The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Conclaves of the 21st Century (2005)

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Conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005
(Benedict XVI)

Pope John Paul II died in the Vatican on April 2, 2005. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Velletri-Segni, dean of the College of Cardinals, was chosen his successor. He took the name Benedict XVI. One-hundred and fifteen of the one-hundred-seventeen cardinal electors participated in the conclave to elect the new pope. It has been the most numerous conclave in the history of the Church. Two cardinal electors could not attend for health reasons. Sixty-six cardinals could not participate in the election for having turned eighty years of age. Seventy-seven votes were required to be elected by two-thirds of the electors and fifty-eight to be elected by an absolute majority of them. The date in parentheses indicates the year in which they were promoted to the cardinalate.


Cardinal bishops and patriarch of Oriental rite (5)

- Joseph Ratzinger, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Velletri-Segni, dean of the College of Cardinals (1977). (Elected Pope Benedict XVI)
- Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, vice-dean of the College of Cardinals (1991).
- Alfonso López Trujillo, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati (1983).
- Giovanni Battista Re, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto (2001).
- Ignace Moussa I Daoud, patriarch emeritus of Antioch of the Syrians (2001).


Cardinal priests (95)

- William Wakefield Baum, title of S. Croce in Via Flaminia, penitentiary major emeritus (1976).
- Marco Cé, title of S. Marco, patriarch emeritus of Venice, Italy (1979).
- Franciszek Macharski, title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, archbishop of Kraków, Poland (1979).
- Michael Michai Kitbunchu, title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand (1983).
- Godfried Danneels, title of S. Anastasia, archbishop of Michelen-Brussels, Belgium (1983).
- Thomas Stafford Williams, title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, archbishop emeritus of Wellington, New Zealand (1983).
- Carlo Maria Martini, S.J.. title of S. Cecilia, archbishop emeritus of Milan, Italy (1983).
- Jean-Marie Lustiger, title of S. Luigi dei Francesci, archbishop emeritus of Paris, France (1983).
- Józef Glemp, title of S. Maria in Trastevere, archbishop of Warsaw, Poland (1983).
- Joachim Meisner, title of S. Pudenziana, archbishop of Cologne, Germany (1983).
- Francis Arinze, title of S. Giovanni della Pigna, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title (1985).
- Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, archbishop emeritus of Managua, Nicaragua (1985).
- Ricardo Jamin Vidal, title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense, archbishop of Cebu, Philippines (1985).
- Paul Poupard, title of S. Prassede (1985).
- Friedrich Wetter, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, archbishop of München und Freising, Germany (1985).
- Adrianus Johannes Simonis, title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Utrecht, Holland (1985).
- Bernard Francis Law, title of S. Susanna, archbishop emeritus of Boston, United States of America, archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica (1985).
- Giacomo Biffi, title of Ss. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, archbishop emeritus of Bologna, Italy (1985).
- Eduardo Martínez Somalo, title of SS. Nome di Gesù, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, prefect emeritus of Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (1988).
- José Freire Falcão, title of S. Luca a Via Prenestina, archbishop emeritus of Brasília, Brazil (1988).
- Michele Giordano, title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello, archbishop of Naples, Italy (1988).
- Edmund Casimir Szoka, title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, archbishop emeritus of Detroit, United States of America, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, president of the Governatorato of the City of Vatican State (1988).
- László Paskai, O.F.M., title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, archbishop emeritus of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary (1988).
- Christian Wiyghan Tumi, title of Ss. Martiri dell'Uganda a Poggio Armeno, archbishop of Douala, Cameroun (1988).
- Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi, C.I.C.M., title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi, archbishop of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (1991).
- Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, title of S. Pio X alla Balduina, archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (1991).
- Roger Michael Mahony, title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, archbishop of Los Angeles, United States of America (1991).
- Camillo Ruini, title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, vicar general of His Holiness for Rome (1991).
- Henri Schwery, title of Ss. Protomartiri a Via Aurelia Antica, bishop emeritus of Sion, Switzerland (1991).
- Georg Maximilian Sterzinsky, title of S. Giuseppe all'Aurelio, archbishop of Berlin, Germany (1991).
- Miroslav Vlk, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic (1994).
- Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza, archbishop emeritus of Tōkyō, Japan (1994).
- Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, S.J., title of S. Cuore di Maria, archbishop of Jakarta, Indonesia (1994).
- Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, title of Ss. Aquila e Priscilla. archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, Cuba (1994).
- Emmanuel Wamala, title of S. Ugo, archbishop of Kampala, Uganda (1994).
- William Henry Keeler, title of S. Maria degli Angeli, archbishop of Baltimore, United States of America (1994).
- Jean-Claude Turcotte, title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Santi Martiri Canadesi, archbishop of Montréal, Canada (1994).
- Ricardo María Carles Gordó, title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, archbishop emeritus of Barcelona, Spain (1994).
- Adam Joseph Maida, title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, archbishop of Detroit, United States of America (1994).
