The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Conclaves of the 17th Century (1605-1691)

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Conclave of March 14 to April 1, 1605
(Leo XI)

Pope Clement VIII died on March 3, 1605. Cardinal Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici was elected his successor on April 1, 1605 and took the name Leo XI. Sixty of the sixty-nine cardinals participated in the final ballot.

-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, bishop of Palestrina. (Elected Pope Leo XI)
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore, bishop of Frascati.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Rouen and bishop of Sabina.
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Osimo.
-Benedetto Giustiniani, legate in Marche.
-Antonmaria Sauli.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore, archbishop of Milan.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A.
-Paolo Emilio Sfondrati.
-Ottavio Paravicini.
-Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona, seniore.
-Flaminio Piatti.
-Pietro Aldobrandini.
-Francesco Maria Tarugi, Orat., archbishop of Siena.
-Ottavio Bandini, archbishop of Fermo.
-Anne d'Escars de Givry, O.S.B., bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Giovanni Francesco Biandrate di San Giorgio Aldobrandini, bishop of Acqui.
-Camillo Borghese.
-Cesare Baronio, Orat.
-Lorenzo Bianchetti.
-Francisco de Ávila.
-Francesco Mantica.
-Pompeio Arrigoni.
-Bonifazio Bevilacqua, bishop of Cervia, legate in Perugia and Umbria.
-Alfonso Visconti, archbishop of Spoleto.
-Domenico Toschi, bishop of Tivoli.
-Paolo Emilio Zacchia.
-Roberto Bellarmino, S.J.
-François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis.
-Séraphin Olivier-Razali.
-Filippo Spinelli, bishop of Policastro.
-Carlo Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo, bishop of Trento.
-Jacques Davy du Perron, bishop of Evreux, France.
-Innocenzo del Bufalo-Cancellieri, bishop of Camerino.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Giacomo Sannesio.
-Erminio Valenti.
-Girolamo Agucchi.
-Girolamo Pamphilj.
-Ferdinando Taverna.
-Anselmo Marzato, O.F.M.Cap.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Peretti.
-Odoardo Farnese.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, iuniore.
-Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini.
-Bartolomeo Cesi.
-Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto.
-Alessandro d'Este.
-Giovanni Battista Deti.
-Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Giovanni Doria.
-Carlo Emmanuele Pio, seniore.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Ascanio Colonna.
-Pierre de Gondi.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, France.
-Fernando Niño de Guevara, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, archbishop of Olomouc, Moravia.
-Domenico Ginnasi, archbishop of Manfredonia.
-Antonio Zapata y Cisneros.
-Bernard Maciejowski, bishop of Kraków, Poland.

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Conclave of May 8 to 29, 1605
(Paul V)

Pope Leo XI died on April 27, 1605. Cardinal Camillo Borghese was elected his successor on May 29, 1605 and took the name Paul V. Sixty-one of the sixty-seven cardinals participated in the final ballot.

-Tolomeo Gallio, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Domenico Pinelli, seniore, bishop of Frascati.
-François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Rouen and bishop of Sabina.
-Girolamo Bernerio, O.P., bishop of Albano.
-Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona.
-Antonio Maria Gallo, bishop of Osimo.
-Benedetto Giustiniani, legate in Marche.
-Antonmaria Sauli.
-Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore, archbishop of Milan.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.
-Mariano Pierbenedetti.
-Gregorio Petrocchini, O.E.S.A.
-Paolo Emilio Sfondrati.
-Ottavio Paravicini.
-Ottavio d'Aquaviva d'Aragona, seniore.
-Flaminio Piatti.
-Pietro Aldobrandini.
-Francesco Maria Tarugi, Orat., archbishop of Siena.
-Ottavio Bandini, archbishop of Fermo.
-Anne d'Escars de Givry, O.S.B., bishop of Lisieux, France.
-Giovanni Francesco Biandrate di San Giorgio Aldobrandini, bishop of Acqui.
-Camillo Borghese. (Elected Pope Paul V)
-Cesare Baronio, Orat.
-Lorenzo Bianchetti.
-Francisco de Ávila.
-Francesco Mantica.
-Pompeio Arrigoni.
-Bonifazio Bevilacqua, bishop of Cervia, legate in Perugia and Umbria.
-Alfonso Visconti, archbishop of Spoleto.
-Domenico Toschi, bishop of Tivoli.
-Paolo Emilio Zacchia.
-Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, archbishop of Olomouc, Moravia.
-Roberto Bellarmino, S.J.
-François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis.
-Séraphin Olivier-Razali.
-Domenico Ginnasi, archbishop of Manfredonia.
-Antonio Zapata y Cisneros.
-Filippo Spinelli, bishop of Policastro.
-Carlo Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo, bishop of Trento.
-Jacques Davy du Perron, bishop of Evreux, France.
-Innocenzo del Bufalo-Cancellieri, bishop of Camerino.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Giacomo Sannesio.
-Erminio Valenti.
-Girolamo Pamphilj.
-Ferdinando Taverna.
-Anselmo Marzato, O.F.M.Cap.
-Francesco Sforza.
-Alessandro Damasceni Peretti.
-Odoardo Farnese.
-Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, iuniore.
-Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini.
-Bartolomeo Cesi.
-Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto.
-Alessandro d'Este.
-Giovanni Battista Deti.
-Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Giovanni Doria.
-Carlo Emmanuele Pio, seniore.

