The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Papal elections of the 12th Century (1100-1198)

1100 1101 1105 1118 1118 1119 1124 1130 1130 1138 1143 1144 1145 1153 1154
1159 1159 1164 1168 1179 1181 1185 1187 1187 1191 1198 Conclaves Catalogs Home Search


Election of September 1100
(Antipope Theodoric)

Antipope Clement III died on September 8, 1100. His followers in Rome met secretly at night in St. Peter's basilica and elected and enthroned Cardinal Teodorico, bishop of Albano. He kept his given name as antipope. No information has been found about the participants in his election. Having abandoned Rome, Teodorico was seized three and a half months later and brought before Pope Paschal II. He was condemned and sent to the monastery of La Cava, Salerno, where he died in 1102 according to the epitaph in the crypt of the monastery. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

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Election of February 1101
(Antipope Albert)

Antipope Theodoric was arrested and imprisoned in January 1101. The followers of Antipope Clement III, encouraged by King Henry IV of Germany, gathered in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli in Rome and elected Cardinal Alberto, bishop of Silva Candida (Santa Rufina). Pseudocardinal Romano, title of S. Marco, participated in the election (no further information has been found about the participants in this election). Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages. The Popes of the Gregorian Renaissance, St. Leo IX. to Honorius II., 1049-1130, vol. VIII, 1099-1130, p. 14, says, "Again there was another mock election in St. Peter's. But no sooner did word of what was there being done spread abroad than the whole city was in an uproar, and the crowd rushed to the basilica. In great alarm the assembly hastily broke up; but while Albert, the newly elected antipope, who is called bishop of Sabina, contrived to make his escape to the basilica of S. Marcello, many of his party were seized and very roughly handled. A sum of money quickly bought Albert from his patron. He was stripped of the pallium he had just assumed, put on a horse behind its rider, and taken before the pope at the Lateran". After a short incarceration in a tower in Rome, he was sent to the monastery of S. Lorenzo, Aversa, near Naples; and ended his days there as a monk. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

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Election of November 18, 1105
(Antipope Sylvester IV)

Members of the Roman aristocracy, with the support of future Emperor Henry V, set up another antipope to replace Paschal II, electing Maginulfo, archpriest of S. Angelo in Pescheria, in the church of S. Maria Rotonda (the Pantheon), while the pope was outside of Rome. He took the name Sylvester IV. He was consecrated and enthroned in the Lateran on November 18, 1105. When Paschal returned to Rome the next day, the antipope left for Tivoli and finally settled in Osimo, province of Ancona, under the protection of Count Guarniero di Ancona. On April 11, 111, (Pope Paschal II and Emperor Heinrich V having reached an agreement about the investiture of bishops), the emperor, who had used him to exercise pressure on the pope, made Antipope Sylvester abandon his claim to the papacy and submit to the pope. He was allowed to live the rest of life in Ancona under the protection of his patron Duke Werner. He died shortly after his abdication. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

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Election of January 21 - 24, 1118
(Gelasius II)

Pope Paschal II died on January 21, 1118. Cardinal Giovanni da Gaeta, O.S.B.Cas. (ca. 1082) was elected on January 24, 1118. The new pope took the name Gelasius II. This is the first papal election for which Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 929-931, listed the cardinals who participated. They were fifty-one: five cardinal bishops, twenty-eight cardinal priests and eighteen cardinal deacons. Six were creations of Pope Urban II and forty-five of Pope Paschal II. Chacón mentions mong the cardinal priests a Cardinal Giovanni of S. Callisto but his existence is dubious because that title was not established until the 15th century. It is indicated that two cardinals were absent but their names were not mentioned. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Ostia, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Divizzo, bishop of Frascati.
-Pietro, seniore, bishop of Porto, vicar of His Holiness for Rome.
-Vitale, bishop of Albano.
-Crescenzio, iuniore, bishop of Sabina.
-Amico, O.S.B., title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Bonifacio, title of S. Marco.
-Benedetto, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Giovanni, title of S. Cecilia.
-Teobaldo Boccapecora, title of S. Anastasia (?).
-Teobaldo, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachus).
-Domnizzone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (Equiti).
-Anastasio, title of S. Clemente.
-Corrado, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Desiderio, title of S. Prassede.
-Adeodato, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Gregorio, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Ugo Visconti, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Gerardo, title of Ss. Prisca.
-Sasso, title of. S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Sigizzone, iuniore, title of S. Sisto.
-Pietro della Gherardesca, title of S. Susanna.
-Giovanni da Crema, title of S. Crisogono.
-Guido, O.S.B., title of S. Balbina.
-Raniero, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Pietro, title of S. Sabina.
-Amico, title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Giovanni, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Eusebio.
-Ugo, title of S. Vitale.
-Bosone, title of Ss. IV Coronati.
-Crisogono, title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane.
-Pietro, title of S. Marcello.
-Giovanni da Gaeta, O.S.B.Cas., protodeacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. (Elected Pope Gelasius II)
-Teobaldo, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Cosma, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro
-Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Gregorio Gaetani, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Pietro, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of S. Adriano al Foro.
-Romano, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Gregorio, O.S.B., deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Oderisio, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra.
-Roscemanno Sanseverino, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Aldo Ferentino, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Stefano, deacon of S. Lucia in Silice.
-Romualdo Guarna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Crescenzio, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.
-Amico, iuniore, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto.
-Crisogono Malcondini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Errico, O.S.B., deacon of S. Teodoro.

