The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Conclaves of the 16th Century (1503-1592)

September 1503 October/November 1503 1513 1521-1522 1523 1534 1549-1550 April 1555 May 1555 1559 1565-1566 1572 1585
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Conclave of September 16 to 22, 1503
(Pius III)

Pope Alexander VI died on August 18, 1503. Cardinal Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini was elected his successor on September 22, 1503 and took the name Pius III. Thirty-seven of the forty-five cardinals participated in the final ballot.

-Giuliano della Rovere, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Jorge da Costa, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in commendam.
-Girolamo Basso della Rovere, bishop of Palestrina.
-Oliviero Carafa, bishop of Sabina, title of S. Eusebio in commendam, administrator of Naples.
-Antonio Gentile Pallavicino, bishop of Frascati.
-Lorenzo Cibo de' Mari, bishop of Albano, title of S. Marco in commendam.
-Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, administrator of Siena. (Elected Pope Pius III)
-Raffaele Sansoni Riario, administrator of Viterbo and of Cuenca, Spain.
-Giovanni Colonna.
-Ascanio Maria Sforza, administrator of Pavia, Cremona, Novara, and Girgenti.
-Giovanni de' Medici.
-Federico Sanseverino, dioceses of Maillezais and Vienne, France in commendam
-Giovanni Antonio San Giorgio, bishop of Parma.
-Bernardino López de Carvajal, diocese of Sigüenza, Spain in commendam, administrator of Avellino and Frigento.
-Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore, administrator of Ascoli Piceno.
-Domenico Grimani, patriarch of Aquileia.
-Alessandro Farnese, seniore, administrator of Corneto and Montefiascone.
-Luigi d'Aragona, administrator of Aversa, Capaccio, Policastro, and Lecce.
-Juan de Castro, bishop of Agrigento.
-Georges d'Amboise, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Amanieu d'Albret, administrator of Oloron, Condom, Cominges, France.
-Pedro Luis de Borja-Llançol de Romaní, O.S.Io.Hieros., archbishop of Valencia, Spain.
-Jaime Serra i Cau, archbishop of Oristano.
-Francisco de Borja, archbishop of Cosenza and bishop of Teano.
-Juan de Vera, archbishop of Salerno.
-Ludovico Podocathor, archbishop of Benevento.
-Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, Can. Reg. of Sant'Antonio, bishop of Como.
-Marco Cornaro.
-Gianstefano Ferrero, archbishop of Bologna.
-Juan Castellar y de Borja, archbishop of Monreale.
-Francisco de Remolins, archbishop of Sorrento.
-Francesco Soderini, bishop of Volterra.
-Niccolò Fieschi, bishop of Fréjus, France.
-Francisco Desprats, bishop of León, Spain.
-Adriano di Castello, bishop of Hereford, England.
-Jaime de Casanova.
-Francisco Lloris y de Borja, bishop of Elne, Aragón, administrator of Valence et Die, France, archbishop of Trani, and titular patriarch of Constantinople.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Luis Juan del Milà, bishop of Lérida, in complete retirement in Spain.
-Raymund Pérault, O.S.A., bishop of Gurk, Carinthia.
-Ippolito d'Este, administrator of Eger, Capua, Ferrara and Milan.
-Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Saint-Malo and archbishop of Reims, France.
-Philippe de Luxembourg, bishop of Le Mans and Terouanne, France.
-Tamás Bakócz, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary.
-Pietro Isvalies, archbishop of Reggio-Calabria.
-Melchior von Meckau, bishop of Brixen, Tyrol.

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Conclave of October 31 to November 1, 1503
(Julius II)

Pope Pius III died on October 18, 1503 after a short pontificate of only twenty-seven days. Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere was elected his successor on the night of October 31 to November 1, 1503, after a conclave of only a few hours, and took the name Julius II. Thirty-eight of the forty-four cardinals participated in the final ballot.

-Giuliano della Rovere, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Julius II)
-Jorge da Costa, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in commendam.
-Girolamo Basso della Rovere, bishop of Palestrina.
-Oliviero Carafa, bishop of Sabina, title of S. Eusebio in commendam, administrator of Naples.
-Antonio Gentile Pallavicino, bishop of Frascati.
-Lorenzo Cibo de' Mari, bishop of Albano, title of S. Marco in commendam.
-Raffaele Sansoni Riario, administrator of Viterbo and of Cuenca, Spain.
-Giovanni Colonna.
-Ascanio Maria Sforza, administrator of Pavia, Cremona, Novara, and Girgenti.
-Giovanni de' Medici.
-Federico Sanseverino, dioceses of Maillezais and Vienne, France in commendam
-Giovanni Antonio San Giorgio, bishop of Parma.
-Bernardino López de Carvajal, diocese of Sigüenza, Spain in commendam, administrator of Avellino and Frigento.
-Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore, administrator of Ascoli Piceno.
-Domenico Grimani, patriarch of Aquileia.
-Alessandro Farnese, seniore, administrator of Corneto and Montefiascone.
-Ippolito d'Este, administrator of Eger, Capua, Ferrara and Milan.
-Luigi d'Aragona, administrator of Aversa, Capaccio, Policastro, and Lecce.
-Juan de Castro, bishop of Agrigento.
-Georges d'Amboise, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Amanieu d'Albret, administrator of Oloron, Condom, Cominges, France.
-Pedro Luis de Borja-Llançol de Romaní, O.S.Io.Hieros., archbishop of Valencia, Spain.
-Jaime Serra i Cau, archbishop of Oristano.
-Pietro Isvalies, archbishop of Reggio-Calabria.
-Francisco de Borja, archbishop of Cosenza and bishop of Teano.
-Juan de Vera, archbishop of Salerno.
-Ludovico Podocathor, archbishop of Benevento.
-Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, Can. Reg. of Sant'Antonio, bishop of Como.
-Marco Cornaro.
-Gianstefano Ferrero, archbishop of Bologna.
-Juan Castellar y de Borja, archbishop of Monreale.
-Francisco de Remolins, archbishop of Sorrento.
-Francesco Soderini, bishop of Volterra.
-Niccolò Fieschi, bishop of Fréjus, France.
-Francisco Desprats, bishop of León, Spain.
-Adriano di Castello, bishop of Hereford, England.
-Jaime de Casanova.
-Francisco Lloris y de Borja, bishop of Elne, Aragón, administrator of Valence et Die, France, archbishop of Trani, and titular patriarch of Constantinople.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Luis Juan del Milà, bishop of Lérida, in complete retirement in Spain.
-Raymund Pérault, O.S.A., bishop of Gurk, Carinthia.
-Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Saint-Malo and archbishop of Reims, France.
-Philippe de Luxembourg, bishop of Le Mans and Terouanne, France.
-Tamás Bakócz, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary.
-Melchior von Meckau, bishop of Brixen, Tyrol.