Cardinals Paolo Emilio Zacchia and Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo were bedridden in their cells and could not be present in the Pauline Chapel for the election but "sed consensum praestiterunt, et electionem hilariter approbaverunt", according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, IV, 9.

Cardinal Girolamo Agucchi died on April 27, 1605, the same day that Pope Leo XI died.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Ascanio Colonna.
-Pierre de Gondi.
-Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont, bishop of Metz, France.
-Fernando Niño de Guevara, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Bernard Maciejowski, bishop of Kraków, Poland.

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Conclave of February 8 to 9, 1621
(Gregory XV)

Pope Paul V died on January 28, 1621. Cardinal Alessandro Ludovisi was elected his successor on February 9, 1621 and took the name Gregory XV. Fifty-one of the seventy cardinals participated in the final ballot. Spain presented the veto against the election to the pontificate of Cardinal Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria.

-Antonmaria Sauli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Benedetto Giustiniani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, subdean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria, bishop of Palestrina.
-Francesco Sforza, bishop of Frascati.
-Alessandro Damasceni Peretti, bishop of Albano.
-Pietro Aldobrandini, archbishop of Ravenna and bishop of Sabina.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore, archbishop of Milan.
-Ottavio Bandini.
-Bartolomeo Cesi.
-Bonifazio Bevilacqua, bishop of Cervia.
-Roberto Bellarmino, S.J.
-Giovanni Battista Deti.
-Domenico Ginnasi.
-Antonio Zapata y Cisneros.
-Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo, bishop of Trento.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Giacomo Sannesio.
-Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace.
-Maffeo Barberini.
-Giovanni Garzia Millini.
-Marcello Lante, bishop of Todi.
-Michelangelo Tonti, bishop of Cesena.
-Fabrizio Verallo.
-Giambattista Leni, bishop of Ferrara.
-Decio Carafa, archbishop of Naples.
-Domenico Rivarola.
-Jean de Bonsi.
-Filippo Filonardi.
-Pier Paolo Crescenzi, bishop of Rieti.
-Giacomo Serra, legate in Ferrara.
-Agostino Galamini, O.P., bishop of Osimo.
-Gaspar de Borja y de Velasco.
-Felice Centini, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Macerata e Tolentino.
-Roberto Ubaldini, bishop of Montepulciano.
-Tiberio Muti, bishop of Viterbo.
-Giulio Savelli, legate in Bologna.
-Alessandro Ludovisi, archbishop of Bologna. (Elected Pope Gregory XV).
-Ladislao d'Aquino, bishop of Venafro.
-Pietro Campori.
-Matteo Priuli.
-Scepione Cobelluzzi, librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
-Pietro Valier, archbishop of Creta.
-Giulio Roma.
-Cesare Gherardi.
-Desiderio Scaglia, O.P.
-Stefano Pignatelli.
-Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto.
-Alessandro d'Este.
-Carlo Emmanuele Pio, seniore.
-Luigi Capponi.
-Carlo de' Medici.
-Alessandro Orsini.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Odoardo Farnese.
-Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, archbishop of Olomouc, Moravia.
-François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis, archbishop of Bordeaux, France.
-Giovanni Doria, archbishop of Palermo.
-François de la Rochefoucald, bishop of Senlis, France.
-Maurizio di Savoia.
-Louis III de Guise, archbishop of Reims, France.
-Gabriel Trejo y Paniagua.
-Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval, bishop of Jaén, Spain.
-Melchior Klesl, archbishop of Vienna, Austria.
-Henri de Gondi, bishop of Paris, France.
-Francisco Gómez Rojas de Sandoval, duke of Lerma.
-Fernando de Austria, infant of Spain.
-Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri, bishop of Amelia.
-Guido Bentivoglio.
-Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Agustín Spinola.

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Conclave of July 19 to August 6, 1623
(Urban VIII)

Pope Gregory XV died on July 8, 1623. Cardinal Maffeo Barberini was elected his successor on August 6, 1623 and took the name Urban VIII. Fifty-four of the sixty-seven cardinals participated in the final ballot.

