The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Papal elections and conclaves of the 13th Century (1216-1294)

1216 1227 1241 1241-1243 1254 1261 1264-1265 1268-1271 1276 1276
1276 1277 1280-1281 1285 1287-1288 1292-1294 1294 Conclaves Catalogs Home Search


Election of July 16 - 18, 1216
(Honorius III)

Pope Innocent III died on July 16, 1216. Cardinal Cencio, of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, was elected, as Honorius III, two days later, on July 18, in Perugia. Twenty-seven cardinals participated in the election. In addition, there were a number of retired or absent cardinals whose names are known and listed below. The cardinal bishops of Ostia e Velletri and of Palestrina were delegated to make the choice of the new pope. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Nicola de Romanis, bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Ugolino dei conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Guido de Papa, bishop of Palestrina.
-Benedetto, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Paio Galvão, O.S.B., bishop of Albano.
-Cencio, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Cencio, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo. (Elected Pope Honorius III)
-Leone Brancaleone, Can. Reg. di S. Frediano of Lucca, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Pietro Sasso, title of S. Pudenziana.
-Guala Bicchieri, Can. Reg. di S. Pietro of Pavia, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Giovanni Colonna, title of S. Prassede.
-Robert Curzon, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio.
-Stefano di Ceccano, O.Cist., title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Stephen Langton, title of S. Crisogono.
-Gregorio Theodoli, title of S. Anastasia.
-Pietro Campano, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Tommaso da Capua, title of S. Sabina.
-Guido Pierleone, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ottaviano dei conti di Segni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Giovanni da Ferentino, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Gregorio Crescenzi, Can. Reg. of S. Reno, deacon of S. Teodoro.
-Giovanni, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist., deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Romano Bonaventura, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Bertrando, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Stefano de Normandis dei Conti, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Pierre Duacensis, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Adelardo Cattaneo, cardinalis sancte Romane ecclesie, bishop of Verona, retired.
-Aldobrandino Gaetani, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Raoul de Neuville, bishop of Arras, France, retired.
-Siegfried von Eppenstein, title of S. Sabina, retired.
-Mauro, title not known.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of March 19, 1227
(Pope Gregory IX)

Pope Honorius III died March 18, 1227. Cardinal Konrad von Urach, O.Cist., was elected pope but he declined. The cardinals then elected Cardinal Ugolino dei conti di Segni as Gregory IX. Eighteen cardinals participated in the election; the cardinals delegated the choice of the new pope to three of their number. Of the total participants, fourteen were surviving creations of Innocent III, while four were creations of Honorius III. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Ugolino dei conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Gregory IX)
-Paio Galvão, O.S.B., bishop of Albano.
-Konrad von Urach, O.Cist., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Niccolò de Chiaramonte, O.Cist., bishop of Frascati.
-Guido Pierleone, bishop of Palestrina.
-Leone Brancaleone, Can. Reg. di S. Frediano of Lucca, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guala Bicchieri, Can. Reg. di S. Pietro of Pavia, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Stephen Langton, title of S. Crisogono.
-Giovanni Colonna, title of S. Prassede.
-Stefano di Ceccano, O.Cist., title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Gregorio Theodoli, title of S. Anastasia.
-Ottaviano dei conti di Segni, deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco.
-Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist., deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Romano Bonaventura, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Tommaso da Capua, title of S. Sabina.
-Stefano de Normandis dei Conti, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Gil Torres, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Pietro Capuano, minor, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-Oliver von Paderborn, bishop of Sabina.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of September 21 - October 25, 1241
(Celestine IV)

Pope Gregory IX died August 22, 1241. The process of electing his successor was troubled from the outset, and led to the first of the longer vacancies of the thirteenth century. During this period, there were fourteen living cardinals, but one, Robert Somercotes, died September 26, 1241 during the sede vacante; and two, Giacomo da Pecorara, O.Cist., and Oddone de Monferrato, were captives of Emperor Friedrich II; a third one, Pietro Capuano, minor, was also absent from the conclave. The remaining eleven participated in the election of Cardinal Goffredo da Castiglione as Celestine IV on October 25, 1241.