Cardinal who did not participate in the conclave:
-Kuno von Urach, Can. Reg. of Arrouaise, bishop of Palestrina, who was in his legation in France and Germany.

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Election of March 8, 1118
(Antipope Gregory VIII)

As a reprisal for Pope Gelasius II's escape to Gaeta and his refusal to immediately meet with him to discuss the affairs of the Church in Germany, Emperor Henry V named the deposed archbishop of Braga, Portugal, Maurice Bourdin, as antipope. He took the name Gregory VIII. The emperor and the antipope were excommunicated by Gelasius on April 7, 1118, at Capua. In April 1121, Gregory was in Sutri, where he had sought refuge. The papal troops of Callistus II blockaded the city for eight days until it surrendered and Antipope Gregory was turned over to them. He was taken to Rome and imprisoned in the Septizonium. After having been moved to several monasteries, he died in the Benedictine monastery of SS. Trinità de La Cava, Salerno, in 1137. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

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Election of January 29 - February 2, 1119
(Callistus II)

Pope Gelasius II died on January 29, 1119. Archbishop Guy de Bourgogne of Vienne, France, not a cardinal, was elected in Cluny, France, on February 2, 1119. Nine cardinals took part in the election. Most of the other cardinals were in Rome. The new pope, who took the name Callistus II, was crowned in Vienne on February 9, 1119 and entered Rome on June 3, 1120.

-Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Ostia, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Kuno von Urach, Can. Reg. of Arrouaise, bishop of Palestrina (1).
-Giovanni da Crema, title of S. Crisogono.
-Guido, O.S.B., title of S. Balbina.
-Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Aldo da Ferentino, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Crisogono Malcondini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Roscemanno Sanseverino, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

(1) He may be the same as Cardinal Conone, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine (1073).

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Election of December 13 to 15, 1124
(Honorius II)

Pope Callistus II died on December 13, 1124. Initially, the majority of the cardinals supported the election of Cardinal Sasso, priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio. The cardinals abandoned Cardinal Sasso's candidature and and unanimously elected Cardinal Teobaldo Boccapeccora, priest of S. Anastasia, who took the name Celestine II. The new pope had just been clothed with the pontifical insignias, when Roberto Frangipani and his armed men broke into the church of S. Pancrazio al Laterano, where a Te Deum was being sung to celebrate the election; Frangipani made Cardinal Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Ostia, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, who had supported the election of Cardinal Teobaldo, be proclaimed as Pope Honorius II; during the struggle, Cardinal Teodaldo was wounded; he resigned on the following day in favor of Pope Honorius II to avoid a schism and "rentra dans l'obscurité". Cardinal Scannabecchi accepted the pontificate after a new election took place. Since Celestine II was not consecrated or enthroned, his name does not appear in the list of popes but he should not be considered an antipope because his election was regular and legitimate. Cardinal Scannabecchi was elected pope on December 15, 1124, and took the name Honorius II. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Ostia, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Honorius II)
-Crescenzio, iuniore, bishop of Sabina.
-Pietro, seniore, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar of His Holiness for Rome.
-Vitale, bishop of Albano.
-Gilles de Paris, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Frascati.
-Guillaume, bishop of Palestrina.
-Benedetto, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Gianroberto Capizucchi, title of S. Cecilia.
-Gregorio Albergati, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Giovanni, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Eusebio.
-Gregorio Conti, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Amico, title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Domnizzone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (Equiti).
-Desiderio, title of S. Prassede.
-Anastasio, title of S. Clemente.
-Pietro della Gherardesca, title of S. Susanna.
-Oderisio, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane.
-Crescenzio, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Corrado, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Adeodato, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Bonifacio, title of S. Marco.
-Teobaldo, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachus).
-Sasso, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Sigizzone, iuniore, title of S. Sisto.
-Giovanni da Crema, title of S. Crisogono.
-Bosone, title of Ss. IV Coronati.
-Pierre de Fontaines, title of S. Marcello.
-Teobaldo Boccapecora, title of S. Anastasia. (Elected Pope Celestine II)
-Gerardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Ugo Lectifredo, title of S. Vitale.
-Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Cosma, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
-Gregorio Caetani, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Romano, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Gregorio, O.S.B., deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Roscemanno Sanseverino, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Errico, O.S.B., deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Romualdo Guarna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Étienne de Bar, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Gionata, iuniore, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Aymery de la Châtre, Can. Reg. Lat., deacon of S. Maria Nuova, chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
-Gregorio, deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto.
-Gregorio Tarquini, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Angelo, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.
-Matteo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Giovanni Dauferio, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.