- Vinko Puljić, title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, archbishop of Vrhbosna, Bosnia i Hercegovina (1994).
- Armand Gaetan Razafindratandra, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, archbishop of Antananarivo, Madagascar (1994).
- Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, archbishop of Guadalajara, México (1994).
- Salvatore De Giorgi, title of S. Maria in Ara Coeli, archbishop of Palermo, Italy (1998).
- Antonio María Rouco Varela, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, archbishop of Madrid, Spain (1998).
- Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic, title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Toronto, Canada (1998).
- Dionigi Tettamanzi, title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, archbishop of Milan, Italy (1998).
- Polycarp Pengo, title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania (1998).
- Christoph Schönborn, O.P., title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, archbishop of Vienna, Austria (1998).
- Norberto Rivera Carrera, title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, archbishop of México, México (1998).
- Francis Eugene George, O.M.I., title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, archbishop of Chicago, United States of America (1998).
- Marian Jaworski, title of S. Sisto, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins, Ukraine (1998).
- Jānis Pujats, title of S. Silvia, archbishop of Riga, Latvia (1998).
- Ivan Dias, title of Spirito Santo alla Ferratella, archbishop of Bombay, India (2001).
- Geraldo Majella Agnelo, title of S. Gregorio Magno alla Magliana Nuova, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil (2001).
- Pedro Rubiano Sáenz, title of Transfigurazione de N.S.G.C., archbishop of Bogotá, Colombia (2001).
- Theodore Edgar McCarrick, title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, archbishop of Washington, United States of America (2001).
- Desmond Connell, title of S. Silvestro in Capite, archbishop emeritus of Dublin, Ireland (2001).
- Audrys Juozas Bačkis, title of Natività di N.S.G.C. a Via Gallia, archbishop of Vilnius, Lithuania (2001).
- Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, Institute of the Fathers of Schönstatt, title of S. Maria della Pace, archbishop of Santiago, Chile (2001).
- Julio Terrazas Sandoval, C.SS.R., title of S. Giovanni Battista de' Rossi, archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (2001).
- Wilfrid Fox Napier, O.F.M., title of S. Francesco d'Assisi ad Acilia, archbishop of Durban, South Africa (2001).
- Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B., title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, archbishop of Tegucigalpa, Honduras (2001).
- Bernard Agré, title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Monte Sacro Alto, archbishop of Abidjan, Ivory Coast (2001).
- Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, title of S. Camillo de Lellis, archbishop of LIma, Perú (2001).
- Francisco Álvarez Martínez, title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, archbishop emeritus of Toledo, Spain (2001).
- Clâudio Hummes, O.F.M., title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Merulana, archbishop of São Paulo, Brazil (2001).
- Varkey Vithayathil, C.SS.R., title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, archbishop major of Ernakulam-Amgamaly of the Siro-Malabars, India (2001).
- Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina (2001).
- José da Cruz Policarpo, title of S. Antonio in Campo Marzio, patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal (2001).
- Severino Poletto, title of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archbishop of Turin, Italy (2001).
- Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, archbishop of Westminster, England (2001).
- Edward Michael Egan, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, archbishop of New York, United States (2001).
- Lubomyr Husar, M.S.U., title of S. Sofia a Via Boccea, archbishop major of Lviv of the Ukrainians, Ukraine (2001).
- Karl Lehmann, title of S. Leone I, bishop of Mainz, Germany (2001).
- Angelo Scola, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, patriarch of Venice, Italy (2003).
- Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria (2003).
- Bernard Panafieu, title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, archbishop of Marseille, France (2003).
- Gabriel Zubeir Wako, title of S. Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, archbishop of Khartoum, Sudan (2003).
- Carlos Amigo Vallejo, O.F.M., title of S Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain (2003).
- Justin Francis Rigali, title of S. Prisca, archbishop of Philadelphia, United States of America (2003).
- Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien, title of Ss. Gioacchino e Anna al Tuscolano, archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Scotland (2003).
- Eusébio Oscar Scheid, S.C.I., title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2003).
- Ennio Antonelli, title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, archbishop of Florence, Italy (2003).
- Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, archbishop of Genoa, Italy (2003).
- Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, title of S. Liborio, archbishop of Cape Coast, Ghana (2003).
- Telesphore Placidus Toppo, title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù agonizzante a Vitinia, archbishop of Ranchi, India (2003).
- George Pell, title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, archbishop of Sydney, Australia (2003).
- Josip Bozanić, title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia (2003).
- Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, title of S. Giustino, archbishop of Ha Nôi, Viêt Nam (2003).
- Rodolfo Quezada Toruño, title of S. Saturnino, archbishop of Guatemala, Guatemala (2003).
- Philippe Xavier Christian Ignace Marie Barbarin, title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, archbishop of Lyon, France (2003).
- Péter Erdö, title of S. Balbina, archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary (2003).
- Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., title of S. Maria in Traspontina, archbishop of Québec, Canada (2003).