-Antonmaria Sauli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Sforza, bishop of Frascati.
-Giovanni Battista Deti, bishop of Albano.
-Odoardo Farnese, bishop of Sabina.
-Ottavio Bandini, bishop of Palestrina.
-Federico Borromeo, seniore, archbishop of Milan.
-Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto (1).
-Bonifazio Bevilacqua, bishop of Cervia.
-Alessandro d'Este, bishop of Reggio Emilia.
-Domenico Ginnasi.
-Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo.
-Giovanni Doria, archbishop of Palermo.
-Carlo Emmanuele Pio, seniore, legate in the province of Marche.
-Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace.
-Maffeo Barberini. (Elected Pope Urban VIII)
-Giovanni Garzia Millini.
-Marcello Lante, bishop of Todi.
-Maurizio di Savoia.
-Fabrizio Verallo.
-Giovanni Battista Leni, bishop of Ferrara.
-Luigi Capponi, archbishop of Ravenna.
-Decio Carafa, archbishop of Naples.
-Domenico Rivarola.
-Pier Paolo Crescenzi, bishop of Orvieto.
-Giacomo Serra.
-Agostino Galamini, O.P., bishop of Osimo.
-Gaspar de Borja y de Velasco.
-Felice Centini, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Macerta e Tolentino.
-Roberto Ubaldini, legate in Bologna.
-Tiberio Muti, bishop of Viterbo.
-Gabriel Trejo y Paniagua.
-Carlo de' Medici.
-Giulio Savelli.
-Melchior Klesl, archbishop of Vienna, Austria.
-Pietro Campori, bishop of Cremona.
-Matteo Priuli.
-Scipione Cobelluzzi, librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
-Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri, bishop of Amelia.
-Guido Bentivoglio.
-Pietro Valier, archbishop of Creta.
-Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
-Giulio Roma, bishop of Recanati e Loreto.
-Cesare Gherardi, bishop of Camerino (2).
-Desiderio Scaglia, O.P., bishop of Como.
-Stefano Pignatelli.
-Ludovico Ludovisi, archbishop of Bologna.
-Antonio Caetani.
-Francesco Sacrati, bishop of Cesena.
-Francesco Boncompagni, legate in Perugia and Umbria.
-Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore.
-Lucio Sanseverino, archbishop of Salerno.
-Marcantonio Gozzadini.
-Cosimo de Torres.
-Ottavio Rodolfi, bishop of Ariano.

(1) Left the conclave permanently on August 3, 1623.
(2) Left the conclave permanently on August 4, 1623 for having contracted malaria.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, archbishop of Olomouc, Moravia.
-François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis, archbishop of Bordeaux, France.
-Antonio Zapata y Cisneros.
-François de la Rochefoucald, bishop of Senlis, France.
-Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval, bishop of Jaén, Spain.
-Alessandro Orsini.
-Francisco Gómez Rojas de Sandoval, duke of Lerma.
-Fernando de Austria, infant of Spain.
-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, archbishop of Toulouse, France.
-Armand-Jean Du Plessis de Richelieu.
-Agustín Spinola, bishop of Tortosa, Spain.
-Alfonso de la Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo.

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Conclave of August 9 to September 15, 1644
(Innocent X)

Pope Urban VIII died on July 29, 1644. Cardinal Giambattista Pamphilj was elected his successor on September 15, 1644 and took the name Innocent X. Fifty-five of the sixty-one cardinals entered the conclave at the outset. One arrived four days later; two left because of illness; one died during the conclave; and four did not participate at all. Fifty-three cardinals voted in the final ballot. Cardinal Gil Carrillo de Albornoz presented the Spanish veto against the election of Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti to the pontificate. Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin arrived too late to present the French veto against Cardinal Giambattista Pamphili, who had already been elected pope and taken the name Innocent X.

Note. Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, IV, 27, indicates that fifty-five cardinals entered the conclave at the outset. One arrived four days later. Two left because of illness but reentered very early the morning of the election and took part in it. It does not mention that one died (although presumably lists him among the ones entering the conclave); lists Cardinal Giandomenico Spinola both as participating and absent; and does not mention Cardinal Borja y de Velasco at all. Although its figures do not add up, Gauchat indicates that 54 cardinals took part in the final ballot, that Cardinal Giambattista Pamphilj received 45 votes, 5 went to other cardinals and that his vote went to someone else.

-Marcello Lante, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Pier Paolo Crescenzi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri, bishop of Sabina.
-Guido Bentivoglio, bishop of Palestrina (1).
-Giulio Roma, bishop of Frascati.
-Luigi Capponi.
-Gaspar de Borja y de Velasco, bishop of Albano and archbishop of Sevilla, Spain.
-Alfonso de la Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo.
-Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
-Ernest Adalbert von Harrach, archbishop of Prague, Bohemia.
-Bernardino Spada.
-Federico Cornaro, iuniore.
-Giulio Cesare Sacchetti.
-Giandomenico Spinola, archbishop-bishop of Mazara.
-Giambattista Pamphilj. (Elected Pope Innocent X)
-Gil Carrillo de Albornoz.
-Alphonse-Louis Duplessis de Richelieu, O.Carth., archbishop of Lyon, France.
-Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta.
-Ciriaco Rocci.
-Cesare Monti, archbishop of Milan.
-Francesco Maria Brancaccio, bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella.
-Alessandro Bichi, bishop of Carpentras.
-Ulderico Carpegna.
-Stefano Durazzo, archbishop of Genoa.
-Marco Antonio Franciotti, bishop of Lucca.
-Francesco Maria Macchiavelli, bishop of Ferrara.
-Ascanio Filomarino, archbishop of Naples.
-Marco Antonio Bragadin, bishop of Vicenza.
-Pier Donato Cesi, iuniore.
-Girolamo Verospi, bishop of Osimo.
-Vincenzo Maculani, O.P.
-Francesco Peretti di Montalto.
-Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli.
-Fausto Poli, archbishop-bishop of Orvieto.
-Lelio Falconieri.
-Gasparo Mattei (2).
-Cesare Facchinetti, bishop of Senigaglia and titular archbishop of Damietta.
-Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni.
-Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
-Giambattista Altieri, seniore.
-Mario Theodoli.
-Francesco Angelo Rapaccioli, legate in Viterbo.
-Francesco Adriano Ceva.
-Angelo Giori.
-Juan de Lugo y de Quiroga, S.J.
-Carlo de' Medici.
-Francesco Barberini, seniore.
-Marzio Ginetti.
-Antonio Barberini, iuniore, legate in Bologna, Ferrara and Romandiola.
-Girolamo Colonna, archbishop of Bologna.
-Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio.
-Giulio Gabrielli (3).
-Rinaldo d'Este.
-Vincenzo Costaguti.
-Giovanni Stefano Donghi.
-Paolo Emilio Rondinini.
-Achille d'Estampes de Valençay.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-François de la Rochefoucald, bishop of Senlis, France.
-Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval, bishop of Jaén, Spain.
-Agustín Spínola, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
-Jules Raymond Mazarin.
-Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros.