Cardinal who did not participate in the papal election:
-Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere, absent because he was in his legation in France.

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Election of February 14, 1130
(Innocent II)

Pope Honorius II died on February 14, 1130. Cardinal Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, was elected his successor on that same day by a small group of cardinals led by Cardinal Aymery de la Châtre, Can. Reg. Lat., chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. He took the name Innocent II. A few hours later, Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere, proposed his own candidature to the papacy, and with the support of a majority of the cardinals, the nobles and people of Rome, he made himself be elected in the church of S. Marco and took the name Anacletus II. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Mathieu, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Albano.
-Giovanni, O.S.B.Cam., bishop of Ostia.
-Guillaume, bishop of Palestrina.
-Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina.
-Giovanni da Crema, title of S. Crisogono.
-Pietro Cariaceno, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Gerardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Pierre, title of S. Anastasia.
-Joselmo, title of S. Cecilia.
-Anselmo, Can. Reg. of S.Pietro in Cælo aureo, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. (Elected Pope Innocent II)
-Romano, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Aymery de la Châtre, Can. Reg. Lat., deacon of S. Maria Nuova, chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
-Gregorio Tarquini, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Guido di Castello, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Matteo, deacon of S. Teodoro.

Note. Lucius Lector, L'election papale, ouverage orné de gravures et de plans, suivi d'un Tableau chronologique des papes et des conclaves. Paris, P. Lethielleux, [1896]., p. 339, n. 1, indicates that the election of Innocent II shows that, in spite of the bull of Nicholas II, the practice allowing the cardinal priests and deacons to take part in the electoral process had been introduced. Innocent II had the majority of the cardinal bishops but the majority of the deacons and priests supported Antipope Anacletus II, Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere. For eight years, the antipope maintained that he had been elected "by the people and the clergy", as if Nicholas II's decree had not existed. Louis Duchesne, The Beginnings of the Temporal Sovereignty of the Popes A.D. 754 - 1073, p. 269, remarked about this situation: "When peace was concluded at Worms, 1122, the question of the papal elections was not even considered, and from that time neither emperors nor kings were involved in them. This ultimate triumph of liberty was, however, quite a different thing from the particular success of Nicholas II's decree. This latter seems shortly to have been abandoned, not in its general tenor, but with regard to its characteristic feature, i.e. the predominant rôle played by the cardinal bishops. In its general drift and by what it had in common with the tendencies of the reform party, its aim was to free the papal elections: 1st, from all interference on the part of the Roman feudal aristocracy; and 2nd, from undue and harmful interference on the part of the kings of Germany. As far as these two points were concerned, its object was attained, and even surpassed as far as the German kings were concerned, for they did not even succeed in retaining the position marked out for them by Nicholas II."

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Election of February 14, 1130
(Antipope Anacletus II)

At the death of Pope Honorius II on February 14, 1130, Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere, proposed his own candidature to the papacy, and with the support of a majority of cardinals, the Roman nobles and people, he made himself be elected in the church of S. Marco and took the name Anacletus II; a few hours earlier, a smaller group of cardinals, led by Cardinal Aymery de la Châtre, Can. Reg. Lat., chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, had elected Cardinal Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, as Pope Innocent II, in the monastery of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Celio. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 1008, two cardinal bishops, seventeen cardinal priests, and eight cardinal deacons took part in the election of the antipope. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Pietro, seniore, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gilles de Paris, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Frascati.
-Bonifacio, title of S. Marco.
-Desiderio, title of S. Prassede.
-Sasso, title of. S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Sigizzone, iuniore, title of S. Sisto.
-Pietro della Gherardesca, title of S. Susanna.
-Amico, title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere. (Elected Antipope Anacletus II)
-Crescenzio, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Gregorio Conti, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Cosma, title of S. Sabina.
-Gregorio, title of S. Balbina.
-Matteo, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Sigizzo Bianchelli, iuniore, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Alberico Tomacelli, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Ugo Lectifredo, title of S. Vitale.
-Errico, title of S. Prisca.
-Étienne de Bar, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Gionata, iuniore, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Gregorio, O.S.B., deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Angelo, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.
-Giovanni Dauferio, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Stefano, deacon of S. Lucia in Silice (or Orfea).
-Rustico de' Rustici, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Pierre, deacon of S. Adriano.

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Election of March 1138
(Antipope Victor IV)

Antipope Anacletus II died on January 25, 1138. Cardinal Gregorio Conti, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, was elected Antipope Victor IV in mid-March 1138. He resigned on March 29 thanks to the intervention of Bernard de Clairvaux, and made his submission to Innocent II, who reinstated him to his cardinalitial dignity and title on May 29, 1138 together with the other cardinals who had followed him. At the II Lateran Council, April 1139, the pope reversed his decision and deposed Gregorio and the other cardinals. For this, he was strongly criticized by Bernard. Gregorio died ca. 1140.