Cardinal deacons (17)

- Jorge Medina Estévez, deacon of S. Saba, protodeacon (1998).
- Darío Castrillón Hoyos, deacon of SS. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano (1998).
- James Francis Stafford, deacon of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola (1998).
- Agostino Cacciavillan, deacon of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Girardino (2001).
- Sergio Sebastiani, deacon of S. Eustachio (2001).
- Zenon Grocholewski, deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (2001).
- José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., deacon of Nostra Signora del S. Cuore (2001).
- Crescenzio Sepe, deacon of Dio Padre misericordioso (2001).
- Mario Francesco Pompedda, deacon of Annunciazione della B.V.M. a Via Ardeatina (2001).
- Walter Kasper, deacon of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova (2001).
- Jean-Louis Tauran, deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine (2003).
- Renato Raffaele Martino, deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti (2003).
- Francesco Marchisano, deaconry of S. Lucia del Gonfalone (2003).
- Julián Herranz Casado, deaconry of S. Eugenio (2003).
- Javier Lozano Barragán, deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo (2003).
- Stephen Fumio Hamao, deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana (2003).
- Attilio Nicora, deaconry of S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia (2003).

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The following cardinal electors were not able to participate in the conclave for reasons of health:

- Jaime Lachica Sin, title of S. Maria ai Monti, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines (1976).
- Adolfo Antonio Suárez Rivera, title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, archbishop emeritus of Monterrey, México (1994).

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The following cardinals were unable to participate in the conclave for being older than eighty years of age, according to No. 33 of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, issued by Pope John Paul II on February 22, 1996:

Cardinal bishops and patriarchs of Oriental rite (4)

- Bernardin Gantin, bishop of the title of Palestrina, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, dean emeritus of the College of Cardinals (1977).
- Roger Etchegaray, bishop of the title of Porto-Santa Rufina, archbishop emeritus of Marseille, France, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum (1979).
- Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon (1994).
- Stéphanos II Ghattas, C.M., patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, Egypt (2001).

Cardinal priests (52)