-Rinaldo Conti de Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Romano Bonaventura, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Goffredo da Castiglione, bishop of Sabina. (Elected Pope Celestine IV)
-Giovanni Colonna, title of S. Prassede.
-Tommaso da Capua, title of S. Sabina.
-Stefano de Normandis dei Conti, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Sinibaldo Fieschi, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist., deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Gil Torres, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Robert Somercotes, deacon of S. Eustachio. (1)

(1) Died on September 26, 1241, during the sede vacante.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Giacomo da Pecorara, O.Cist., bishop of Palestrina.
-Pietro Capuano, minor, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Oddone de Monferrato, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of November 1241 - June 25, 1243
(Innocent IV)
Pope Celestine IV was elected on October 25, 1241 and died on November 10, 1241, without creating any cardinals. There were twelve living cardinals when Celestine died. Two of them died during the sede vacante, thus there were ten electors who finally chose Sinibaldo Fieschi as Innocent IV on June 25, 1243, after a vacancy of one year, seven months and fifteen days. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Rinaldo Conti de Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Romano Bonaventura, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina. (1)
-Giacomo da Pecorara, O.Cist., bishop of Palestrina.
-Giovanni Colonna, title of S. Prassede.
-Tommaso da Capua, title of S. Sabina.
-Stefano de Normandis dei Conti, title of S. Maria in Trastevere.
-Sinibaldo Fieschi, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. (Elected Pope Innocent IV)
-Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist., deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Gil Torres, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Pietro Capuano, minor, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. (2)
-Oddone de Monferrato, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.

(1) Died at the beginning of 1243, during the sede vacante.
(2) Died in 1242, during the sede vacante.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of December 8 - 12, 1254
(Alexander IV)

Innocent IV died on December 7, 1254. Cardinal Stefano de Normandis dei Conti died on the following day. Cardinal Rinaldo Conti de Segni was chosen the new pope, as Alexander IV, on December 12, 1254, after a vacancy of five days. During this short vacancy, there were twelve living cardinals. Two of them, however, took no part in the election, thus it was body of only ten electors who chose Alexander IV. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Rinaldo Conti de Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Alexander IV)
-István Báncsa, bishop of Palestrina.
-John of Toledo, O.Cist., title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Hugues de Saint-Cher , O.P., title of S. Sabina.
-Gil Torres, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano Ubaldini, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Guglielmo Fieschi, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Eudes de Châteauroux, bishop of Frascati.
-Pietro Capocci, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of May 26 - August 29, 1261
(Urban IV)

Pope Alexander IV died on May 25, 1261. Jacques Pantaléon, patriarch of Jerusalem (1255), the first of six non-cardinals to be elected pope in the later Middle Ages, was chosen, as Urban IV, on August 29, 1261. The vacancy of three months and four days was prolonged because of squabbles among the seven electors. The cardinals entrusted the election of the new pope by compromise to a committee of their colleagues. An eighth cardinal, István Báncsa, was in Hungary and took no part in the election. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Eudes de Châteauroux, bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-John of Toledo, O.Cist., title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Hugues de Saint-Cher , O.P., title of S. Sabina.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano Ubaldini, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-István Báncsa, bishop of Palestrina, administrator of Esztergom, Hungary.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of October ?, 1264 - February 5, 1265
(Clement IV)

Pope Urban IV died on October 2, 1264. Cardinal Gui Foucois, who was absent from the election, was elected his successor in Perugia on February 5, 1265 and took the name Clement IV. During this vacancy, there were twenty-one living cardinals. Eighteen of them participated in the election, while three were absent. It was an unusual twist to elect an absent cardinal. The cardinals entrusted the election of the new pope by compromise to a committee of their colleagues. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Eudes de Châteauroux, O.Cist., bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Enrico Bartolomei di Susa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-John of Toledo, O.Cist., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-István Báncsa, bishop of Palestrina.
-Raoul Grosparmi, bishop of Albano.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Guy de Bourgogne, O.Cist., title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Annibale Annibaldi, O.P., title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottaviano Ubaldini, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Uberto di Cocconato, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Giordano Pironti, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano.
-Matteo Orsini, daecon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Gui Foucois, bishop of Sabina. (Elected Pope Clement IV)
-Simone Paltineri, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of November 1268 - September 1, 1271
(Gregory X)