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Election of September 25 - 26, 1143
(Celestine II)

Pope Innocent II died on September 24, 1143. Cardinal Guido di Castello, title of S. Marco, was elected his successor two days later and took the name Celestine II. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1011-1012, thirty cardinals took part in the election: six cardinal bishops, twelve cardinal priests and twelve cardinal deacons. They were creations of Callistus II (1), Honorius II (2) and Innocent II (27). (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina.
-Theodwin, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Porto and Silva Candida (Santa Rufina).
-Albéric, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia.
-Étienne, O.Cist., bishop of Palestrina.
-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Pietro Papareschi, bishop of Albano.
-Gerardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guido di Castello, title of S. Marco. (Elected Pope Celestine II)
-Guido Bellagi, title of S. Crisogono.
-Gregorio, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Raniero, title of Ss. Prisca (ed Aquila).
-Goizzone, title of S. Cecilia.
-Pietro, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Tommaso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, title of S. Vitale.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Ubaldo, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., title of S. Prassede.
-Pietro della Gherardesca, title of S. Susanna.
-Gregorio Tarquini, protodeacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Guido da Vico, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Ubaldo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Guido di Castelfidardo, deaconry not known.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Guido Moricotti, deaconry not known.
-Niccoló, deaconry not known.
-Gilberto, deaconry not known, perhaps of S. Adriano.

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Election of March 9, 1144
(Lucius II)

Pope Celestine II died on March 8, 1144, after a brief pontificate of five months and ten days. Cardinal Gerardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno in the monastery of Lucca, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, was elected on the following day and took the name Lucius II. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1020-1021, forty two cardinals took part in the election: six cardinal bishops, twenty-one cardinal priests, and fifteen cardinal deacons. They were creations of Callistus II, Honorius II, Innocent II, and Celestine II, who in spite of his short pontificate created twelve cardinals. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina.
-Theodwin, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Porto and Silva Candida (Santa Rufina).
-Albéric, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia.
-Étienne, O.Cist., bishop of Palestrina.
-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Pietro Papareschi, bishop of Albano.
-Pietro della Gherardesca, title of S. Susanna.
-Gerardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. (Elected Pope Lucius II)
-Adinolfo, O.S.B., title not known.
-Guido Bellagi, title of S. Crisogono.
-Gregorio, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Raniero, title of Ss. Prisca (ed Aquila).
-Goizzone, title of S. Cecilia.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Pietro, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Tommaso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, title of S. Vitale.
-Ubaldo, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., title of S. Prassede.
-Niccoló, title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane.
-Gilberto, title of S. Marco.
-Robert Pullen, title of S. Martino ai Monti (1).
-Raniero, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Manfredo, title of S. Sabina. ?
-Ugo Misini, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Ariberto, title of S. Anastasia.
-Giulio, title of S. Marcello.
-Gregorio Tarquini, protodeacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Guido da Vico, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Ubaldo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Guido di Castelfidardo, deaconry not known.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Gregorio, deaconry not known.
-Gregorio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Rodolfo, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Astaldo degli Astalli, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giovanni, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Giovanni Paparoni, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.

(1) Several sources indicate that he was cardinal priest of S. Eusebio.

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The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-Guido Moricotti, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.

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Election of February 15, 1145
(Eugenius III)

Pope Lucius II died on February 15, 1145. On that same day, Bernardo Pagnelli, O.Cist., abbot of Tre Fontane, who was not a cardinal, was elected his successor and took the name Eugenius III. The election took place in the Roman church of S. Cesareo in Palatio.

-Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina.
-Theodwin, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Porto and Silva Candida (Santa Rufina).
-Albéric, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia.
-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Pietro Papareschi, bishop of Albano.
-Guarino Foscari, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, bishop of Palestrina.
-Adinolfo, O.S.B., title not known.
-Gregorio, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Guido Bellagi, title of S. Crisogono.
-Raniero, title of Ss. Prisca (ed Aquila).
-Goizzone, title of S. Cecilia.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Tommaso, Can. Reg. of S. Maria de Crescenzago, title of S. Vitale.
-Ubaldo, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Guido Moricotti, title of S.Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Niccoló, title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., title of S. Prassede.
-Gilberto, title of S. Marco.
-Robert Pullen, title of S. Martino ai Monti (1).
-Manfredo, title of S. Sabina.
-Ugo Misini, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Ariberto, title of S. Anastasia.
-Giulio, title of S. Marcello.
-Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guido Cibo, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Villano Gaetani, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Gregorio Tarquini, protodeacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Guido da Vico, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Guido di Castelfidardo, deaconry not known.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Gregorio, deaconry not known.
-Giovanni Paparoni, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Rodolfo, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Gregorio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Astaldo degli Astalli, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giovanni, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Berardo, deaconry not known.
-Bernardo, deaconry not knwon.
-Pietro, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.

(1) Several sources indicate that he was cardinal priest of S. Eusebio.