- Stephen Sou Hwan Kim, title of S. Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle, protoprete, archbishop emeritus of Seoul, South Korea (1969).
- Eugênio de Araújo Sales, title of S. Gregorio VII, archbishop emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1969).
- Johannes Willebrands, title of S. Sebastiano alle Catacombe, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (1969).
- Luis Aponte Martínez, title of S. Maria Madre della Provvidenza a Monte Verde, archbishop emeritus of San Juan, Puerto Rico (1973).
- Raúl Francisco Primatesta, title of Beata Maria Vergine Addolorata a Piazza Buenos Aires, archbishop emeritus of Córdoba, Argentina (1973).
- Salvatore Pappalardo, title of S. Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani, archbishop emeritus of Palermo, Italy (1973).
- Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M. title of S. Antonio di Padova in Via Tuscolana, archbishop emeritus of São Paulo, Brazil (1973).
- Pio Taofinu'u, S.M., title of S. Onofrio, archbishop emeritus of Samoa-Apia, Samoa (1973).
- Aloísio Lorscheider, O.F.M., title of S. Pietro in Montorio, archbishop emeritus of Aparecida, Brazil (1976).
- Giuseppe Caprio, title of S. Maria della Vittoria, grand master emeritus of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, president emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (1979).
- Ernesto Corripio Ahumada, title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, archbishop emeritus of México, México (1979).
- Alexandre do Nascimento, title of S. Marco in Agro Laurentino, archbishop emeritus of Luanda, Angola (1983).
- Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, title of S. Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavelleggeri, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1985).
- Antonio Innocenti, title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the Conservation of the Artistic and Historical Patrimony of the Church, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei (1985).
- Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., title of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei (1985).
- Angel Suquía Goicoechea, title of Gran Madre di Dio, archbishop emeritus of Madrid, Spain (1985).
- Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, title of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarossa, archbishop emeritus of Wrocław, Poland (1985).
- Jozef Tomko, title of S. Sabina, president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congress, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of the Peoples (1985).
- Andrzej Maria Deskur, title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications (1985).
- Louis-Albert Vachon, title of S. Paolo della Croce a "Corviale", archbishop emeritus of Québec, Canada (1985).
- Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B., title of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City (1985).
- Silvano Piovanelli, title of S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, archbishop emeritus of Florence, Italy (1985).
- Edouard Gagnon, P.S.S., title of S. Marcello, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family, president emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congress (1985).
- Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B., title of S. Giorgio in Velabro, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archivist and librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (1985).
- Achille Silvestrini, title of S. Benedetto fuori Porta S. Paolo, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1988).
- Angelo Felici, title of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei (1988).
- Alexandre José María dos Santos, O.F.M., title of S. Fumenzio ai Prati Fiscali, archbishop emeritus of Maputo, Moçambique (1988).
- Giovanni Canestri, title of S. Andrea della Valle, archbishop emeritus of Genoa, Italy (1988).
- Antonio María Javierre Ortas, S.D.B., title of S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education (1988).
- Simon Ignatius Pimenta, title of S. Maria "Regina Mundi" a Torre Spaccata, archbishop emeritus of Bombay, India (1988).
- Edward Bede Clancy, title of S. Maria in Vallicella, archbishop emeritus of Sydney, Australia (1988).
- Jean Margéot, title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acqua Traversa, bishop emeritus of Port Louis, Mauritius (1988).
- Anthony Joseph Bevilacqua, title of SS. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana, archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia, United States of America (1991).
- Giovanni Saldarini, title of S. Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, archbishop emeritus of Turin, Italy (1991).
- Cahal Brendan Daly, title of S. Patrizio, archbishop emeritus of Armagh, Ireland (1991).
- Ján Chryzostom Korec, S.J., title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli, bishop of Nitra, Slovakia (1991).
- Pio Laghi, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education, patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1991).
- Edward Idris Cassidy, title of S. Maria in Via Lata, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (1991).
- José Tomás Sánchez, title of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy (1991).
- Virgilio Noè, title of Regina Apostolorum, vicar general emeritus of Vatican City, president emeritus of the Fabric of St. Peter's (1991).
- Fiorenzo Angelini, title of S. Spirito in Sassia, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Healthcare Workers (1991).
- Luigi Poggi, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, archivist and librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (1994).
- Carlo Furno, title of S. Cuore di Cristo Re, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, archpriest emeritus of the patriarchal Liberian basilica of S. Maria Maggiore (1994).
- Gilberto Agustoni, title of Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Prima Porta, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (1994).
- Paul Joseph Pham Ðinh Tung, title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" in Ostia mare, archbishop emeritus of Hà Nôi, Viêt Nam (1994).
- Kazimierz Świątek, title of S. Gerardo Maiella, archbishop of Minks-Mohilew, apostolic administrator ad nutum Santae Sedis of Pinsk, Belarus (1994).
- Ersilio Tonini, title of SS. Redentore a Val Melaina, archbishop emeritus of Ravenna, Italy (1994).
- Serafim Fernandes de Araújo, title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion di Montfort, archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte, Brazil (1998).
- Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, S.J., title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Kaohsiung, Taiwan (1998).
- Adam Kozłowiecki, S.J., title of S. Andrea al Quirinale, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia (1998).
- Antonio José González Zumárraga, title of S. Maria in Via, archbishop emeritus of Quito, Ecuador (2001).
- Jean Honoré, title of S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle, archbishop emeritus of Tours, France (2001).