Pope Clement IV died on November 29, 1268. Tebaldo Visconti, archdeacon of Liège, was elected his successor on September 1, 1271, after a vacancy of one thousand six days -- the longest in the history of the Church. When Clement died there were twenty-one living cardinals, of whom one, Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., Clement IV's sole creation, remained entirely absent from the election. This absence, in the heated circumstances of such a long vacancy, caused some later historians to doubt that he had been created a cardinal at all, but modern scholarship has established that Clement IV did raise him to the College, although the date of the creation remains uncertain. During the sede vacante, three of the twenty participants died. Another cardinal, Enrico Bartolomei di Susa, resigned his rights as an elector and left the electoral meeting on June 8, 1270. By the summer of 1271, there were only sixteen cardinals who continued to participate in the election. The long delay was caused by wrangling between the French cardinals, most of whom were creations of Urban IV, and the others, mostly Italian, who had enough support to prevent a French candidate from receiving two-thirds of the votes. Finally, under mounting pressure from the newly-enthroned Philippe III of France and other secular powers, the cardinals agreed to surrender the choice of a new pope to a committee of six who were drawn from both the French and Italian factions. Their names are labelled (Committee) in the table below. Their choice, to whom the remaining ten cardinals gave their adherence, was Tebaldo Visconti. He was a well-known figure to the cardinals. At the moment of his election, he was at Acre in Palestine as a part of the retinue of Edward, eldest son of Henry III of England. He began his homeward journey on November 19, 1271, and reached Viterbo, where the long electoral meeting had been held, on February 12, 1272. At this time he announced his acceptance of the election and his name was proclaimed as Gregory X. He entered Rome on March 13, 1272, and was crowned pope there on the following March 27. Gregory X was the second of six non-cardinals who were elected pope in the Later Middle Ages. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Eudes de Châteauroux, O.Cist., bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Enrico Bartolomei di Susa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. (1)
-John of Toledo, O.Cist., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-István Báncsa, bishop of Palestrina. (2)
-Simone Paltineri, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. (Committee)
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Guy de Bourgogne, O.Cist., title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. (Committee)
-Annibale Annibaldi, O.P., title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. (Committee)
-Ottaviano Ubaldini, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. (Committee)
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere. (Committee)
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Uberto di Cocconato, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. (Committee)
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Giordano Pironti, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano. (3)
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

(1) Resigned his rights as an elector and left the electoral meeting on June 8, 1270. Old and ill, he lived to see the election of Gregory X but died a few weeks later, on either October 25 or November 6, 1271.
(2) Died on July 9, 1270 in sede vacante.
(3) Died in October 1269 in sede vacante
.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Raoul Grosparmi, bishop of Albano, died on August 10, 1270, in sede vacante, in Tunis.
-Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., title or deaconry not known.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Cool Archive

With the purpose of avoiding another prolonged sede vacante like the one that had preceded his election, Pope Gregory X promulgated on July 7 (or 16), 1274, during the celebration of the II Lyon Ecumencial Council, the constitution Ubi periculum, establishing the conclave. His successor, Innocent V, was elected in one day. The conclave which elected Innocent's successor, Adrian V, only lasted 9 days but its rigor proved to be too much for the cardinals, who asked the newly elected pope to do away with the praxis. The day after his election, July 12, 1276, Pope Adrian held a consistory and suspended the Gregorian constitution indicating that he intended to publish a new one modifying some of the strictest aspects of it. Immediately after, the pope left for Viterbo to escape the heat of the Roman summer and there he died shortly after, on August 18, without having been consecrated and crowned and without having promulgated the promised constitution. Pope John XXI, Adrian's successor, on September 30 (or 20), 1276, published the bull Licet felicis recordationis formally revoking the constitution Ubi periculum. The five following elections took place without a conclave and some of the vacancies were quite long, culminating with the one that preceded the election of Pope St. Celestine V which lasted two years and three months. This pope, with three consecutive decrees published in 1294--Quia in futurum, September 28; Pridem, October 27; and Constitutionem, December 10-- reestablished the praxis of the conclave. Celestine's successor, Boniface VIII, was elected in a conclave that lasted only one day. He inserted the constitution of Gregory X in the Corpus juris canonici, Sexti Decretal, 1. I, tit. VI, De electione, c. 3. With slight modifications, the institution of the conclave has been in force to this day. The most recent document addressing the papal election and the conclave is Pope John Paul II's apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, published on the feast of the Chair of St. Peter, February 22, 1996.