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Election of July 8, 1153
(Anastasius IV)

Pope Eugenius III died on July 8, 1153. Cardinal Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina, was elected his successor on that same day and took the name Anastasius IV. He was enthroned four days later. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1052-1053, thirty-nine cardinals took part in the election: six cardinal bishops, twenty cardinal priests, and thirteen cardinal deacons; he erroneously included Cardinal Theodwin, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Porto and Silva Candida (Santa Rufina). who had died earlier in 1153. They were creations of Honorius II, Innocent II, Celestine II, Lucius II and Eugenius III. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Corrado di Suburra, Can. Reg. Lat., bishop of Sabina, papal vicar for Rome. (Elected Pope Anastasius IV)
-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Guarino Foscari, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, bishop of Palestrina.
-Hughes, O.Cist., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Nicholas Breakspear, Can. Reg. of Saint-Ruf of Avignon, bishop of Albano.
-Gregorio, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Guido Bellagi, title of S. Crisogono.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., title of S. Prassede.
-Manfredo, title of S. Sabina.
-Ariberto, title of S. Anastasia.
-Giulio, title of S. Marcello.
-Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guido Cibo, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Bernard, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, title of S. Clemente.
-Giordano Bobone, title of S. Susanna.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, title of S. Cecilia.
-Astaldo degli Astalli, title of S. Prisca.
-Rolando Bandinelli, Can. Reg. Lat., title of S. Marco.
-Gerardo, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Giovanni Paparoni, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Giovanni Conti, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Cenzio, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Errico Moricotti, O.Cist., title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Giovanni Mercone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, protodeacon.
-Giovanni Paparoni, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Rodolfo, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Gregorio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Giovanni, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Guy, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Gerardo Caccianemici, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Giovanni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Ildebrando Grassi, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Gerardo, deaconry not known.
-Ottone, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Bernard, O.Cist., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.

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Election of December 3 - 4, 1154
(Adrian IV)

Pope Anastasius IV died on December 3, 1154. Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear, Can. Reg. of Saint-Ruf of Avignon, bishop of Albano, was elected his successor the following day and took the name Adrian IV. He is the only English pope in the history of the Church. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1057-1058, thirty three cardinals took part in the election: six cardinal bishops, nineteen cardinal priests, and eight cardinal deacons. They were creations of Innocent II, Celestine II, Lucius, II, Eugenius III, and Anastasius IV. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Guarino Foscari, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, bishop of Palestrina.
-Hughes, O.Cist., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Nicholas Breakspear, Can. Reg. of Saint-Ruf of Avignon, bishop of Albano. (Elected Pope Adrian IV)
-Gregorio de Suburra, bishop of Sabina.
-Cenzio, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gregorio, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Guido Bellagi, title of S. Crisogono.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, title of S. Cecilia.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., title of S. Prassede.
-Manfredo, title of S. Sabina.
-Ariberto, title of S. Anastasia.
-Giulio, title of S. Marcello.
-Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guido Cibo, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Bernard, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, title of S. Clemente.
-Giordano Bobone, title of S. Susanna.
-Astaldo degli Astalli, title of S. Prisca.
-Rolando Bandinelli, Can. Reg. Lat., title of S. Marco.
-Gerardo, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Giovanni Paparoni, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Giovanni Conti, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Errico Moricotti, O.Cist., title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Giovanni Mercone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, protodeacon.
-Giovanni Paparoni, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Rodolfo, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Guy, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Giovanni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Gerardo Caccianemici, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Ildebrando Grassi, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Gerardo, deaconry not known.
-Ottone, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.

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Election of September 3 - 7, 1159
(Alexander III)

Pope Adrian IV died on September 1, 1159. Cardinal Rolando Bandinelli, Can. Reg. Lat., title of S. Marco, chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, was elected his successor on September 7, 1159. He took the name Alexander III. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1073-1074, twenty-five cardinals took part in the election: five cardinal bishops, eleven cardinal priests, and nine cardinal deacons. They were creations of Popes Innocent II, Celestine II, Lucius II, Eugenius III, Anastasius IV, and Adrian IV. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Gregorio de Suburra, bishop of Sabina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Giulio, bishop of Palestrina.
-Bernardo, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gualterio, bishop of Albano.
-Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Ubaldo Caccianemici, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Astaldo degli Astalli, title of S. Prisca.
-Rolando Bandinelli, Can. Reg. Lat., title of S. Marco. (Elected Pope Alexander III)
-Giovanni Conti, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Errico Moricotti, O.Cist., title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo.
-Ildebrando Grassi, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Giovanni Pizzuti, Can. Reg. of Saint-Victor of Paris, title of S. Anastasia.
-Bonadies de Bonadie, title of S. Crisogono.
-Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Guglielmo Matengo, O.Cist., title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Odone Fattiboni, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, protodeacon.
-Rodolfo, deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Ottone, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.
-Boso Breakspear, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Ardicio Rivoltella, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Cinzio Papareschi, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Pietro di Miso, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giovanni Conti, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.

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The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-Giovanni, deaconry unknown.

