was elected immediately after the death of his predecessor Pope Formosus and his election was forced by the Roman populace during the absence of Emperor Arnulfo and his resident governor Faroldo.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 11, 896 (1). Took the name Boniface VI. In April 896, he granted a privilege to the church of Grado. He did not create any new cardinals.

Death. April 26, 896, of severe gout, in Rome (2). Buried in the portico of the popes in the Vatican basilica, Rome. He was denounced at the Roman Council of 898 celebrated by Pope John IX. His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries (3).

Bibliography. Bertolini, Paolo. "Bonifacio VI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 47-48; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 679-680; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XXXIX; De Angelis, Maria Antonietta. "Bonifacio VI, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 152; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 54, no. 1; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 115; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, II, LVIII, LXXV and 228; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 146-147; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 67; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 439.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in German, Biographisch-bibliographischen Kirchenlexikon; biography, in Italian; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, in color; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; another engraving from the same source; his engraving from "Historia B. Platinae de vitis Pontificum Romanorum", Pitts Theology Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia United States of America; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Rpublic; his effigy on another medal, ArtMedals.net; and the the inscriptionon the other side of the same medal.

(1) Some sources consider his election irregular and uncanonical and list him as antipope. The Roman Council of 898, celebrated by Pope John IX, deplored and prohibited the repetition of such an uncanonical promotion.
(2) This is according to Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 115. Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, says that he was possibly assassinated although he suffered severely from gout.
(3) Although his tomb was destroyed, his epitaph has been preserved. This is its text, taken from Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 67:

ATRIA MAGNIFICIS (quae) SUNT (iam) PLENA SEPULVRI (S)
SEDIS APOSTOLICAE BONIFATI PRAESULIS ALMI
(suscipiunt corpus, etc.)
HINC SUBIT AD MODICUM VATES BONIFACIUS ALMUS
TER QUINOS HIC IN ARCE DIES EXPLEVIT HONORIS
CULMINA MOX MUTANS SUPERAT FASTIGIA CELSA
INQUE BREVI SPATIO QUAESITA CACUMINA SCANDENS
INTER APOSTOLICI PROCERES ADSCRIBITUR ALBI


   Montini, Le tombe dei papi, p. 146-147, says that although Pietro Mallio, an ecclesiastical historian of the 12th century, says that Pope Boniface VI was buried in St. Peter's basilica, it is verisimilarly a confusion with some other pope.

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(12) 4. STEFANO (?-897)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Giovanni, a priest.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church at an unknown date between 891 and 896.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Anagni in 891. Consecrated (no information found). He was elected pope (bishop of Rome) in contrast with the canonical prohibition, then in force, prohibiting the transfer of a bishop from one see to another.

Papacy. Elected pope in May or June 896. Took the name Stephen VI (VII). He was installed on June 11, 896. He celebrated the Roman Council of January 897 ("synodus ad cadaver"), in which the dead body of Pope Formosus was put on trial. The pope's corpse was exhumed, dressed in full pontifical habits and sat on a throne in St. Peter's basilica. The late pope was solemnly charged of perjury, violating the canons which prohibited the transfer of bishops from one see to another, and ambition to obtain the pontificate. The accused pope was found guilty, all his acts declared null and void, including his ordinations, and his body was thrown into the river Tiber. By anulling the ordinations celebrated by Pope Formosus, Pope Stephen VI (VII) sought to eliminate the canoncial impediment against his own promotion to the see of Rome and the papacy. Pope Stephen actively required those who had been ordained by Pope Formosus to submit documents renouncing their ordination as invalid. A few months later, there was a popular reaction, and the outraged supporters of Formosus, fired up by reports of miracles done by his humiliated corpse, and the Romans, seeing the collapse of the Lateran basilica during an earthquake as a sign from God that Pope Stephen had committed a grave sin, rebelled, deposed the pope by force, abused him and imprisoned him in Castello Sant'Angelo in Rome. He did not create any new cardinals.