(1) Died in conclave on September 7, 1644.
(2) Left the conclave on September 10, 1644 because of illness.
(3) Left the conclave on September 10, 1644 because of illness.

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Conclave of January 18 to April 7, 1655
(Alexander VII)

Pope Innocent X died on January 7, 1655. Cardinal Fabio Chigi was elected his successor on April 7, 1655 and took the name Alexander VII . Sixty-two of the sixty-nine cardinals entered the conclave. Four arrived later, one of the original attendees died during the conclave and three did not participate at all. Sixty-five cardinals voted in the final ballot. Spain presented a veto against the election of Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti, bishop of Frascati, to the pontificate (he had also been vetoed by Spain in the conclave of 1644).

-Carlo de' Medici, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Francesco Barberini, seniore, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Bernardino Spada, bishop of Sabina.
-Giulio Cesare Sacchetti, bishop of Frascati.
-Marzio Ginetti, bishop of Albano.
-Luigi Capponi.
-Ernest Adalbert von Harrach, archbishop of Prague, Bohemia (1).
-Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Girolamo Colonna.
-Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta.
-Francesco Maria Brancaccio, bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella.
-Alessandro Bichi, bishop of Carpentras.
-Ulderico Carpegna.
-Stefano Durazzo, archbishop of Genoa (2).
-Marco Antonio Franciotti.
-Ascanio Filomarino, archbishop of Naples (3).
-Marco Antonio Bragadin, bishop of Vicenza.
-Pier Donato Cesi, iuniore.
-Vincenzo Maculani, O.P.
-Francesco Peretti de Montalto, archbishop of Monreale.
-Cesare Facchinetti, titular archbishop of Damietta, bishop of Senigallia.
-Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni.
-Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
-Francesco Angelo Rapaccioli, bishop of Terni.
-Francesco Adriano Ceva.
-Angelo Giori.
-Juan de Lugo y de Quiroga, S.J.
-Domenico Cecchini.
-Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi, penitentiary major.
-Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (4).
-Alderano Cibo.
-Fabrizio Savelli, archbishop of Salerno.
-Francesco Cherubini.
-Camillo Astalli-Pamphilj.
-Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz, archbishop of Paris, France.
-Fabio Chigi, bishop of Imola. (Elected Pope Alexander VII)
-Giovanni Girolamo Lomellini, legate in Bologna.
-Luigi Omodei, seniore.
-Pietro Vito Ottoboni.
-Giacomo Corradi, bishop of Iesi.
-Marcello Santacroce, bishop of Tivoli.
-Baccio Aldobrandini.
-Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros. (5).
-Lorenzo Imperiali.
-Giberto Borromeo, seniore.
-Giovanni Battista Spada, legate in Ferrara.
-Prospero Caffarelli.
-Francesco Albizzi.
-Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore, legate in Romandiola.
-Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio.
-Giulio Gabrielli, bishop of Ascoli Piceno.
-Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Rinaldo d'Este.
-Vincenzo Costaguti.
-Giovanni Stefano Donghi, bishop of Ajaccio, Corsica.
-Paolo Emilio Rondinini, bishop of Assisi.
-Giancarlo de' Medici.
-Federico Sforza, bishop of Rimini.
-Benedetto Odescalchi, bishop of Novara.
-Cristoforo Vidman.
-Lorenzo Raggi.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Carlo Pio, iuniore.
-Carlo Gualterio, bishop of Fermo.
-Decio Azzolino, iuniore.

(1) Entered the conclave on February 7, 1655.
(2) Entered the conclave on January 25, 1655.
(3) Entered the conclave on January 21, 1655.
(4) Died in conclave, February 15, 1655.
(5) Entered the conclave on January 27, 1655.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Alfonso de la Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo, bishop of Palestrina and bishop of Málaga, Spain.
-Jules Raymond Mazarin.