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Election of September 7, 1159
(Antipope Victor IV)

Cardinal Ottaviano de' Monticelli, title of S. Cecilia, was elected Antipope Victor IV the same day of the election of Pope Alexander III. According to Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 1105, eight cardinals took part in the election: one cardinal bishop, three cardinal priests, and four cardinal deacons (1). They were creations of Innocent II, Eugenius III, and Adrian IV. Victor IV was excommunicated twice by Alexander III, in 1162 and 1163. He died in Lucca on April 20, 1164 without having reconciled with the legitimate pope. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Imar, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Ottaviano de' Monticelli, title of S. Cecilia. (Elected Antipope Victor IV)
-Giovanni Mercone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Guido da Crema, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Raymond des Arènes, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Gregorio, deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto.
-Simone, O.S.B., deacon of S. Maria in Domnica.

(1) Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 1105, mentions Cardinal Guglielmo, archdeacon of Pavia, of an unknown deaconry, created by Pope Callistus III, but he does not appear among the cardinals created by that pope or any of his successors.

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Election of April 22, 1164
(Antipope Paschal III)

Antipope Victor IV died in Lucca on April 20, 1164. Raynald, archbishop of Cologne, Imperial Chancellor and vicar for Italy of Emperor Frederick I, on his own accord, had Cardinal Guido da Crema, title of S. Maria in Trastevere, elected successor of Victor IV on April 22, 1164. He took the name Paschal III and was consecrated in Lucca by Henri, bishop of Liège. Paschal III died of cancer on September 20, 1168. He never reconciled with the legitimate pope. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, University of Göttingen, 1972, pp. 241-244, published two documents of Antipope Victor IV, that had not been included in Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. (Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffh ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald), and contain subscriptions of a total of eleven pseudocardinals. These bulls were issued by the antipope on April 14, 1164 and April 18, 1164, just a few days before his death. It is highly probable that those pseudocardinals who appear as subscribers on these documents participated in the election of Antipope Paschal III a few days later and that, on the contrary, those who did not subscribe them were most probably absent. (Notes provided by Mr. Tomasz Karlikowski, from Poznań, Poland).

-Livido, bishop of Sabina.
-János Struma, O.S.B.Vall., bishop of Albano.
-Teodorico, bishop of Segni.
-Giovanni Mercone, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti; chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
-Guido da Crema, title of S. Maria in Trastevere. (Elected Antipope Paschal III)
-Giovanni, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Umfredo, title of S. Susanna.
-Alberto, title of S. Crisgono.
-Berardo, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Lanfredo, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.

The following pesudocardinals probably did not participate in the election:
-Aicardo, cardinal priest and bishop of Parma.
-Lando, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.

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Election of September 1168
(Antipope Callistus III)

Antipope Paschal III died on September 20, 1168. Schismatic Cardinal János de Struma, O.S.B., bishop of Albano, was elected in Rome at the end of September by the imperialist party to succeed him as Callistus III. No information has been found about the participants in his election. After the peace of Venice between Pope Alexander III and Emperor Friedrich I in July 1177, the latter abandoned the antipope. Callistus III made his submission to Alexander III and abjured his schism on August 29, 1178. The pope kindly kept him by his side for a while and then appointed him governor of Benevento, where he died before 1184.

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The decree Licet de vitanda, promulgated by Pope Alexander III in the Lateran III Ecumenical Council, March 19, 1179, stated that "to prevent schisms in future, only the cardinals should have the right to elect the pope, and two-thirds of their votes should be required for the validity of such election. If any candidate, after securing only one-third of the votes, should arrogate to himself the papal dignity, both he and his partisans should be excluded from the ecclesiastical order and excommunicated." The most important regulation of this constitution is the inclusion of all cardinals--bishops, priests and deacons--as the exclusive electors of the pope. This decision ended the antagonism among the three orders created by Nicholas II's decree In Nomine Domini of April 13 (or 12), 1059 which granted the electoral right to only the cardinal bishops and limited the role of the rest of the clergy to acclaiming the election.

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Election of September 29, 1179
(Antipope Innocent III)

Schismatic Lando, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria, was set up as Antipope Innocent III on September 29, 1179. This is the account of the event by Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages. The Popes at the Hight of their Temporal Influence, Innocent II. to Blessed Benedict XI., 1130-1305, vol. X, 1159-1198, p. 137: "a few of the unruly barons of the Campagna had the effrontery to attempt to set up a certain Lando of Sezza as Innocent III. His chief supporter was a brother of Antipope Octavian. Out of hatred of Alexander, this baron gave Lando a strong castle he had at Palombara, and from which the antipope ravaged the neighbourhood. Cardinal Hugo, however, in a few months contrived to get possession of the fortress by bribing its defenders, and the miserable Lando, with his chief adherents, was shut up for life in the monastery of La Cava (January 1180)." No information has been found about other participants in his election.