Cardinal deacons (10)

- Lorenzo Antonetti, deacon of S. Agnese in Agone, prefect emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, pontifical delegate for the Patriarchal Basilica of S. Francesco in Assisi (1998).
- Giovanni Cheli, deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Immigrants and Itinerants (1998).
- Dino Monduzzi, deacon of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, prefect emeritus of the Pontifical Household (1998).
- Jorge María Mejía, deacon of S. Girolamo della Carità, librarian and archivist emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (2001).
- Roberto Tucci, S.J., deacon of S. Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio (2001).
- Leo Scheffczyk, deacon of S. Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella (2001).
- Avery Robert Dulles, S.J., deacon of SS. Nomi di Gesù e Maria in Via Lata (2001).
- Georges-Marie-Martin Cottier, O.P., deaconry of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, pro-theologian of the Papal Household (2003).
- Tomáš Špidlík, S.J., deaconry of S. Agata de' Goti (2003).
- Stanisław Kazimierz Nagy, S.C.I., deaconry of S. Maria della Scala (2003).

CARDINAL ELECTORS BY CONTINENT BY COUNTRY

AFRICA (11) - (10)
Nigeria 2
Cameroun 1
Democratic Republic of Congo 1
Ghana 1
Ivory Coast 1
Madagascar 1
South Africa 1
Sudan 1
Tanzania 1
Uganda 1

AMERICA (34) - (14)
United States of America 11
Brazil 4
Canada 3
Colombia 3
México 3
Chile 2
Argentina 1
Bolivia 1
Cuba 1
Dominican Republic 1
Guatemala 1
Honduras 1
Nicaragua 1
Perú 1

ASIA (10) - (7)
India 3
Japan 2
Philippines 1
Indonesia 1
Syria 1
Thailand 1
Viêt Nam 1

EUROPE (58) - (20)
Italy 20
Germany 6
Spain 6
France 5
Poland 3
Portugal 2
Hungary 2
Ukraine 2
Austria 1
Belgium 1
Bosnia-Herzegovina 1
Croatia 1
Czech Republic 1
England 1
Ireland 1
Latvia 1
Lithuania 1
Netherlands 1
Scotland 1
Switzerland 1

OCEANIA (2) - (2)
Australia 1
New Zealand 1

SUMMARY
AFRICA - 11 cardinals from 10 countries (9%)
AMERICA - 34 cardinals from 14 countries (30%)
ASIA - 10 cardinals from 7 countries (9%)
EUROPE - 58 cardinals from 20 countries (50%)
OCEANIA - 2 cardinals from 2 countries (2%)

TOTAL - 115 cardinals from 53 countries

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CARDINAL ELECTORS BY THE YEAR OF THE CONSISTORY IN WHICH THEY WERE CREATED

1976 - 1
1977 - 1
1979 - 2
1983 - 8
1985 - 8
1988 - 6
1991 - 7
1994 - 11
1998 - 14
2001 - 33
2003 - 24

Total - 115

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CARDINAL ELECTORS MEMBERS OF RELIGIOUS ORDER

Order of Friars Minor (O.F.M.) - 4
Society of Jesus (S.J.) - 3
Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco - S.D.B.) - 3
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (C.SS.R.) - 2
Order of Saint Dominic (O.P.) - 1
Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.I.C.M.) - 1
Congregations of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.M.F.) - 1
Oblates of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.) - 1
Institute of the Fathers of Schönstatt - 1
Congregation of Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (S.C.I. ) - 1
Society of Priests of Saint Sulpice (P.S.S.) - 1
Congregation of the Monks Studitas of Ukraine (M.S.U.) - 1