Death. July or August 897, strangled, in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. Buried, ante ecclesiam, in the Vatican basilica (1). His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 72; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 681-684; and ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XL; Del Re, Niccolò. "Stefano VI (VII), papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1015-1016; Duchesne, Louis Marie Olivier. The beginnings of the temporal sovereignty of the popes, A.D. 754-1073. Authorised translation by Arnold Harris Mathew. New York ; Cincinnati ; Chicago : Benzinger Brothers, 1908. (The International Catholic Library, vol. 11), p. 197-201; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 154, no. 2; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 663; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 115-116; Loré, Vito. "Stefano VI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 48-50; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, II, LXVIII, LXXV, 229; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 147-148, no. 114; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 67-68; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 439-440.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in Italian; Le Pape Formose et Etienne VII, a paiting of the "cadaver synod" by Jean Paul Laurens (1870), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes, France; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; another his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, from "Historia B. Platinae de vitis Pontificum Romanorum", Pitts Theology Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia United States of America; engraving; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is text of his epigraph taken from Montini, Le tombe dei papi, p. 147-148, no. 114:

HIC STEPHANI PAPAE CLAVDVNTVR MEMBRA SACELLO
SEXTVS DICTVS ERAT ORDINE QVIPPE PATRVM
HIC PRIMVM REPVLIT FORMOSE SPVRCA SVPERBI
CVLMINA QVI INVASIT SEDIS APOSTOLICAE
CONSILIVM I(recte CONCILIVM) NSTITVIT PRAESEDIT PASTOR ET IPSI
LEGE SATIS FESSIS IVRA DEDIT FAMVLIS
CVMQVE PATER MVLTVM CERTARET DOGMATE SANCTO
CAPTVS ET A SEDE PVLSVS IN IMA FVIT
CARCERIS INTEREA VINCI (recte VINCLIS) CONSTRICTVS IN IMO
STRANGVLATVS VBI EXVERAT HOMINEM
POST DECIMVMQVE DIEM REGNANTI TRANSTVLIT ANNVM
SERGIVS HVC PAPA FVNERA SACRA COLENS


The laudatory epitaph was composed by Pope Sergius III, supporter of the late pope, who also built his monument.

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(13) 5. TEODORO (?-897/898)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Fozio (or Fotio, or Photius) (1). His brother Theotius was also a bishop. He is also listed as Théodore.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church at an unknown date between 891 and 896.

Papacy. Elected pope in December 897. Took the name Theodore II. He was the first to repair the injury done the body of Pope Formosus and rescued it from the river Tiber and brought it to the Vatican. He recognized the validity of the ordinations performed by Pope Formosus, which had been denied by his predecessor Pope Stephen VI (VII). He did not create any new cardinals.

Death. December 897 or January 898, assassinated, Rome. Buried in the Vatican basilica (2). His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 685; Del Re, Niccolò. "Teodoro II, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1037-1038; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XL; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 154, no. 3; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 116; Loré, Vito. "Teodoro II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 51; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, II, LXVIII, LXXV, 231; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 148, no. 116; Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1037-1038; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 68; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 441.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biograohy, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German, Biographisch-bibliographischen Kirchenlexikon; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same source.

(1) Not the patriarch of Constantinople as his third biography in English, linked above, indicates.
(2) These are the verses about Pope Theodore II in the epigraph composed by Flodoard of Reims, taken from Montini, Le tombe dei papi, p. 148, no. 116:

Dilectus clero Theodorus, pacis amicus
Bis senos Romana dies qui iura gubernans
Sobrius et castus, patria bonitate re[ertus
Vixit, pauperibus diffusus amator et altor.
Hic populum docuit connectere vincula pacis
Atque sacerdotes concordi ubi iunxit honore
Dum propriis revocat disiectos sedibus, ipse
Complacitus rapitur decreta sede locandus.

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(14) 6. GIOVANNI, O.S.B. (?-between January and May 900)

Birth. (No date found), Tivoli. Son of Rampaldo (or Ramboaldo or Rampoaldo), a nobleman.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained by Pope Formosus (no further information found). Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Tivoli.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church at an unknown date between 891 and 896. After the death of Pope Theodore II, the followers of Pope Stephen VI (VII) elected as pope Sergius, bishop of Cerveteri. He managed to take possession of the Lateran palace but the supporters of Pope Formosus, with the assistance of Lamberto of Spoleto, king of Italy, expelled Sergius and elected Cardinal Giovanni, O.S.B.