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Conclave of March 4 to 9, 1513
(Leo X)

Pope Julius II died on February 20, 1513. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici was elected his successor on the first hour of the night of March 9, 1513 and took the name Leo X. Twenty-five of the thirty-one cardinals took part in the conclave. In addition, there were four cardinals who had been deposed and excommunicated by Pope Julius II and were ineligible to vote: Federico di Sanseverino, Bernardino López de Carvajal, Guillaume Briçonnet, and René de Prie.

-Raffaele Sansoni Riario, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Domenico Grimani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Jaime Serra i Cau, bishop of Albano.
-Marco Vigerio della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Palestrina.
-Francesco Soderini, bishop of Sabina.
-Giovanni de' Medici. (Elected Pope Leo X)
-Alessandro Farnese, seniore.
-Luigi d'Aragona, administrator of Aversa and Capaccio.
-Tamás Bakócz, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary, and titular patriarch of Constantinople.
-Marco Cornaro.
-Francisco de Remolins.
-Niccoló Fieschi.
-Adriano di Castello, bishop of Hereford and administrator of Bath and Wells, England.
-Robert Guibé, administrator of Alby and Vannes, France,
-Leonardo Grosso della Rovere, bishop of Agen, France, grand penitentiary.
-Carlo Domenico del Carretto, archbishop of Tours, France.
-Sigismondo Gonzaga.
-Sisto Gara della Rovere, bishop of Padua, administrator of Benevento and Lucca, vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
-Christopher Bainbridge, archbishop of York, England.
-Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, administrator of Pavia.
-Pietro Accolti, bishop of Ancona.
-Achille Grassi, bishop of Bologna.
-Matthäus Schiner, bishop of Sion, Swtzerland.
-Bandinello Sauli, bishop of Gerace.
-Alfonso Petrucci, bishop of Massa Marittima.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Ippolito I d'Este.
-Philippe de Luxembourg, bishop of Frascati.
-Amanieu d'Albret.
-François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Ludève, archbishop of Narbonne and administrator of the see of Saint Pons de Tomières, France.
-Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M.Obs., archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg.

The following cardinals had been deposed and excommunicated by Pope Julius II for their participation in the schismatic Council of Pisa (1511-1512) and could not participate in the conclave:
-Federico di Sanseverino, on January 30, 1512. Pardoned and reinstated by Pope Leo X on December 13, 1515.
-Bernardino López de Carvajal, on October 24, 1511. Pardoned and restored to office by Pope Leo X on June 27, 1513.
-Guillaume Briçonnet, on October 24, 1511. Pardoned and restored to office by Pope Leo X on April 7, 1514.
-René de Prie, on October 24, 1511. Pardoned and restored by Pope Leo X on April 24, 1514.

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Conclave of December 27, 1521 to January 9, 1522
(Adrian VI)

Pope Leo X died on December 1, 1521. Cardinal Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel was elected his successor on January 9, 1522 and took the name Adrian VI. Thirty-nine of the forty-nine cardinals took part in the conclave. One of the absentees was the newly elected pope. This was not only the last election of a non-Italian to the Apostolic See until the choice of John Paul II on October 16, 1978, but also the last time a cardinal who was absent from the conclave was elected. In addition, there was one cardinal, Adriano di Castello, who had been deposed from office on July 5, 1518, for his part in the Petrucci Plot to murder Pope Leo X. He died during the sede vacante while on his way to Rome to appeal to the cardinals in conclave for his reinstatement as an elector. Cardinal Domenico Grimani had to leave the conclave on December 31, 1521.

-Bernardino López de Carvajal, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Domenico Grimani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Soderini, bishop of Palestrina.
-Alessandro Farnese, seniore, bishop of Frascati.
-Niccolò Fieschi, bishop of Sabina.
-Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, bishop of Albano.
-Marco Cornaro, administrator of Verona.
-Sigismondo Gonzaga.
-Pietro Accolti, administrator of Arras, France.
-Achille Grassi, bishop of Bologna.
-Matthäus Schiner, bishop of Sion, Switzerland, administrator of Catania, Sicily.
-Lorenzo Pucci, administrator of Melfi.
-Giulio de' Medici, archbishop of Florence, administrator of Worcester, England; Narbonne, France; and Eger, Hungary.
-Innocenzo Cibo, administrator of Turin, and of Marseille, France.
-Giovanni Piccolomini, archbishop of Siena.
-Giovanni Domenico De Cupis, administrator of Trani.
-Raffaele Petrucci, bishop of Grosseto and Sovana.
-Andrea Della Valle, bishop of Mileto, administrator of Gallipoli, administrator of Umbriatico.
-Bonifacio Ferrero.
-Giovanni Battista Pallavicino, bishop of Cavaillon, France.
-Scaramuccia Trivulzio, administrator of Piacenza.
-Pompeo Colonna, administrator of Potenza.
-Domenico Giacobazzi, administrator of Cassano.
-Lorenzo Campeggio.
-Ferdinando Ponzetti.
-Silvio Passerini.
-Francesco Armellini de' Medici.
-Tommaso Vio, O.P., bishop of Gaeta.
-Egidio da Viterbo, O.E.S.A.
-Cristoforo Numai, O.F.M.Obs., administrator of Alatri.
-Guillén-Ramón de Vich y de Valterra, bishop of Barcelona, Spain, and administrator of Cefalù, Sicily.
-Franciotto Orsini, administrator of Boiano.
-Paolo Emilio Cesi.
-Alessandro Cesarini, seniore, administrator of Pamplona, Spain.
-Giovanni Salviati, administrator of Ferrara.
-Nicolò Ridolfi, administrator of Orvieto.
-Ercole Rangone, bishop of Modena.
-Agostino Trivulzio.
-Francesco Pisani.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Ludève, archbishop of Auch, France.
-Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, archbishop of Salzburg, Austria.
-Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York, administrator of Bath and Wells, England.
-Adrien Gouffier de Boissy, administrator of Albi.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Laon, administrator of Le Mans, France.
-Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel, bishop of Tortosa, Spain. (Elected Pope Adrian VI)
-Afonso de Portugal, bishop of Viseu, Portugal.
-Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop of Mainz, Germany.
-Jean de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, administrator of Toul, and Valence et Dieu.
-Eberhard von der Mark, bishop of Liége, Belgium, Chartres, France and archbishop of Valencia.