Total - 20

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Conclave of March 2013

Pope Benedict XVI resigned the papacy on February 28, 2013, at 8 p.m. Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina, was elected pope on March 13, 2013 and took the name Francis. One-hundred and fifteen of the one-hundred-seventeen cardinal electors participated in the conclave to elect the new pope that started on Tuesday March 12, 2013. Along with the conclave of 2005, it was the most numerous conclave in the history of the Church. Two cardinal electors did not participate in the conclave, one for health reasons; and the other for personal reasons. Ninety cardinals could not participate in the election for having turned eighty years of age. Seventy-seven votes were required to be elected pontiff by two-thirds of the electors. The date in parentheses indicates the year in which they were promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinal bishops and patriarchs of Oriental rite (4)

- Giovanni Battista Re, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops and president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (2001).
- Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (2003).
- Antonios Naguib, patriarch emeritus of Alexandria of the Copts, Egypt (2010).
- Béchara Boutros Raï, O.M.M., patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon (2012).

Cardinal priests (81)

- Godfried Danneels, title of S. Anastasia, archbishop emeritus of Mechlen-Brussels, Belgium (1983).
- Joachim Meisner, title of S. Pudenziana, archbishop of Cologne, Germany (1983).
- Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, title of S. Pio X alla Balduina, archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (1991).
- Roger Michael Mahony, title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles, United States of America (1991).
- Jaimes Lucas Ortega y Alamino, title of Ss. Aquila e Priscilla, archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, Cuba (1994).
- Jean-Claude Turcotte, title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Santi Martiri Canadesi (1994).
- Vinko Puljić, title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, archbishop of Vrhbosna, Bosnia-Herzegovina (1994).
- Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara, México (1994).
- Antonio María Rouco Varela, title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, archbishop of Madrid, Spain (1998).
- Dionigi Tettamanzi, title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, archbishop emeritus of Milan, Italy (1998).
- Polycarp Pengo, title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania (1998).
- Christoph Schönborn, O.P., title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, archbishop of Vienna, Austria (1998).
- Norberto Rivera Carrera, title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, archbishop of México, México (1998).
- Francis Eugene George, O.M.I., title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, archbishop of Chicago, United States of America (1998).
- Zenon Grocholewski, title of S. Nicola in Carcere, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University (2001).
- Crescenzio Sepe, title of Dio Padre misericordioso, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archbishop of Naples, Italy (2001).
- Walter Kasper, title of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (2001).
- Ivan Dias, title of Spirito Santo alla Ferratella, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and grand chancellor emeritus of the Pontifical Urbanian University (2001).
- Geraldo Majella Agnelo, title of S. Gregorio Magno alla Magliana Nuova, archbishop emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil (2001).
- Audrys Juozas Bačkis, title of Natività di N.S.G.C. a Via Gallia, archbishop of Vilnius, Lithuania (2001).
- Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, Institute of the Fathers of Schönstatt, title of S. Maria della Pace, archbishop emeritus of Santiago, Chile (2001).
- Julio Terrazas Sandoval, C.SS.R., title of S. Giovanni Battista de' Rossi, archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (2001).
- Wilfrid Fox Napier, O.F.M., title of S. Francesco d'Assisi ad Acilia, archbishop of Durban, South Africa (2001).
- Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, S.D.B., title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, archbishop of Tegucigalpa, Honduras (2001).
- Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, title of S. Camillo de Lellis, archbishop of Lima, Perú (2001).
- Clâudio Hummes, O.F.M., title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Merulana, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy (2001).
- Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina (2001) (Elected Pope Francis).
- José da Cruz Policarpo, title of S. Antonio in Campo Marzio, patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal (2001).
- Severino Poletto, title of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archbishop emeritus of Turin, Italy (2001).
- Karl Lehmann, title of S. Leone I, bishop of Mainz, Germany (2001).
- Angelo Scola, title of Ss. XII Apostoli, archbishop of Milan, Italy (2003).
- Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano archbishop emeritus of Lagos, Nigeria (2003).
- Gabriel Zubeir Wako, title of S. Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, archbishop of Khartoum, Sudan (2003).