Papacy. Elected pope in December 897 or January 898. Took the name John IX. As soon as he was elected, he rehabilitated the memory of Pope Formosus and harshly condemned Patrician Sergio and his followers, who were responsible for the "cadaver synod". The new pope convoked a Roman Council in April 898, in which the validity of the the ordinations of Pope Formosus were confirmed; the gathering absolved and rehabilitated the bishops who had condemned Pope Formosus and had later implored to be pardoned; it confirmed the prohibition of the translation of bishops, the case of Formosus being considered as an exception. The council also confirmed the election and unction as emperor of Lamberto and annulled the imperial consecration of Arnolf, a German prince The pope renewed the norm for the election of the Roman pontiff, establishing that he should be elected by the bishops and clergy, "expetente senatu et populo" (at the request of the senate and the people), and consecrated in the presence of imperial legates. Convinced that the decline of the imperial power had gravely affected the papacy, Pope Giovanni IX took an energetic action to restore the empire. He did not recur to France, which was prostrated by anarchy, or to Germany, where Arnolf was languishing in his deathbed. Instead, he decided to support young Lamberto di Spoleto, who appeared to the Italians as the man destined to resolve the vacillating future of the empire. In a synod celebrated in Ravenna in 898, with the participation of Emperor Lamberto and seventy three bishops, the pope proclaimed the majesty of the emperor and instituted an imperial tribunal for the protection of the weak against the abuses of the powerful, proceeding at the same time to confirm the right of posssession of the State of the Church and the supremacy of the pontiff over them and over Rome; this synod also confirmed all the decisions of the Roman Council of April 898. Pope John IX, who in that council had shown his temper as a reformer, strove to establish efficient relations with the emperor in order to end the fratricidal struggles and to secure for Rome and the Church a period of peace. That hope was quashed by the premature death of Emperor Lambert, in a hunting accident, on October 15, 898, while at the same time a terrible invasion of Hungarians made Italy fall into a new and bloody fight. In the relations with the Oriental Church, Pope John IX was conciliatory and worked as intermediary between the factions of Ignatius and Photius. The pope sent legates to Moravia to reestablish the accord with those churches reaffirming the supremacy of Rome in the Slav territories. In March 899, he confirmed a privilege in favor of the monastery of Montecassino. He created five cardinals in two promotions.

Death. Between January and May 900, probably murdered by orders of Senatrix Teodora Teofilatti (1), Rome. Buried in an elegant marble sepulchre in the portico (or the more southerly left nave) of the Vatican basilica (2). His tomb was destroyed during the demolition of the old basilica and the construction of the new one in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 73; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ord. Praed. & aliorum opera descriptæ : cum uberrimis notis. Ab Augustino Oldoino, Soc. Jesu recognitae, et ad quatuor tomos ingenti ubique rerum accessione productae. Additis Pontificum recentiorum imaginibus, & Cardinalium insignibus, plurimisque aeneis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis. Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677, I, col. 686-688; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. XL; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux des 10 premiers siècles". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1926. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 54-155, no. 4; Gnocchi, Claudia. "Giovanni IX." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 52-52; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 116-117; Le Liber pontificalis. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1981, 1955. 3 v. : facsims. (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome). Notes: Reprint of the 1955 edition./ Includes indexes./ Vol. 3: "Additions et corrections de L. Duchesne publiées par Cyrille Vogel ... avec L'Histoire du Liber pontificalis dupuis l'édition de L. Duchesne une bibliographie et des tables générales, II, LXVIII, LXXV and 232 ; Montini, Renzo Uberto. Le tombe dei papi. Roma : Angelo Belardetti, 1957. Note: At head of title: Instituto di studi romani, p. 149, no. 117; Petruzzi, Caterina. "Giovanni IX, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 534; Petrocchi, Massimo. "La personalitá di Papa Giovanni IX (898-900)", in Massimo Petrocchi, Il simbolismo delle piante in Rabano Mauro e altri studi di storia medievale (Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1982), p. 43-55; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 68-69; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 442-443.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); his image and biography, in English; his biography, in English; biography, in German, Biographisch-bibliographischen Kirchenlexikon; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; hia engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, iStockphoto; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same source; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on another medal from the same source.

(1) This is according to Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 68, which adds that it is possible that he may have died from gout.
(2) Le liber pontificalis, II, 232, indicates that Pietro Mallio, ecclesiastical historian of the 12th century, says of Pope John IX's tomb:

"Hic requiescit ante ecclesiam pro portam Guidoneam, cuius epitaphium est hoc":

Ecclesie specimen, clarissima gemma bonorum
et mundi dominus, hic iacet eximius
lohannes, meritis qui fulsit in ordine nonus,
inter aposlolicos quem vehit altitonans.
Conciliis docuit ternis qui dogma salutis
observare, Deo munera sacra ferens.
Temporibus cuius novitas abolita mali est
et firmata fides quam statuere patres.
Qui moriturus eris, lector, dic : Papa Ioannes
cum sanctis capiat regna beata Dei.

Duchesne adds that the epitaph mentions in the fifth line the celebration by this pope of three councils but that only two (Rome and Ravenna) are known.


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