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Election of August 31 - September 1, 1181
(Lucius III)

Pope Alexander III died on August 30, 1181. Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., was elected his successor, as Lucius III, two days later, on September 1, 1181. This was the first election held under the rules of Alexander III's constitution, Licet de vitanda. During this time, there were forty living cardinals, according to the best correlation of data available now. Nine cardinals were absent entirely from the election. Two others seem not to have participated; their names are marked "absent?". The other twenty-nine were the electors of Lucius III. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Ubaldo Allucingoli, O.Cist., bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Lucius III)
-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Salzburg.
-Teodino degli Atti, O.S.B., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Pietro da Pavia, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., bishop of Albano.
-Paolo Scolari, bishop of Palestrina.
-Giovanni Conti, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Giovanni Pizzuti, Can. Reg. of Saint-Victor of Paris, title of S. Anastasia.
-Boso Breakspear, O.S.B., title of S. Pudenziana.
-Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Cinzio Papareschi, title of S. Cecilia.
-Giovanni Conti, title of S. Marco.
-Pietro de Bono, Can. Reg of S. Maria of Reno, title of S. Susanna.
-Ugo Pierleoni, Can. Reg. of St. Victor, title of S. Clemente.
-Laborante, title of S. Maria in Trstevere.
-Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., of an unknown title.
-Uberto Crivelli, title not known.
-Vibiano, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Ardoino, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (?).
-Mathieu d'Anjou, title of S. Marcello.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Ardicio Rivoltella, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Ugo Ricasoli, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Raniero, minore, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Graziano, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Giovanni, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Bernardo, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Rainier, deacon of S. Adriano.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Pietro di Miso, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, (absent).
-Eguillino, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, (absent?).
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, (absent).
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, (absent?).
-Ardoino, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, (absent).
-Herbert of Bosham, deaconry not known, (absent).
-Rogerio, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Eusebio, (absent).
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France, (absent).
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana, (absent).
-Ildeberto, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, (absent).
-Rolando Paparoni, deacon of S. Maria in Portico, (absent).

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Election of November 25, 1185
(Urban III)

Pope Lucius III died on November 25, 1185. Cardinal Uberto Crivelli was unanimously elected his successor, as Urban III, later on the same day, after Cardinal Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., bishop of Albano, had declined the election to the papacy. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, cols., 1123-1124, notes that six cardinal-bishops, eleven cardinal-priests, and ten cardinal deacons were present at the election -- a total of twenty-seven cardinals. Eight other cardinals were absent, thus all thirty-five living cardinals are accounted for in this brief vacancy. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Mainz, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Teodino degli Atti, O.S.B., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Pietro da Pavia, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., bishop of Albano.
-Paolo Scolari, bishop of Palestrina.
-Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina
-Giovanni Conti, title of S. Marco.
-Pietro de Bono, Can. Reg of S. Maria of Reno, title of S. Susanna.
-Laborante, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Uberto Crivelli, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, archbishop of Milan. (Elected Pope Urban III)
-Vibiano, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Albino, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Crescenziano, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Pandolfo Masca, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Melior, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Adelardo Cattaneo, title of S. Marcello.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Ardicio Rivoltella, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Graziano, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Andrea Boboni, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Soffredo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Rolando, O.S.B., deacon of S. Maria in Portico, bishop of Dol, France.
-Pietro Diana, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ridolfo Nigelli, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Herbert of Bosham, deaconry not known.
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Rolando Paparoni, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Raniero, title not known.
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Giovanni, title not known.
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.

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Election of October 21, 1187
(Gregory VIII)

Pope Urban III died on October 20, 1187. On the following day, Cardinal Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., declined the election to the papacy in favor of Cardinal Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, who was elected as Gregory VIII. Of the thirty-four living cardinals during this short sede vacante, Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1129-1130, reports that five cardinal-bishops, nine cardinal-priests, and nine cardinal deacons -- twenty-three cardinals in all -- participated in the election of Gregory VIII. In addition, eleven cardinals were absent from the election. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Mainz, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., bishop of Albano.
-Paolo Scolari, bishop of Palestrina.
-Pietro da Pavia, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. (Elected Pope Gregory VIII)
-Giovanni Conti, title of S. Marco.
-Pietro de Bono, Can. Reg of S. Maria of Reno, title of S. Susanna.
-Laborante, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Albino, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Crescenziano, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Pandolfo Masca, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Melior, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Adelardo Cattaneo, title of S. Marcello.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Graziano, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiani.
-Andrea Boboni, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Soffredo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Rolando, O.S.B., deacon of S. Maria in Portico, bishop of Dol, France.
-Pietro Diana, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ridolfo Nigelli, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., title not known.
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Rolando Paparoni, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Raniero, title not known.
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Giovanni, title of S. Marco.
-Roberto, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Henri de Sully, O.Cist., title not known.
-Ugo Geremei, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Boson, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.