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Conclave of October 1 to November 19, 1523
(Clement VII)

Pope Adrian VI died in Rome on September 14, 1523. Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected his successor on November 19, 1523 and took the name Clement VII. Thirty-eight of the forty-five cardinals took part in the final ballot.

-Bernardino López de Carvajal, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Soderini, bishop of Palestrina.
-Alessandro Farnese, seniore, bishop of Frascati.
-Niccolò Fieschi, bishop of Sabina.
-Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, bishop of Albano.
-Marco Cornaro, administrator of Verona.
-François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Ludève, archbishop of Auch and bishop of Valence, France.
-Sigismondo Gonzaga.
-Pietro Accolti.
-Achille Grassi, bishop of Bologna.
-Lorenzo Pucci, administrator of Melfi.
-Giulio de' Medici, archbishop of Florence, administrator of Narbonne, France. (Elected Pope Clement VII)
-Innocenzo Cibo, administrator of Turin, and of Marseille, France.
-Giovanni Piccolomini, archbishop of Siena, administrator of Aquila.
-Giovanni Domenico De Cupis, administrator of Trani.
-Andrea Della Valle, bishop of Mileto, bishop of Crotone, administrator of Gallipoli.
-Bonifacio Ferrero.
-Giovanni Battista Pallavicino, bishop of Cavaillon, France.
-Scaramuccia Trivulzio.
-Pompeo Colonna, administrator of Potenza.
-Domenico Giacobazzi.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Laon, administrator of Le Mans, France.
-Lorenzo Campeggio.
-Ferdinando Ponzetti, bishop of Grosetto.
-Silvio Passerini.
-Francesco Armellini de' Medici.
-Egidio da Viterbo, O.E.S.A.
-Cristoforo Numai, O.F.M.Obs., administrator of Alatri, administrator of Isernia.
-Guillén-Ramón de Vich y de Valterra, bishop of Barcelona and administrator of Cefalú, Sicily.
-Franciotto Orsini.
-Paolo Emilio Cesi.
-Alessandro Cesarini, administrator of Pamplona, Spain.
-Giovanni Salviati, administrator of Ferrara.
-Nicolò Ridolfi, administrator of Orvieto.
-Ercole Rangone, bishop of Modena.
-Agostino Trivulzio, administrator of Bobbio, and Alessano.
-Francesco Pisani.
-Jean de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, and administrator of Toul, France.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, archbishop of Salzburg, Austria.
-Thomas Wolsey, archbishop of York, administrator of Durham, England.
-Tommaso Vio, O.P., bishop of Gaeta.
-Eberhard von der Mark, bishop of Liége, Belgium, Chartres, France and archbishop of Valencia, Spain.
-Afonso de Portugal, archbishop of Lisbon, bishop of Evora, Portugal.
-Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop of Mainz, Germany.
-Willem van Enckevoirt, bishop of Tortosa, Spain.

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Conclave of October 11 to 13, 1534
(Paul III)

Pope Clement VII died on September 25, 1534. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, seniore, was elected his successor on October 13, 1534 and took the name Paul III. Thirty-three of the forty-six cardinals took part in the final ballot.

-Alessandro Farnese, seniore, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Paul III)
-Giovanni Piccolomini, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Bonifacio Ferrero, bishop of Palestrina.
-Giovanni Domenico De Cupis, bishop of Sabina.
-Lorenzo Campeggio, bishop of Albano.
-Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, archbishop of Salzburg, Austria.
-Innocenzo Cibo.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Laon, administrator of Le Mans, France.
-Paolo Emilio Cesi, administrator of Orte and Civita Castellana, administrator of Sion, Switzerland.
-Alessandro Cesarini, administrator of Pamplona, Spain, administrator of Otranto.
-Giovanni Salviati, administrator of Ferrara, Teano, S. Severina, and Bitteto.
-Nicolò Ridolfi, bishop of Vicenza, administrator of Imola, and Salerno.
-Agostino Trivulzio, administrator of Toulon, France.
-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Padua, administrator of Treviso, and Città Nova.
-Jean de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, administrator of Narbonne, Verdun, Reims, France.
-Benedetto Accolti, archbishop of Ravenna, administrator of Cremona, and Bovino.
-Agostino Spinola, administrator of Savona, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
-Ercole Gonzaga.
-Marino Grimani, administrator of Concordia, and Città di Castello.
-Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros., archbishop of Taranto.
-Giovanni Vincenzo Carafa, administrator of Anglona e Tursi.
-Andrea Matteo Palmieri.
-Girolamo Grimaldi, bishop of Liège and administrator of Bari, Brugnato, and Venafro.
-Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones.
-Francesco Cornaro, seniore.
-Girolamo Doria, administrator of Noli, and Tarragona, Spain.
-Ippolito de' Medici, archbishop of Avignon, France, administrator of Monreale, Sicily, vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
-François de Tournon, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, archbishop of Bourges, France.
-Antonio Pucci, bishop of Pistoia, bishop of Vannes, France.
-Esteban Gabriel Merino, patriarch of the West Indies, bishop of Jaén, Spain.
-Jean Le Veneur, bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Odet de Coligny de Châtillon, administrator of Toulouse, France.
-Philippe de la Chambre, O.S.B.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Ludève, archbishop of Auch, France, bishop of Frascati, administrator of Agde, France.
-Afonso de Portugal, archbishop of Lisbon, Portugal.
-Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop of Mainz, administrator of Halberstadt, Germany.
-Eberhard von der Mark, bishop of Liége, Belgium, archbishop of Valencia, Spain.
-Niccolò Gaddi, bishop of Fermo, administrator of Cosenza, and Sarlat, France.
-Antoine du Prat, archbishop of Sens, administrator of Albi, and Meaux, France.
-Bernhard von Cles, bishop of Trent, Tyrol.
-Louis de Gorrevod, bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, Savoy.
-García de Loaysa y Mendoza, O.P., bishop of Sigüenza, Spain.
-Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Alfonso de Manrique de Lara y Solís, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Juan Pardo de Tavera, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop of Poitiers, administrator of Langres, France.

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Conclave of November 29, 1549 to February 7, 1550
(Julius III)

Paul III died on November 10, 1549. Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte was elected his successor on February 7, 1550 and took the name Julius III. Fifty-one of the fifty-four cardinals entered the conclave but two left the conclave because of illness and died before the election of the new pope: Ennio Filonardi and Niccolò Ridolfi.