Cool Archive

Conclave of January 20 - 21, 1276
(Innocent V)

Pope Gregory X died on January 1, 1276. Because of his electoral provisions, his successor, Cardinal Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P., was elected Innocent V on January 21, 1276 just three weeks later. During this sede vacante, there were sixteen living cardinals. Of them, one, Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., was now in complete retirement and was not counted among the valid electors. Of the remaining fifteen, two were absent from the election. Thus there were thirteen cardinal-electors in conclave.

-Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri. (Elected Pope Innocent V)
-João Pedro Julião, bishop of Frascati.
-Vicedominus de Vicedominis, bishop of Palestrina.
-Bertrand de Saint-Martin, O.S.B., bishop of Sabina.
-Simone Paltineri, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Uberto di Cocconato, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Conclave of July 2 - 11, 1276
(Adrian V)

Innocent V was to have a reign of only five months and one day, during which he created no cardinals. He died on June 22, 1276. The death of Innocent was so unexpected and the election of Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi as Adrian V so swift that no contemporary records seem to have recorded the names of the participants in the conclave. Consequently, the major sources, Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, p. 9; and the Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1929, pp. 125-128, have no lists. However, it is not difficult to reconstruct the basic outlines of the election. The number of valid electors in the Sacred College of Cardinals was now reduced to fourteen: two creations of Innocent IV, eight of Urban IV, and three of Gregory X. One of these, Cardinal Simon de Brion, the future Martin IV, is known to have been absent. Cardinal Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B. was in complete retirement and was not counted among the valid electors. It seems nearly certain that thirteen electors took part in this conclave.

-João Pedro Julião, bishop of Frascati.
-Vicedominus de Vicedominis, bishop of Palestrina.
-Bertrand de Saint-Martin, O.S.B., bishop of Sabina.
-Simone Paltineri, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Ottobono Fieschi, deacon of S. Adriano. (Elected Pope Adrian V)
-Uberto di Cocconato, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the conclave:
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of August 19 - September 8, 1276
(John XXI)

Adrian V was doomed to a shorter reign than his predecessor. He died on August 18, 1276, after a term of only thirty-eight days. During this brief tenure, he created no cardinals. Thus it was that at his death there were only twelve living cardinal-electors. The Sacred College of Cardinals had been reduced by the election and death of Adrian V himself and by the death of Cardinal Uberto di Cocconato, who died on July 13, 1276, just two days after Adrian's election. One cardinal, Simon de Brion, the future Martin IV, was entirely absent from the election. Thus the proceedings began with just eleven participants. On the evening of September 5, 1276, the cardinals chose Vicedominus de Vicedominis, a nephew of Pope Gregory X. He accepted, with the name Gregory XI, in honor of his uncle. However, within hours he was dead. He is not numbered among the popes, for his name was never proclaimed. His name is labelled (***) in the table below. For this, see Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di Erudizione Storico-Ecclesiastica, "Cardinali", and Chacón-Oldoini, Vitæ et Res Gestæ Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, col. 194. The number of electors was now reduced to ten. In a necessarily somber mood, they chose João Pedro Julião as John XXI on September 8, 1276. He is the Church's only Portuguese pope.