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Conclave of June 2 to 20, 1667
(Clement IX)

Pope Alexander VII died on May 22, 1667. Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi was elected his successor on June 20, 1667 and took the name Clement IX. When the Pope died, there were seventy cardinals. However, two of them died in Rome on the same day, June 5, 1667, but not in the conclave: Francesco Maria Sforza Pallavicino, S.J. and Volumnio Bandinelli. Neither one entered the conclave at all. Sixty-one cardinals were present at the outset and three more entered later, bringing to sixty-four the number of members of the College present voting in the final ballot.

-Francesco Barberini, seniore, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Marzio Ginetti, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros., bishop of Palestrina.
-Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta, bishop of Frascati.
-Francesco Maria Brancaccio, bishop of Sabina.
-Ulderico Carpegna, bishop of Albano.
-Ernest Adalbert von Harrach, archbishop of Prague, Bohemia, and bishop of Trent, Tyrol.
-Stefano Durazzo.
-Giulio Gabrielli.
-Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Cesare Facchinetti, bishop of Spoleto.
-Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, archbishop of Aix, France.
-Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
-Giovanni Stefano Donghi, bishop of Ferrara (1).
-Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi (2).
-Federico Sforza.
-Benedetto Odescalchi.
-Alderano Cibo, bishop of Iesi.
-Lorenzo Raggi.
-Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz.
-Luigi Omodei, seniore.
-Pietro Vito Ottoboni.
-Marcello Santacroce, bishop of Tivoli (3).
-Lorenzo Imperiali.
-Giberto Borromeo, seniore.
-Giambattista Spada.
-Francesco Albizzi.
-Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore.
-Flavio Chigi, seniore.
-Giulio Rospigliosi. (Elected Pope Clement IX)
-Girolamo Buonvisi, archbishop-bishop of Lucca.
-Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci.
-Girolamo Farnese.
-Antonio Bichi, bishop of Osimo.
-Pietro Vidoni, seniore, bishop of Lodi.
-Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
-Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna.
-Carlo Bonelli.
-Celio Piccolomini.
-Carlo Carafa della Spina, legate in Bologna.
-Alfonso Litta, archbishop of Milan.
-Neri Corsini.
-Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, bishop of Montefisacone e Corneto.
-Cesare Maria Antonio Rasponi, legate in Urbino.
-Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Giacomo Filippo Nini.
-Giulio Spinola.
-Carlo Roberti.
-Innico Caracciolo, seniore, archbishop of Naples.
-Giovanni Delfino, patriarch of Aquileia.
-Rinaldo d'Este.
-Paolo Emilio Rondinini, bishop of Assisi.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Carlo Pio, iuniore.
-Carlo Gualterio, bishop of Fermo.
-Decio Azzolino, iuniore.
-Odoardo Vecchiarelli, bishop of Rieti.
-Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Camerino.
-Francesco Maria Mancini.
-Angelo Celsi.
-Paolo Savelli.
-Louis de Vendôme.

(1) Entered the conclave on June 10, 1667.
(2) Entered the conclave on June 6, 1667.
(3) Entered the conclave on June 10, 1667.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Pascual de Aragón.
-Vitaliano Visconti.
-Guidobald von Thun, archbishop of Salzburg, Austria.
-Luis Guillermo de Moncada de Aragón, duke of Bivona.
-Francesco Maria Sforza Pallavicino, S.J., died in Rome on June 5, 1667, during the celebration of the conclave.
-Volumnio Bandinelli, died in Rome on June 5, 1667, during the celebration of the conclave.

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Conclave of December 20, 1669 to April 29, 1670
(Clement X)