-Giovanni Domenico De Cupis, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giovanni Salviati, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Philippe de la Chambre, O.S.B., bishop of Frascati.
-Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Sabina, archbishop of Naples.
-Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, bishop of Palestrina. (Elected Pope Julius III)
-Ennio Filonardi, bishop of Albano. (1)
-Innocenzo Cibo, administrator of Marseille, France.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Laon, adminstrator of Sens, France.
-Nicolò Ridolfi, bishop of Vicenza. (2)
-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Padua.
-Jean de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, administrator of Narbonne, Agen, and Nantes, France.
-Niccolò Gaddi.
-Ercole Gonzaga, bishop of Mantua.
-Girolamo Doria, adminstrator of Tarragona.
-François de Tournon, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, administrator of Auch, France.
-Odet de Coligny de Châtillon, administrator of Beauvais, and Toulouse, France.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, administrator of Avignon and Tours, France; Viseu, Portugal; and Monreale, Sicily.
-Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, bishop of Parma.
-Jean du Bellay, bishop of Paris, administrator of Bordeaux, France.
-Rodolfo Pio.
-Reginald Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, England.
-Niccolò Caetani.
-Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Robert de Lénoncourt, bishop of Châlons sur Marne, France.
-Ippolito II d'Este, archbishop of Milan; administrator of Lyon, France; administrator of Autun, France.
-Antoine Sanguin de Meudon, bishop of Orléans, France.
-Marcello Cervini, bishop of Gubbio.
-Giacomo Savelli.
-Miguel da Silva, administrator of Massa marittima.
-Giovanni Girolamo Morone.
-Marcello Crescenzi, administrator of Conza.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, Tyrol, and bishop of Brixen, Austria.
-Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla, bishop of Coria, Spain.
-Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo.
-Georges d'Armagnac, bishop of Rodez, archbishop of Tours, France.
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany.
-Andrea Cornaro, bishop of Brescia.
-Francesco Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona.
-Federico Cesi.
-Durante Duranti, bishop of Cassano.
-Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro, Saint-Jean de Maurienne, Savoy.
-Tiberio Crispi, administrator of Amalfi.
-Pedro Pacheco de Villena, bishop of Jaén, Spain.
-Georges d'Amboise, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros., grand penitentiary, archbishop of Ravenna.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Giulio della Rovere, administrator of Urbino.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, bishop of Saintes, France.
-Girolamo Verallo, archbishop of Rossano, bishop of Capaccio.
-Giovanni Angelo Medici, archbishop of Ragusa, Dalmatia.
-Bernardino Maffei, archbishop of Chieti.

(1) Died on December 19, 1549.
(2) Died the night of January 31 to February 1, 1550.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop of Poitiers, administrator of Langres, France.
-Jacques d'Annebaut, bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Henrique de Portugal, archbishop of Evora, Portugal.

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Conclave of April 5 to 9, 1555
(Marcellus II)

Pope Julius III died on March 23, 1555. Cardinal Marcello Cervini was elected his successor on April 9, 1555, proclaimed on the following day, and took the name Marcellus II. Fifty-three of the fifty-seven cardinals participated in the conclave.

-Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Jean du Bellay, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Palestrina.
-François de Tournon, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Lyon.
-Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Rodolfo Pio, bishop of Frascati.
-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Padua, administrator of Narbonne, France.
-Ercole Gonzaga, bishop of Mantua.
-Girolamo Doria, administrator of Tarragona, Spain.
-Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop of Langres, France.
-Odet de Coligny de Châtillon, administrator of Beauvais, France.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, administrator of Monreale, Sicily and of Cahors, France.
-Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, administrator of Parma.
-Reginald Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, England.
-Niccolò Caetani, administrator of Quimper, France.
-Robert de Lénoncourt, administrator of Metz, Lorraine.
-Ippolito II d'Este, administrator of Auch, France.
-Antoine Sanguin de Meudon, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Marcello Cervini, bishop of Gubbio. (Elected Pope Marcellus II)
-Giacomo Savelli.
-Miguel da Silva, administrator of Massa marittima.
-Giovanni Girolamo Morone, bishop of Novara.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, and Brixen, Austria.
-Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo.
-Georges d'Armagnac, bishop of Rodez, France.
-Jacques d'Annebaut, bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Federico Cesi, bishop of Cremona.
-Durante Duranti, bishop of Brescia.
-Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro, bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, France.
-Tiberio Crispi, administrator of Sessa Arunca, administrator of Amalfi.
-Henrique de Portugal, archbishop of Evora, Portugal.
-Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros., grand penitentary, archbishop of Bologna.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Giulio della Rovere.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Girolamo Verallo.
-Giovanni Angelo Medici.
-Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte.
-Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte, archbishop of Marseille, France.
-Fulvio Giulio della Corgna, O.S.Hier., administrator of Spoleto.
-Giovanni Michele Saraceni, archbishop of Acerenza e Matera.
-Giovanni Ricci.
-Giovanni Andrea Mercurio, archbishop of Messina, Sicily.
-Giacomo Puteo, archbishop of Bari.
-Pietro Bertani, O.P., bishop of Fano.
-Fabio Mignanelli.
-Giovanni Poggio, bishop of Tropea.
-Giovanni Battista Cicala.
-Girolamo Dandini.
-Luigi Cornaro.
-Roberto de' Nobili.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany.
-Pedro Pacheco de Villena, bishop of Sigüenza, Spain.
-Pietro Tagliavia de Aragonia, archbishop of Palermo, Sicily.
-Louis I de Guise de Lorraine, bishop of Albi, France.

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Conclave of May 15 to 23, 1555
(Paul IV)

Pope Marcellus II died on April 30, 1555 after a pontificate of only twenty-one days. Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa was elected his successor on May 23, 1555 and took the name Paul IV. All fifty-six cardinals participated in the conclave.

-Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Paul IV)
-Jean du Bellay, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme, bishop of Palestrina.
-François de Tournon, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Lyon.
-Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Rodolfo Pio, bishop of Frascati.
-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Padua, administrator of Narbonne, France.
-Ercole Gonzaga, bishop of Mantua.
-Girolamo Doria, administrator of Tarragona, Spain.
-Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop of Langres, France.
-Odet de Coligny de Châtillon, administrator of Beauvais, France.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, administrator of Monreale, Sicily and of Cahors, France.
-Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, administrator of Parma.
-Reginald Pole, archbishop of Canterbury, England.
-Niccolò Caetani, administrator of Quimper, France.
-Robert de Lénoncourt, administrator of Metz, Lorraine.
-Ippolito II d'Este, administrator of Auch, France.
-Antoine Sanguin de Meudon, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Giacomo Savelli.
-Miguel da Silva, administrator of Massa marittima.
-Giovanni Girolamo Morone, bishop of Novara.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, and Brixen, Austria.
-Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo.
-Georges d'Armagnac, bishop of Rodez, France.
-Jacques d'Annebaut, bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany.
-Federico Cesi, bishop of Cremona.
-Durante Duranti, bishop of Brescia.
-Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro, bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, France.
-Tiberio Crispi, administrator of Sessa Arunca, administrator of Amalfi.
-Pedro Pacheco de Villena, bishop of Sigüenza, Spain.
-Henrique de Portugal, archbishop of Evora, Portugal.
-Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros., grand penitentary, archbishop of Bologna.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Giulio della Rovere.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Girolamo Verallo.
-Giovanni Angelo Medici.
-Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte.
-Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte, archbishop of Marseille, France.
-Fulvio Giulio della Corgna, O.S.Hier., administrator of Spoleto.
-Giovanni Michele Saraceni, archbishop of Acerenza e Matera.
-Giovanni Ricci.
-Giovanni Andrea Mercurio, archbishop of Messina, Sicily.
-Giacomo Puteo, archbishop of Bari.
-Pietro Bertani, O.P., bishop of Fano.
-Fabio Mignanelli.
-Giovanni Poggio, bishop of Tropea.
-Giovanni Battista Cicala.
-Girolamo Dandini.
-Luigi Cornaro.
-Pietro Tagliavia de Aragonia, archbishop of Palermo, Sicily.
-Louis I de Guise de Lorraine, bishop of Albi, France.
-Roberto de' Nobili.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.

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Conclave of September 5 to December 25, 1559
(Pius IV)

Paul IV died on August 18, 1559. Cardinal Giovanni Angelo Medici was elected his successor on December 25, 1559 and took the name Pius IV. At the moment of the Pope's death, the Sacred College of Cardinals had fifty-six members. Of them, however, four died during the sede vacante: Giovanni Battista Coniglieri (August 25, 1559), Antoine Sanguin de Meudon (November 25, 1559), Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro (December 1, 1559), and Girolamo Dandini (December 4, 1559). Eight cardinals were absent altogether, including two of the four who died (Sanguin de Meudon and Dandini). One cardinal, Giovanni Battista Coniglieri, died on August 25, 1559, before the conclave began. Cardinal Gianantonio Capizucchi had to be absent from the conclave during the month of October 1559 due to a serious illness. One cardinal died in the conclave: Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro (December 1, 1559). Two others, Jean du Bellay and Giovanni Michele Saraceni, left the conclave early on December 25, 1559, before the final vote was taken. Both knew that Cardinal Medici would be elected within a few hours, and neither thought his vote was necessary to the outcome. Of the forty-four remaining cardinals in conclave on the morning of Christmas Day, forty-three voted for Cardinal Medici, who, of course, did not vote for himself. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Jean du Bellay, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (1)
-Rodolfo Pio, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-François de Tournon, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Sabina and archbishop of Lyon.
-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Frascati.
-Federico Cesi, bishop of Palestrina.
-Pedro Pacheco de Villena, bishop of Albano.
-Ercole Gonzaga, bishop of Mantua.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore.
-Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, bishop of Parma.
-Niccolò Caetani, administrator of Quimper, France.
-Robert de Lénoncourt, bishop of Embrun and administrator of Auxerre.
-Ippolito II d'Este, administrator of Auch, France.
-Giacomo Savelli.
-Giovanni Girolamo Morone.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, bishop of Brixen, Austria.
-Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo.
-Georges d'Armagnac, bishop of Rodez, France.
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany.
-Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro, bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, France. (2)
-Tiberio Crispi, administrator of Amalfi.
-Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros., penitentiary major, archbishop of Ravenna.
-Giulio della Rovere.
-Giovanni Angelo Medici. (Elected Pope Pius IV)
-Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte.
-Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte.
-Fulvio Giulio della Corgna, O.S.Hier.
-Giovanni Michele Saraceni. (3)
-Giovanni Ricci.
-Giovanni Andrea Mercurio, archbishop of Messina, Sicily.
-Giacomo Puteo, archbishop of Bari.
-Giovanni Battista Cicala.
-Luigi Cornaro.
-Louis I de Guise de Lorraine, bishop of Alby, administrator of Metz, Lorraine, France.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Carlo Carafa, administrator of Cominges, France.
-Gianbernardino Scotti, Theat., bishop of Piacenza.
-Diomede Carafa, bishop of Ariano.
-Scipione Rebiba, archbishop of Pisa.
-Jean Suau, bishop of Mirepoix, France.
-Gianantonio Capizzuchi, bishop of Lodi.
-Taddeo Gaddi, archbishop of Cosenza, Calabria.
-Lorenzo Strozzi, bishop of Béziers, France.
-Jean Bertrand.
-Michele Ghislieri, O.P., bishop of Sutri e Nepi.
-Clemente d'Olera, O.F.M.Obs.
-Alfonso Carafa, administrator of Naples.
-Vitellozzo Vitelli, bishop of Città di Castello.

(1) Left the conclave early on December 25, 1559.
(2) Died in the conclave on December 1, 1559.
(3) Left the conclave early on December 25, 1559.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop of Langres, France.
-Odet de Coligny de Châtillon, administrator of Beauvais, France.
-Antoine Sanguin de Meudon, archbishop of Toulouse, France. (1)
-Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Henrique de Portugal, archbishop of Evora, Portugal.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Girolamo Dandini. (2)

(1) Died on November 25, 1559.
(2) Died on December 4, 1559.