-Vicedominus de Vicedominis, bishop of Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (***) (1)
-João Pedro Julião, bishop of Frascati. (Elected Pope John XXI)
-Simone Paltineri, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Bertrand de Saint-Martin, O.S.B., bishop of Sabina.
-Riccardo Annibaldi, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria (2).
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

(1) Died on September 6, 1276, in conclave.
(2) Died on September 4, 1276.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.
-Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., title or deaconry not known; retired, not an elector.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of May 30 - November 25, 1277
(Nicholas III)

John XXI also had a short reign. He was killed when the roof of his study in the palace at Viterbo collapsed on him on May 20, 1277. He created no cardinals, so at his death, the number of electors stood at only seven: one creation of Innocent IV and six creations of Urban IV. After some wrangling among themselves -- Adrian V had suspended Gregory's bull, Ubi periculum, so there was no physical pressure to elect -- they finally chose the most senior of their number, Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, as Nicholas III on November 25, 1277. From the date of Nicholas III's election, November 25, 1277, to the date of the new pope's first consistory of the creation of new cardinals, March 12, 1278 -- three months and seventeen days -- the number of valid living cardinals was only seven; the lowest number in the history of the Church. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia.
-Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. (Elected Pope Nicholas III)
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., title or deaconry not known; retired, not an elector.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of September 22, 1280 - February 22, 1281
(Martin IV)

Pope Nicholas III died on August 22, 1280. His successor, Simon de Brion, was elected Martin IV on February 22, 1281. During this sede vacante, there were thirteen valid cardinal-electors: six creations of Urban IV and seven of Nicholas III. During this period, Cardinals Matteo Orsini and
Giordano Orsini were removed by representatives of the people of Viterbo from the area of the episcopal palace where the election was taking place because they were said to be impeding the election of a new pope. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Ordoño Álvarez, bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Bentivenga de Bentivengis, O.F.M., bishop of Albano.
-Simon de Brion, title of S. Cecilia. (Elected Pope Martin IV)
-Guillaume de Bray, title of S. Marco.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Gerardo Bianchi, title of Ss. XII Apostoli.
-Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., title of S. Pudenziana
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin.
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.
-Giordano Orsini, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Colonna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the election:
-Bernard Ayglier, O.S.B., title or deaconry not known; retired, not an elector.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of March 29 - April 2, 1285
(Honorius IV)

Pope Martin IV died on March 28, 1285. His successor, Cardinal Giacomo Savelli, was elected on April 2, 1285 and the name Honorius IV. The five-day vacancy was remarkable, in this time, for its brevity. During this period, there were eighteen living cardinals: four creations of Urban IV, seven of Nicholas IV, and seven of Martin IV. The brevity of the vacancy was such that three cardinals who were not in curia at the death of Martin were entirely absent from the election. The final choice of Honorius was, therefore, made by fifteen electors. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Ordoño Álvarez, bishop of Frascati, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Bentivenga de Bentivengis, O.F.M., bishop of Albano.
-Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., bishop of Palestrina.
-Anchero Pantaléon, title of S. Prassede.
-Hugh of Evesham, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina.
-Gervais Jeancolet de Clinchamp, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Conte Casate, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Geoffroy de Bar, title of S. Susanna.
-Giacomo Savelli, deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. (Elected Pope Honorius IV)
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.
-Giordano Orsini, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Giacomo Colonna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Benedetto Caetani, seniore, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals did not participate in the election:
-Gerardo Bianchi, bishop of Sabina.
-Bernard de Languissel, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Jean Cholet, title of S. Cecilia.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of April 4, 1287 - February 22, 1288
(Nicholas IV)

Pope Honorius IV died on April 3, 1287. His successor, Cardinal Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., the first Franciscan pope, was elected on February 15, 1288 but declined at that time; he accepted only after a unanimous election on the following February 22 and took the name Nicholas IV. At the moment of Honorius IV's death, there were sixteen living cardinals. In the ensuing sede vacante, however, no fewer than six of them died. The remaining ten cardinals elected the new pope. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Bentivenga de Bentivengis, O.F.M., bishop of Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri.
-Bernard de Languissel, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gerardo Bianchi, bishop of Sabina.
-Girolamo Masci, O.F.M., bishop of Palestrina. (Elected Pope Nicholas IV)
-Giovanni Boccamazza, bishop of Frascati.
-Jean Cholet, title of S. Cecilia.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.
-Giacomo Colonna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Benedetto Caetani, seniore, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.