Pope Clement IX died December 9, 1669. Cardinal Emilio Bonaventura Altieri was elected his successor on April 29, 1670 and took the name Clement X.
    When the Pope died, there were seventy cardinals. Fifty-seven entered the conclave when it began. On the following day, December 21, Cardinal Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros., entered, raising the number of electors in conclave to fifty-eight. Only fifty-six actually participated in the first ballot, however, because both Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, and Cardinal Federico Sforza were too ill to attend. At this time, eight cardinals were still not present in Rome, while four others were in the city but were too ill to enter the conclave. On December 22, Cardinal Innico Caracciolo entered, raising the number of cardinal-electors to fifty-nine. On December 26, Cardinal Giberto Borromeo, seniore, entered. There were now sixty cardinals in conclave. On December 28, Cardinal Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci entered, raising the number of electors to sixty-one. On December 30, Cardinal Alfonso Litta entered to make sixty-two cardinals in conclave.
   On January 7, Cardinal Lorenzo Imperiali left the conclave, reducing the number of participants to sixty-one. On January 16, however, both Cardinal Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz and Cardinal Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon arrived in Rome for the election. Cardinal De Retz entered the conclave on January 18, and Cardinal de Bouillon on January 20. This raised the number of electors to sixty-three. From January 24 to January 27, Cardinal Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. was absent because of illness. On January 28, Cardinal Celio Piccolomini left, but two days later, on January 30, Cardinal Lorenzo Imperiali returned, making the electorate once again sixty-three.
   On February 3, both Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, and Cardinal Giambattista Spada left because of illness, as did Cardinal Marcello Santacroce on February 7. Cardinal Santacroce returned on February 16, but on February 22 Cardinal Lazaro Pallavicino left. On February 23, Cardinal Celio Piccolomini returned, but Cardinal Carlo Bonelli departed. On February 27, both Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore, and Cardinal Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. left the conclave.
    On March 15, Cardinal Lazaro Pallavicino returned, as did Cardinal Carlo Bonelli on the next day, March 16. On the following day, March 17, Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, returned. In the later days of March, no fewer than five cardinals were forced to leave because of ill health: Cardinal Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi on March 18, Cardinal Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci on March 24, Cardinal Buonaccorso Buonaccorsi on March 27, Cardinal Carlo Bonelli on March 16. On the following day, March 17, Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, on March 28, and Cardinal Marzio Ginetti on March 30.
   On April 13, Cardinal Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci died (although Cristofori gives April 2 as the date [p. 130], this seems to be a typographical error for April 12). On April 19, Cardinal Luis Manuel Fernandez de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio arrived in Rome, and entered the conclave on April 23. He was the last change in the composition of the electorate. France presented a veto against the election of Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi to the papacy. Fifty-nine cardinals voted in the final ballot and Cardinal Altieri received fifty-six votes.
   (This chronicle has been provided by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young, author of Passing the Keys.)
   Giancarlo Zizola, Il conclave. Storia e segreti. L'elezione papale da San Pietro a Giovanni Paolo II, (Rome : Newton, 1993), p. 124, says that Spain vetoed Cardinals Pietro Vidoni, seniore and Francesco Maria Brancaccio; Frederic Baumgartner, Behind locked doors. A history of the papal elections (New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 160, says that Spain declared that it was not going to exclude anybody.

-Francesco Barberini, seniore, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Marzio Ginetti, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros., bishop of Palestrina.
-Francesco Maria Brancaccio, bishop of Frascati.
-Ulderico Carpegna, bishop of Albano.
-Giulio Gabrielli, bishop of Sabina.
-Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Rinaldo d'Este.
-Cesare Facchinetti, bishop of Spoleto.
-Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
-Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi.
-Federico Sforza.
-Benedetto Odescalchi.
-Alderano Cibo, bishop of Iesi.
-Lorenzo Raggi.
-Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz.
-Luigi Omodei, seniore.
-Pietro Vito Ottoboni.
-Marcello Santacroce, bishop of Tivoli.
-Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Lorenzo Imperiali.
-Giberto Borromeo, seniore.
-Giambattista Spada.
-Francesco Albizzi.
-Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore.
-Carlo Pio, iuniore.
-Carlo Gualterio.
-Flavio Chigi, seniore.
-Girolamo Buonvisi, archbishop-bishop of Lucca.
-Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci, archbishop of Pisa (1).
-Antonio Bichi, bishop of Osimo.
-Pietro Vidoni, seniore.
-Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna.
-Celio Piccolomini.
-Carlo Bonelli.
-Carlo Carafa della Spina.
-Alfonso Litta, archbishop of Milan.
-Neri Corsini.
-Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni.
-Cesare Maria Antonio Rasponi, legate in Urbino.
-Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Giacomo Filippo Nini.
-Carlo Roberti, legate in Romandiola.
-Giulio Spinola.
-Vitaliano Visconti.
-Innico Caracciolo, seniore, archbishop of Naples.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Giacomo Rospigliosi, legate in Avignon.
-Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon.
-Luis Manuel Fernandez de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio.
-Francesco Nerli, seniore.
-Emilio Bonaventura Altieri. (Elected Pope Clement X)
-Carlo Cerri.
-Lazaro Pallavicino.
-Giovanni Bona, O.Cist.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Decio Azzolino, iuniore.
-Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Camerino.
-Francesco Maria Mancini.
-Angelo Celsi.
-Paolo Savelli.
-Leopoldo de' Medici.
-Sigismondo Chigi.
-Niccolò Acciaioli.
-Buonaccorso Buonaccorsi.

(1) Died on April 13, 1670 during the sede vacante.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, archbishop of Aix, France.
-Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
-Pascual de Aragón.
-Luis Guillermo de Moncada de Aragón, duke of Bivona.

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Conclave of August 2 to September 21, 1676
(Innocent XI)

Pope Clement X died on July 22, 1676. Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi was elected his successor on September 21, 1676 and took the name Innocent XI; his election to the papacy had been vetoed by France in the conclave of 1669-1670. When the pope died, the Sacred College of Cardinals had sixty-seven members. Sixty-three cardinals voted in the final ballot.