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Conclave of December 20, 1565 to January 7, 1566
(Pius V)

Pope Pius IV died on December 9, 1565. Cardinal Michele Ghislieri was elected his successor on January 7, 1566 and took the name Pius V. At the moment of the pope's death, the Sacred College of Cardinals had seventy members. The number of seventy potential Cardinal-electors on December 9 would be equalled only once in the next four centuries -- in the conclave of 1669 -- and would not be eclipsed until the conclave of 1963. Eighteen cardinals were entirely absent from the election. In addition, one cardinal died in the conclave, and two others attended the conclave but became ill and withdrew before the election. Consequently, forty-nine cardinals participated in the final ballot of the conclave. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Francesco Pisani, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giovanni Girolamo Morone, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, bishop of Frascati.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, Brixen, and Palestrina.
-Tiberio Crispi, bishop of Sabina.
-Niccolò Caetani, administrator of Quimper, France, Bisignano, and Capua.
-Ippolito II d'Este, administrator of Narbonne, France. (1)
-Giacomo Savelli, bishop of Nicastro, archbishop of Benevento.
-Giulio della Rovere.
-Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte.
-Fulvio Giulio della Corgna, O.S.Hieros., bishop of Perugia.
-Giovanni Michele Saraceni.
-Giovanni Ricci.
-Giovanni Battista Cicala, administrator of Sagona.
-Luigi Cornaro.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Scipione Rebiba.
-Jean Suau.
-Gianantonio Capizzuchi, bishop of Lodi.
-Michele Ghislieri, O.P., bishop of Mondovi. (Elected Pope Pius V)
-Clemente d'Olera, O.F.M.Obs., bishop of Foligno.
-Vitellozzo Vitelli.
-Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, bishop of Novara.
-Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan.
-Ludovico Simoneta.
-Markus Sittich von Hohenems, bishop of Konstanz, Germany.
-Francesco Gonzaga, bishop of Mantua. (2)
-Alfonso Gesualdo, archbishop of Conza.
-Gianfrancesco Gambara.
-Bernardo Salviati, administrator of Clermont, France.
-Pierfrancesco Ferrero.
-Luigi d'Este, archbishop of Auch, France.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis.
-Francisco Pacheco de Villena.
-Girolamo di Corregio.
-Ferdinando de' Medici.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, archbishop of Taranto.
-Tolomeo Gallio, archbishop of Manfredonia.
-Angelo Nicolini, archbishop of Pisa.
-Luigi Pisani, bishop of Padua.
-Zaccaria Delfino.
-Marcantonio Bobba, bishop of Aosta.
-Alessandro Sforza, bishop of Parma.
-Fulvio Orsini, bishop of Spoleto.
-Francesco Alciati.
-Guido Luca Ferrero, bishop of Vercelli. (3)
-Benedetto Lomellini, bishop of Luni-Sarzana.
-Guglielmo Sirleto.
-Gabriele Paleotti.
-Francesco Crasso.
-Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni, bishop of Bobbio.

(1) Left the conclave because of illness.
(2) Died in conclave on January 6, 1566.
(3) Left the conclave because of illness.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany, and Albano.
-Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos.
-Georges d'Armagnac, administrator of Toulouse, France.
-Henrique de Portugal, archbishop of Lisbon, Portugal.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Louis I de Guise de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.
-Gianbernardino Scotti, Theat., bishop of Piacenza.
-Lorenzo Strozzi, administrator of Alby, France.
-Philibert Babou de la Bourdaisière, bishop of Angoulême, administrator of Auxerre, France.
-Marco Antonio Amulio, bishop of Rieti.
-Stanisław Hosius, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, archbishop of Malines, Belgium.
-Prospero Santacroce, bishop of Kisamos, Crete.
-Ugo Boncompagni, bishop of Viesti.
-Alessandro Crivelli, bishop of Cerenza e Cariati.
-Antoine de Créqui Canaples, bishop of Amiens, France.
-Gianfrancesco Commendone.

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Conclave of May 12 to 13, 1572
(Gregory XIII)

Pope Pius V died on May 1, 1572. Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni was elected his successor on May 13, 1572 and took the name Gregory XIII. It was the shortest conclave, for, apparently, only one ballot was taken, followed by one accessus. Conradus Eubel, et al., Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Ævi, vol. III, Saeculum XVI ab anno 1503 Complectens (Monasterii: Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, [1923]), 45 note 1, states that fifty-one cardinals voted at the election of Gregory. Verified data shows, however, that there were sixty-six living cardinals in this sede vacante, of whom only thirteen were absent from the conclave. It is possible that the discrepancy of two is simply a scribal error; or it may be that two cardinals -- including possibly Ugo Boncompagni himself -- did not cast votes in the balloting. Boncompagni, of course, would not have been counted in the accessus. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Giovanni Girolamo Morone, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of Brixen, Austria, and Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, bishop of Frascati.
-Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany, and Palestrina.
-Giulio della Rovere, bishop of Sabina.
-Giovanni Ricci, bishop of Albano.
-Niccolò Caetani, administrator of Capua.
-Ippolito II d'Este, administrator of Narbonne, France.
-Giacomo Savelli, administrator of Benevento.
-Fulvio Giulio della Corgna, O.S.Hieros., bishop of Perugia.
-Luigi Cornaro.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Scipione Rebiba.
-Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, bishop of Novara.
-Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems, bishop of Konstanz, Germany.
-Alfonso Gesualdo, archbishop of Conza.
-Gianfrancesco Gambara.
-Stanisław Hosius, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, archbishop of Malines, Belgium.
-Luigi d'Este, archbishop of Auch, France.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Mileto.
-Francisco Pacheco de Villena, bishop of Burgos, Spain.
-Girolamo di Corregio, archbishop of Taranto.
-Ferdinando de' Medici.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, archbishop of Salerno.
-Tolomeo Gallio, archbishop of Manfredonia.
-Prospero Santacroce, bishop of Kisamos, Crete.
-Marcantonio Bobba.
-Ugo Boncompagni. (Elected Pope Gregory XIII)
-Alessandro Sforza, bishop of Parma.
-Flavio Orsini, administrator of Cosenza.
-Francesco Alciati, bishop of Città.
-Guido Luca Ferrero, bishop of Vercelli.
-Alessandro Crivelli.
-Benedetto Lomellini, bishop of Anagni.
-Guglielmo Sirleto, bishop of Squillace.
-Gabriele Paleotti, bishop of Bologna.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P.
-Gianpaolo della Chiesa.
-Antonio Carafa.
-Marcantonio Maffei, datary of His Holiness.
-Pierdonato Cesi, seniore.
-Charles d'Angennes de Rambouillet, bishop of Le Mans, France.
-Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Fermo.
-Giovanni Aldobrandini.
-Girolamo Rusticucci, bishop of Sinigaglia.
-Giulio Aquaviva d'Aragona.
-Archangelo de' Bianchi, O.P., bishop of Teano.
-Paolo Burali d'Arezzo, Theat., bishop of Piacenza.
-Vincenzo Giustiniani, O.P.
-Gian Girolamo Albani.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Georges d'Armagnac, administrator of Toulouse, France.
-Henrique de Portugal.
-Charles I de Guise de Lorraine, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte.
-Louis I de Guise de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.
-Zaccaria Delfino, bishop of Hvar, Dalmatia.
-Antoine de Créqui Canaples, bishop of Amiens, France.
-Gianfrancesco Commendone.
-Diego Espinosa y Arévalo, bishop of Sigüenza, Spain.
-Gaspar Cervantes, archbishop of Tarragona, Spain.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.