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Election of December 17 - 19, 1187
(Clement III)

Pope Gregory VIII died on December 17, 1187. In his short reign of fifty-seven days, he created no new cardinals. Cardinal Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia e Velletri, was elected pope but declined in favor of Cardinal Paolo Scolari, who took the name Clement III, on December 19, 1187, after a vacancy of two days; he could not attend the voting because of illness on the day of his election. During this period, the number of living cardinals was thirty-two. Of them, Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1133-1134, records that five cardinal-bishops, seven cardinal-priests, and nine cardinal-deacons -- a total of twenty-one cardinals -- participated in the election. This was the same electorate that had chosen Gregory VIII, with the exception of Gregory himself and Cardinal Pietro de Bono, Can. Reg of S. Maria of Reno, who had died on December 11, 1187 (Chacón lists him among the cardinals participating in the election). (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Mainz, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Pietro da Pavia, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Henri de Marsiac, O.Cist., bishop of Albano.
-Paolo Scolari, bishop of Palestrina. (Elected Pope Clement III)
-Giovanni Conti, title of S. Marco.
-Laborante, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Albino, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Crescenziano, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Pandolfo Masca, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Melior, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Adelardo Cattaneo, title of S. Marcello.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Graziano, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiani.
-Andrea Boboni, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Soffredo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Rolando, O.S.B., deacon of S. Maria in Portico, bishop of Dol, France.
-Pietro Diana, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ridolfo Nigelli, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., title not known.
-Pietro, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Roberto, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Rolando Paparoni, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Raniero, title not known.
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Giovanni, title of S. Marco.
-Roberto, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Henri de Sully, O.Cist., title not known.
-Ugo Geremei, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Boson, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.

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Election of March 25 (?) - 30, 1191
(Celestine III)

Pope Clement III died in late March, probably March 25, 1191. His successor, Cardinal Giacinto Bobone, was elected Celestine III on March 30, 1191, after a sede vacante of about five days. Of the forty living cardinals, Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium, I, cols. 1151-1152, lists five cardinal-bishops, twelve cardinal-priests, and thirteen cardinal-deacons as participants in the election. Six cardinals were absent. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Mainz, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giovanni Conti, bishop of Palestrina.
-Albino, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Crescenziano, bishop of Albano.
-Ottaviano, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Pietro Gallozia, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Guillaume de Champagne, title of S. Sabina, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Pandolfo Masca, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Melior, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo.
-Adelardo Cattaneo, cardinalis sancte Romane ecclesie, bishop of Verona.
-Pietro Diana, title of S. Cecilia.
-Giordano di Ceccano, O.Cist., title of S. Pudenziana.
-Pietro, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Giovanni Felici, title of S. Susanna.
-Giovanni, title of S. Clemente, bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella.
-Rufino, title of S. Prassede, bishop of Rimini.
-Guy Paré, O.Cist., title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Romano, title of S. Anastasia.
-Cencio, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Giacinto Bobone, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. (Elected Pope Celestine III)
-Gerardo, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Soffredo, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Giovanni Malabranca, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Gregorio de San Apostolo, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Bernardo, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, deacon of S. Maria Nuova.
-Gregorio Crescenzi, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
-Egidio di Anagnia, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Gregorio Carelli, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Lotario de' conti di Segni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Giovanni Barrata, deaconry not known.
-Gregorio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Niccolò, deacon of S. Lucia in Silice (alias in Orphea).
-Niccolò, deaconry not known.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Gandolfo, O.S.B., deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Henri de Sully, O.Cist., title not known.
-Ugo, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Giovanni di Salerno, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Guido de Papa, deaconry not known.

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Election of January 8, 1198
(Innocent III)

Pope Celestine III died on January 8, 1198. Cardinal Lotario de' conti di Segni was chosen his successor, as Innocent III, on the same day, after Cardinal Giovanni Salerno, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, had declined the election to the papacy. Twenty-eight cardinals were present for the election. Three known and established cardinals were absent. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium, II, cols. 2-3, lists four cardinal-bishops, thirteen cardinal-priests, and eleven cardinal-deacons as participants in the election, including Lotario de' Conti di Segni, who was a cardinal-deacon -- for a total of twenty-eight. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 3, lists twenty-eight electors also. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Konrad von Wittelsbach, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Mainz, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Ottaviano, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Pietro Gallozia, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Guillaume de Champagne, archbishop of Reims, title of S. Sabina.
-Soffredo, title of S. Prassede.
-Pandolfo Masca, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Pietro Diana, title of S. Cecilia.
-Adelardo Cattaneo, cardinalis sancte Romane ecclesie, bishop of Verona.
-Bernardo, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano di Lucca, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli.
-Giovanni, bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella, title of S. Clemente.
-Cencio, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Guy Paré, O.Cist., title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Ugo, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Giovanni Salerno, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Giordano di Ceccano, O.Cist., title of S. Pudenziana.
-Gregorio de San Apostolo, O.S.B., title of S. Prisca.
-Roffredo dell'Isola, O.S.B., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Graziano, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Gregorio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Gregorio Carelli, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Lotario de' conti di Segni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco. (Elected Pope Innocent III)
-Pietro Capuano, maior, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Bobone, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Cencio, deacon of S. Lucia in Orthea.
-Gregorio Crescenzi, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.
-Gregorio de San Apostolo, deacon of S. Maria in Portico.
-Niccolò, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Simeone Paltinieri, title not known.
-Henri de Sully, O.Cist., title is not known.
-Guido de Papa, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.

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