-Francesco Barberini, seniore, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Ulderico Carpegna, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giulio Gabrielli, bishop of Sabina.
-Cesare Facchinetti, bishop of Palestrina.
-Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, bishop of Albano.
-Carlo Rossetti, bishop of Faenza.
-Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi.
-Benedetto Odescalchi. (Elected Pope Innocent XI)
-Alderano Cibo.
-Lorenzo Raggi.
-Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz.
-Luigi Omodei, seniore.
-Pietro Vito Ottoboni.
-Francesco Albizzi.
-Carlo Pio, iuniore.
-Girolamo Buonvisi, archbishop-bishop of Lucca.
-Antonio Bichi, bishop of Osimo.
-Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Camerino.
-Pietro Vidoni, seniore.
-Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
-Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna.
-Celio Piccolomini.
-Carlo Carafa della Spina.
-Alfonso Litta, archbishop of Milan.
-Neri Corsini.
-Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
-Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Giacomo Filippo Nini.
-Giulio Spinola, bishop of Nepi and Sutri.
-Innico Caracciolo, seniore, archbishop of Naples.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Giacomo Rospigliosi, legate in Avignon.
-Sigismondo Chigi.
-Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon.
-Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio.
-Carlo Cerri, bishop of Ferrara.
-Lazaro Pallavicino.
-Camillo Massimi.
-Gasparo Carpegna, prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars.
-Bernhard Gustave von Baden-Durlach, O.S.B.
-César d'Estrées.
-Johann Eberhard Nidhard, S.J.
-Pierre de Bonzi, archbishop of Narbonne, France.
-Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P., archbishop of Manfredonia.
-Francesco Nerli, iuniore, archbishop of Florence.
-Girolamo Gastaldi.
-Federico Baldeschi Colonna, secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council.
-Galeazzo Marescotti, legate in Ferrara.
-Alessandro Crescenzi, bishop of Recanati and Loreto.
-Bernardino Rocci, archbishop-bishop of Orvieto.
-Fabrizio Spada.
-Mario Alberizzi, archbishop-bishop of Tivoli.
-Philip Thomas Howard of Norfolk, O.P.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Decio Azzolino, iuniore.
-Paolo Savelli.
-Flavio Chigi, seniore.
-Niccolò Acciaioli, legate in Ferrara.
-Bonaccorso Bonaccorsi, legate in Bologna.
-Felice Rospigliosi.
-Girolamo Casanate.
-Pietro Basadonna.

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Two cardinals, who never entered the conclave, died in Rome during the sede vacante:
-Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros., bishop of Frascati (+ August 21, 1676);
-Carlo Bonelli (+ August 27, 1676).
And two were absent from Rome:
-Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros.
-Pascual de Aragón.

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Conclave of August 23 to October 6, 1689
(Alexander VIII)

Pope Innocent XI died on August 12, 1689. Cardinal Pietro Vito Ottoboni was elected his successor on October 6, 1689 and took the name Alexander VIII. When the pope died, the Sacred College of Cardinals had sixty members. One cardinal died during the sede vacante: Angelo Maria Ranuzzi, archbishop of Bologna, who died in Fano on September 27, 1689, and eight cardinals were absent. Cardinals Giulio Spinola and Gianfrancesco Negroni had to leave the conclave because of illness. The king of Spain presented a veto against the election of Cardinal Lorenzo Brancati, O.F.M.Conv. Forty-nine cardinals voted in the final ballot.

-Alderano Cibo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Pietro Vito Ottoboni, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. (Elected Pope Alexander VIII)
-Flavio Chigi, seniore, bishop of Albano.
-Antonio Bichi, bishop of Palestrina, administrator of Osimo.
-Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Frascati.
-Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, bishop of Sabina, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
-Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Giulio Spinola, bishop of Lucca (had to leave the conclave because of illness on September 24).
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon.
-Niccolò Acciaioli.
-Carlo Cerri, bishop of Ferrara.
-Gasparo Carpegna.
-César d'Estrées.
-Pierre de Bonzi, archbishop of Narbonne, France.
-Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P., archbishop of Benevento.
-Francesco Nerli, iuniore, archbishop-bishop of Assisi.
-Girolamo Casanate.
-Federico Baldeschi Colonna.
-Galeazzo Marescotti, archbishop-bishop of Tivoli.
-Fabrizio Spada.
-Philip Thomas Howard of Norfolk, O.P.
-Giambattista Battista Spinola, seniore.
-Antonio Pignatelli, archbishop of Naples.
-Savo Millini, archbishop-bishop of Orvieto.
-Federico Visconti, archbishop of Milan.
-Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P.
-Lorenzo Brancati, O.F.M. Conv., librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
-Urbano Sacchetti, bishop of Viterbo and Toscanella.
-Gianfrancesco Ginetti, archbishop of Fermo.
-Benedetto Pamphili, O.S.Io.Hieros., prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice.
-Giacomo de Angelis.
-Opizio Pallavicini, legate in Urbino.
-Marcantonio Barbarigo, archbishop-bishop of Montefiascone and Corneto.
-Carlo Stefano Anastasio Ciceri, bishop of Como.
-Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch, bishop of Györ, Hungary.
-Pier Matteo Petrucci, Orat., bishop of Iesi.
-Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg, bishop of Strassburg, Alsatia.
-Jan Kazimierz Dönhoff, bishop of Cesena.
-José Sáenz de Aguirre, O.S.B.
-Leandro Colloredo, Orat., grand penitentiary.
-Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina, bishop of Aversa.
-Domenico Maria Corsi, bishop of Rimini, legate in Romandiola.
-Gianfrancesco Negroni, bishop of Faenza, legate in Bologna (had to leave the conclave because of illness on October 4).
-Fulvio Astalli.
-Gasparo Cavalieri, archbishop of Capua.
-Francesco Maria de' Medici.
-Rinaldo d'Este.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Francesco Buonvisi.
-Veríssimo de Lencastre.
-Marcello Durazzo, bishop of Carpentras.
-Étienne Le Camus, bishop of Grenoble, France.
-Johannes von Goes, bishop of Gurk, Austria (he set out for Rome but did not reach the conclave in time).
-Augustyn Michał Stefan Radziejowski, archbishop of Gniezno, Poland.
-Pedro de Salazar Gutiérrez de Toledo, O. de M., bishop of Córdoba, Spain.