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Conclave of April 21 to 24, 1585
(Sixtus V)

Pope Gregory XIII died April 10, 1585. Cardinal Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., was elected his successor on April 24, 1585 and took the name Sixtus V. Forty-two of the sixty cardinals participated in the conclave. The absence of thirty percent of the cardinalate makes this conclave one of the most sparsely attended in the history of the modern church. Fourteen of Gregory XIII's thirty cardinals failed to attend, a startlingly high number. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giacomo Savelli, vicar of Rome, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, bishop of Frascati.
-Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Albano.
-Gianfrancesco Gambara, bishop of Palestrina.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems, bishop of Konstanz, Germany.
-Luigi d'Este, archbishop of Auch, France.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis.
-Ferdinando de' Medici.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore.
-Tolomeo Gallio.
-Prospero Santacroce.
-Guido Luca Ferrero.
-Guglielmo Sirleto.
-Gabriele Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P.
-Antonio Carafa.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Pierdonato Cesi.
-Charles d'Angennes de Rambouillet, bishop of Le Mans, France.
-Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv. (Elected Pope Sixtus V)
-Girolamo Rusticucci.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.
-Gian Girolamo Albani.
-Filippo Boncompagni, grand penitentiary.
-Filippo Guastavillani, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
-Andreas von Austria, bishop of Brixen, Austria.
-Alessandro Riario, titular patriarch of Alexandria.
-Pedro de Deza.
-Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nucce, patriarch of Jerusalem, Palestine.
-Giambattista Castagna, legate in Bologna.
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, archbishop of Florence.
-Giulio Canani, bishop of Adria.
-Niccolò Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona.
-Antonmaria Salviati.
-Filippo Spinola, bishop of Nola.
-Matthieu Cointerel, datary of His Holiness.
-Scipione Lancelotti.
-Francesco Sforza.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, archbishop of Besançon, France, and bishop of Sabina.
-Niccolò Caetani.
-Georges d'Armagnac, administrator of Toulouse, France.
-Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Albrecht von Austria.
-Louis II de Guise, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Charles II de Lorraine de Vaudémont, administrator of Toul, and Verdun, France.
-Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Narbonne, France.
-Michele Della Torre, bishop of Ceneda.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Vincenzo Lauro, bishop of Mondovi.
-Alberto Bolognetti, bishop of Massa marittima.
-Jerzy Radziwill, bishop of Wilna, Lithuania.
-Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia.
-Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme, coadjutor archbishop of Rouen, France.
-Andrzej Batory, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.

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Conclave of September 7 to 15, 1590
(Urban VII)

Pope Sixtus V died August 27, 1590. Cardinal Giambattista Castagna was elected his successor on September 15, 1590 and took the name Urban VII. Fifty-four of the sixty-seven cardinals participated in the conclave.

-Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Frascati.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, bishop of Palestrina.
-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Sabina.
-Gabriele Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna and bishop of Albano.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P.
-Antonio Carafa.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Girolamo Rusticucci.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.
-Gian Girolamo Albani.
-Pedro de Deza.
-Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.Hosp.S.Joh.Hieros.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nucce.
-Giambattista Castagna. (Elected Pope Urban VII)
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, archbishop of Florence.
-Giulio Canani, bishop of Adria.
-Niccolò Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona.
-Antonmaria Salviati.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Vincenzo Lauro.
-Filippo Spinola.
-Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia.
-Scipione Lancelotti.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Perretti.
-Giovanni Battista Castrucci, archbishop of Chieti.
-Federico Cornaro, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros., bishop of Padua.
-Ippolito de' Rossi, bishop of Pavia.
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore.
-Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore, grand penitentiary.
-Girolamo della Rovere, archbishop of Turin.
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Ascoli-Piceno.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Perugia.
-Costanzo da Sarnano, O.F.M.Conv.
-Girolamo Mattei.
-Benedetto Giustiniani.
-Ascanio Colonna.
-William Allen.
-Scipione Gonzaga.
-Antonmaria Sauli, archbishop of Genoa.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta, archbishop of Cosenza, Calabria, pro-datary of His Holiness.
-Juan Hurtado de Mendoza.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore.
-Gianfrancesco Morosini, bishop of Brescia.
-Agostino Cusani.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti, bishop of Martorano.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A..
-Guido Pepoli.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Andreas von Austria, bishop of Brixen, Austria and Konstanz, Germany.
-Albrecht von Austria.
-Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Jerzy Radziwill, bishop of Wilna, Lithuania.
-Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, administrator of Bayeux, France.
-Andrzej Batory, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Enrico Caetani, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
-Philippe de Lénoncourt.
-Pierre de Gondi, bishop of Paris, France.
-Hughes de Loubenx de Verdalle, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.

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Conclave of October 8 to December 5, 1590
(Gregory XIV)

Pope Urban VII died September 27, 1590 after a thirteen-day pontificate. Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona, was elected his successor on December 5, 1590 and took the name Gregory XIV. The number of members of the Sacred College had been reduced by two since the previous conclave: Pope Urban VII and Cardinal Federico Cornaro, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (+ October 4, 1590). Fifty-three of the sixty-five cardinals participated in the conclave.

-Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Frascati.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, bishop of Palestrina.
-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Sabina.
-Gabriele Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna and bishop of Albano.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P.
-Antonio Carafa.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Girolamo Rusticucci.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.
-Gian Girolamo Albani.
-Andreas von Austria, bishop of Brixen, Austria and Konstanz, Germany.
-Pedro de Deza.
-Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.Hosp.S.Joh.Hieros.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nucce.
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, archbishop of Florence.
-Giulio Canani, bishop of Adria.
-Niccolò Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona. (Elected Pope Gregory XIV)
-Antonmaria Salviati.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Vincenzo Lauro.
-Filippo Spinola.
-Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia.
-Scipione Lancelotti.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Perretti.
-Giovanni Battista Castrucci, archbishop of Chieti.
-Ippolito de' Rossi, bishop of Pavia.
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore.
-Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore, grand penitentiary.
-Girolamo della Rovere, archbishop of Turin.
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Ascoli-Piceno.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Perugia.
-Costanzo da Sarnano, O.F.M.Conv.
-Girolamo Mattei.
-Benedetto Giustiniani.
-Ascanio Colonna.
-William Allen.
-Scipione Gonzaga.
-Antonmaria Sauli, archbishop of Genoa.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta, archbishop of Cosenza, Calabria, pro-datary of His Holiness.
-Juan Hurtado de Mendoza.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore.
-Gianfrancesco Morosini, bishop of Brescia.
-Agostino Cusani.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti, bishop of Martorano.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A..
-Guido Pepoli.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Albrecht von Austria.
-Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Jerzy Radziwill, bishop of Wilna, Lithuania.
-Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, administrator of Bayeux, France.
-Andrzej Batory, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Enrico Caetani, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
-Philippe de Lénoncourt.
-Pierre de Gondi, bishop of Paris, France.
-Hughes de Loubenx de Verdalle, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.