Cool Archive

The following cardinals died during the sede vacante:
-Goffredo da Alatri, deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro, died after April 3, 1287.
-Giordano Orsini, deacon of S. Eustachio, died on September 8, 1287.
-Hugh of Evesham, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, died on September 4, 1287.
-Gervais Jeancolet de Clinchamp, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, died on September 15, 1287.
-Conte Casate, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, died on April 8, 1287.
-Geoffroy de Bar, title of S. Susanna, died after April 3, 1287.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Election of April 5, 1292 - July 5, 1294
(Celestine V)

Pope Nicholas IV died on April 4, 1292. His successor, Pietro da Morrone, was elected as Celestine V on July 5, 1294. At the death of Nicholas IV, there were twelve living cardinals. One cardinal died in Rome during the sede vacante and the other eleven, gathered in Perugia, eventually followed the prompting of Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini and elected the third of six non-cardinals to be chosen pope in the Later Middle Ages. Instead of coming to Perugia to be crowned, Celestine ordered the cardinals to unite with him at Aquila. There he was consecrated and crowned on August 29, 1294. Because only three cardinals were present at the ceremony, it was repeated a few days later, after more of the Sacred College had arrived. This produced the only example of a double coronation in papal history. Celestine V abdicated at Naples on December 13, 1294, becoming the last pope to do so entirely voluntarily. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Matteo d'Acquasparta, O.F.M., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gerardo Bianchi, bishop of Sabina.
-Giovanni Boccamazza, bishop of Frascati.
-Hugues Aycelin de Billom, O.P. title of S. Sabina.
-Jean Cholet, title of S. Cecilia. (1)
-Benedetto Caetani, seniore, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti.
-Pietro Peregrosso, O.F.M., title of S. Marco.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.
-Giacomo Colonna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, title of S. Marcello in commendam.
-Napoleone Orsini, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Pietro Colonna, deacon of S. Eustachio.

(1) Died on August 2, 1293, during the sede vacante.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

Conclave of December 23 - 24, 1294
(Boniface VIII)

Pope Celestine V abdicated formally on December 13, 1294. After waiting for ten full days, as prescribed by Gregory X, even though there were no obsequies to be observed, the cardinals entered the conclave on December 23. Cardinal Matteo Orsini was elected in the first ballot but refused. On the next day, Christmas Eve, they elevated Cardinal Benedetto Caetani, seniore, to the throne as Boniface VIII. The conclave took place at Naples. During this sede vacante, there were twenty-three living cardinals and only one was absent from the election. Of the twenty-two electors, twelve had been elevated to the cardinalate by Celestine V on the preceding September 18. Of the ten remaining electors, one was created by Pope Urban IV, two by Pope Nicholas III, one by Pope Martin IV, one by Pope Honorius IV, and five by Pope Nicholas IV. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Hugues Aycelin de Billom, O.P., bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Matteo d'Acquasparta, O.F.M., bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.
-Gerardo Bianchi, bishop of Sabina.
-Giovanni Boccamazza, bishop of Frascati.
-Simon de Beaulieu, bishop of Palestrina.
-Bérard de Got, bishop of Albano.
-Benedetto Caetani, seniore, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino. (Elected Pope Boniface VIII)
-Pietro Peregrosso, O.F.M., title of S. Marco.
-Tommaso d'Ocra, O.Cel., title of S. Cecilia.
-Jean Le Moine, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro.
-Pietro de L'Aquila, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.
-Guillaume Ferrières, title of S. Clemente.
-Nicolas l'Aide, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.
-Robert de Pontigny, O.Cist., title of S. Pudenziana.
-Simon de Armentières, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Balbina.
-Giovanni de Castrocoeli, O.S.B.Cas., title of S. Vitale.
-Matteo Orsini, deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae.
-Giacomo Colonna, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.
-Napoleone Orsini, deacon of S. Adriano.
-Pietro Colonna, deacon of S. Eustachio.
-Landolfo Brancaccio, deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria.
-Guglielmo de Longhi, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano.

Cool Archive

The following cardinal did not participate in the conclave:
-Francesco Ronci, O.Cœl., title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso.

Top Conclaves Catalogs Home Search

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.