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Conclave of February 12 to July 12, 1691
(Innocent XII)

Pope Alexander VIII died on February 1, 1691. Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli was elected his successor on July 12, 1691 and took the name Innocent XII. When the pope died, the Sacred College of Cardinals had seventy members. Five cardinals (including one who died during the conclave) were absent entirely from Rome during the sede vacante and four (including two who died during the conclave) had left the conclave because of illness and were not present in the final ballot. Sixty-one cardinals were present in the final scrutiny.

-Alderano Cibo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Flavio Chigi, seniore, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
-Giacomo Franzoni, bishop of Frascati.
-Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, bishop of Sabina, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
-Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon, bishop of Albano.
-Francesco Maidalchini.
-Carlo Barberini.
-Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua.
-Giannicolò Conti, bishop of Ancona.
-Giulio Spinola.
-Giovanni Delfino.
-Niccolò Acciaioli.
-Gasparo Carpegna.
-César d'Estrées.
-Pierre de Bonzi, archbishop of Narbonne, France.
-Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P., archbishop of Benevento.
-Francesco Nerli, iuniore.
-Girolamo Casanate.
-Galeazzo Marescotti.
-Fabrizio Spada.
-Philip Thomas Howard of Norfolk, O.P.
-Giambattista Spinola, seniore.
-Antonio Pignatelli, archbishop of Naples. (Elected Pope Innocent XII)
-Francesco Buonvisi, bishop of Lucca.
-Savo Millini, archbishop-bishop of Orvieto.
-Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P.
-Lorenzo Brancati, O.F.M. Conv., librarian of the Holy Roman Church.
-Urbano Sacchetti, bishop of Viterbo and Toscanella.
-Gianfrancesco Ginetti, archbishop of Fermo.
-Benedetto Pamphili, O.S.Io.Hieros., legate in Bologna.
-Giacomo de Angelis.
-Opizio Pallavicini, bishop of Spoleto.
-Marcello Durazzo, bishop of Ferrara.
-Marcantonio Barbarigo, archbishop-bishop of Montefiascone and Corneto.
-Carlo Stefano Anastasio Ciceri, bishop of Como.
-Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Kalocssa-Bács, administrator of Györ, Hungary.
-Étienne Le Camus, bishop of Grenoble, France.
-Johannes von Goes, bishop of Gurk, Austria.
-Pier Matteo Petrucci, Orat.
-Pedro de Salazar Gutiérrez de Toledo, O. de M., bishop of Córdoba, Spain.
-Jan Kazimierz Dönhoff, bishop of Cesena.
-José Sáenz de Aguirre, O.S.B.
-Leandro Colloredo, Orat., grand penitentiary.
-Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina, bishop of Aversa.
-Domenico Maria Corsi, bishop of Rimini, legate in Romandiola.
-Gianfrancesco Negroni, bishop of Faenza.
-Fulvio Astalli.
-Francesco Maria de' Medici.
-Rinaldo d'Este.
-Pietro Ottoboni, general superintendent of the affairs of the Apostolic See; governor of Fermo, Tivoli, and the territory of Capranica; vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; and legate in Avignon.
-Bandino Panciatici, datary of His Holiness.
-Giacomo Cantelmo, archbishop of Capua.
-Ferdinando d'Adda.
-Toussaint de Forbin de Janson, bishop of Beauvais, France.
-Giovanni Battista Rubini, bishop of Vicenza and legate in Urbino.
-Francesco del Giudice.
-Giovanni Battista Costaguti.
-Carlo Bichi.
-Giuseppe Renato Imperiali, legate in Ferrara.
-Luigi Omodei, seniore.
-Giovanni Francesco Albani.
-Francesco Barberini, iuniore.
-Lorenzo Altieri.

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The following cardinals did not participate in the conclave:
-Antonio Bichi, died on February 21, 1691 in Osimo.
-Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero-Bocanegra y Moscoso-Osorio, archbishop of Toledo, Spain.
-Veríssimo de Lencastre.
-Augustyn Michał Stefan Radziejowski, archbishop of Gniezno, Poland.
-Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg, bishop of Strassburg, Alsatia.

In Rome but not in the conclave for the final ballot:
-Giulio Spinola, had to leave the conclave because of illness on February 21, 1691 and died on March 11, 1691.
-Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P., had to leave the conclave because of illness on April 13, 1691 and died on April 22, 1691.
-Federico Visconti, left the conclave on June 19, 1691.
-Federico Baldeschi Colonna, left the conclave on June 29, 1691.

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