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October 27 to 29, 1591
(Innocent IX)

Pope Gregory XIV died on October 16, 1591. Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nucce was elected his successor on October 29, 1591 and took the name Innocent IX. During the ten-month reign of Gregory, four cardinals died: Antonio Carafa (January 13, 1591), Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni (March 18, 1591), Gian Girolamo Albani (April 25, 1591), and Ippolito de' Rossi (April 28, 1591). This and the election of Gregory reduced the membership in the Sacred College by five. Pope Gregory XIV held two consistories for the creation of five new cardinals. Fifty-six of the sixty-five cardinals participated in the conclave. (Notes provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)

-Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, bishop of Palestrina.
-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Frascati.
-Gabriele Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna and bishop of Sabina.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Girolamo Rusticucci.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.
-Andreas von Austria, bishop of Brixen, Austria and Konstanz, Germany.
-Pedro de Deza.
-Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.Hosp.S.Joh.Hieros.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nucce. (Elected Pope Innocent IX)
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, archbishop of Florence.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Giulio Canani, bishop of Adria.
-Antonmaria Salviati.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Vincenzo Lauro.
-Filippo Spinola.
-Jerzy Radziwill, bishop of Wilna, Lithuania.
-Filippo Spinola.
-Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia.
-Scipione Lancelotti.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Perretti.
-Enrico Caetani.
-Giovanni Battista Castrucci.
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore.
-Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore, grand penitentiary.
-Girolamo della Rovere, archbishop of Turin.
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Ascoli-Piceno.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Osimo.
-Costanzo da Sarnano, O.F.M.Conv.
-Girolamo Mattei.
-Benedetto Giustiniani.
-Ascanio Colonna.
-William Allen.
-Scipione Gonzaga.
-Antonmaria Sauli.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta, pro-datary of His Holiness.
-Juan Hurtado de Mendoza.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore.
-Gianfrancesco Morosini, bishop of Brescia.
-Agostino Cusani.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A..
-Guido Pepoli.
-Paolo Emilio Sfondrati.
-Ottavio Paravicini, bishop of Alessandria.
-Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona, seniore.
-Odoardo Farnese.
-Flaminio Piatti.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Albrecht von Austria.
-Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, administrator of Bayeux, France.
-Andrzej Batory, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Philippe de Lénoncourt.
-Pierre de Gondi, bishop of Paris, France.
-Hughes de Loubenx de Verdalle, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.

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Conclave of January 10 to 30, 1592
(Clement VIII)


Pope Innocent IX died on December 30, 1591. Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore, grand penitentiary was elected his successor on January 30, 1592 and took the name Clement VIII. At the death of the pope, the Sacred College of Cardinals was composed of sixty-five members. Cardinal Juan Hurtado de Mendoza died during the sede vacante on January 6, 1592, reducing the membership to sixty-four. Ten cardinals did not participate in the conclave.

-Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore, bishop of Palestrina.
-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Frascati.
-Gabriele Paleotti, archbishop of Bologna and bishop of Sabina.
-Michele Bonelli, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Girolamo Simoncelli.
-Markus Sitticus von Hohenems.
-Ludovico Madruzzo.
-Giulio Antonio Santorio.
-Girolamo Rusticucci.
-Nicolas de Pellevé, archbishop of Sens, France.
-Andreas von Austria, bishop of Brixen, Austria and Konstanz, Germany.
-Pedro de Deza.
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, archbishop of Florence.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse, France. (1)
-Giulio Canani, bishop of Adria.
-Antonmaria Salviati.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Vincenzo Lauro.
-Filippo Spinola.
-Jerzy Radziwill, bishop of Wilna, Lithuania.
-Simeone Tagliavia d'Aragonia.
-Scipione Lancelotti.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Perretti.
-Enrico Caetani, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
-Giovanni Battista Castrucci.
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore.
-Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore, grand penitentiary. (Elected Pope Clement VIII)
-Girolamo della Rovere, archbishop of Turin. (2)
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Ascoli-Piceno.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Osimo.
-Costanzo da Sarnano, O.F.M.Conv.
-Girolamo Mattei.
-Benedetto Giustiniani.
-Ascanio Colonna.
-William Allen.
-Scipione Gonzaga.
-Antonmaria Sauli.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta, pro-datary of His Holiness.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore.
-Gianfrancesco Morosini, bishop of Brescia.
-Agostino Cusani.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A..
-Guido Pepoli.
-Paolo Emilio Sfondrati.
-Ottavio Paravicini, bishop of Alessandria.
-Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona, seniore.
-Odoardo Farnese.
-Flaminio Piatti.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, iuniore.

(1) Entered the conclave on January 12, 1592.
(2) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51 and 68, indicates that he died on February 7, 1592; and on p. 309, that he died on January 26, 1592, therefore during the conclave. According to Ludwig von Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. XXII, Clement VIII (1592-1605), p. 10, n. 1, fifty-two cardinals entered the conclave and they "were the same as those who had taken part in the conclave of Innocent IX., of course with the exemption of himself, of V. Gonzaga, who had died in the interval, and Giovanni Mendoza. Of those nominated by Innocent IX., Facchinetti was present, and Sega absent... On January 12, 1592, there also arrived Joyeuse, who took part in the scrutiny of the 13th..." He does not indicate that Cardinal Della Rovere died during the conclave. Neither does Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica, IV, 3, in its chronicle of this conclave.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Albrecht von Austria.
-Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Charles III de Bourbon de Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, administrator of Bayeux, France.
-Andrzej Batory, bishop of Ermland, Prussia.
-Philippe de Lénoncourt.
-Pierre de Gondi, bishop of Paris, France.
-Hughes de Loubenx de Verdalle, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, Lorraine, France.
-Filippo Sega, bishop of Piacenza.

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