- Carlos Amigo Vallejo, O.F.M., title of S Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, archbishop emeritus of Sevilla, Spain (2003).
- Justin Francis Rigali, title of S. Prisca, archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia, United States of America (2003).
- Ennio Antonelli, title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family (2003).
- Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, title of S. Liborio, president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax (2003).
- Telesphore Placidus Toppo, title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù agonizzante a Vitinia, archbishop of Ranchi, India (2003).
- George Pell, title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, archbishop of Sydney, Australia (2003).
- Josip Bozanić, title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia (2003).
- Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Mân, title of S. Giustino, archbishop of Hôchiminh Ville, Việt Nam (2003).
- Philippe Barbarin, title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, archbishop of Lyon, France (2003).
- Péter Erdö, title of S. Balbina, archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary (2003).
- Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., title of S. Maria in Traspontina, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (2003).
- Agostino Vallini, title of S. Pier Damiani ai Monti di San Paolo, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, vicar general of His Holiness for the Diocese of Rome; archpriest of the papal Lateran Basilica; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Lateran University (2006).
- Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino, title of S. Maria ai Monti, archbishop of Caracas, Venezuela (2006).
- Jean-Pierre Ricard, title of S. Agostino, archbishop of Bordeaux, France (2006).
- Antonio Cañizares Llovera, title of S. Pancrazio, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacrament (2006).
- Seán Patrick O'Malley, O.F.M.Cap., title of S. Maria della Vittoria, archbishop of Boston, United States of America (2006).
- Stanisław Dziwisz, title of S. Maria del Popolo, archbishop of Kraków, Poland (2006).
- Carlo Caffarra, title of S. Giovanni Battista dei Fiorentini, archbishop of Bologna, Italy (2006).
- Seán Baptist Brady, title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, archbishop of Armagh, Ireland (2007).
- Lluis Martínez Sistach, title of S. Sebastiano alle Catacombe, archbishop of Barcelona, Spain (2007).
- André Vingt-Trois, title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, archbishop of Paris, France (2007).
- Angelo Bagnasco, title of Gran Madre di Dio, archbishop of Genoa, Italy (2007).
- Théodore-Adrien Sarr, title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi, archbishop of Dakar, Sénégal (2007).
- Oswald Gracias, title of S. Paolo della Croce a "Corviale", archbishop of Bombay, India (2007).
- Francisco Robles Ortega, title of S. Maria della Presentazione, archbishop of Guadalajara, México (2007).
- Daniel Nicholas DiNardo, title of S. Eusebio, archbishop of Galveston-Houston, United States of America (2007).
- Odilio Pedro Scherer, title of S. Andrea al Quirinale, archbishop of São Paulo, Brazil (2007).
- John Njue, title of Preziossisimo Sangue di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo, archbishop of Nairobi, Kenya (2007).
- Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga, title of S. Maria in Via, archbishop emeritus of Quito, Ecuador (2010).
- Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya, title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" in Ostra mare, archbishop of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (2010).
- Paolo Romeo, title of S. Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archbishop of Palermo, Italy (2010).
- Donald William Wuerl, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, archbishop of Washington, United States of America (2010).
- Raymundo Damasceno Assis, title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, archbishop of Aparecida, Brazil (2010).
- Kazimierz Nycz, title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, archbishop of Warsaw, Poland (2010).
- Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don, title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, archbishop of Colombo, Sri Lanka (2010).
- Reinhard Marx, title of S. Corbiniano, archbishop of Münich und Freising, Germany (2010).
- George Alencherry, title of S. Bernardo alle Terme Diocleziane, archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro Malabars, India (2012).
- Thomas Christopher Collins, title of S. Patrizio, archbishop of Toronto, Canada (2012).
- Dominik Duka, O.P., title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic (2012).
- Willem Jacobus Eijk, title of S. Callisto, archbishop of Utrecht, Holland (2012).
- Giuseppe Betori, title of S. Marcello, archbishop of Florence, Italy (2012).
- Timothy Michael Dolan, title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, archbishop of New York, United States of America (2012).
- Rainer Maria Woelki, title of S. Giovanni Maria Vianney, archbishop of Berlin, Germany (2012).
- John Tong Hon, title of Regina Apostolorum, bishop of Hong Kong, Popular Republic of China (2012).
- Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal, title of S. Gregorio VII, archbishop major of Trivandrum of the Syro Malankars, India (2012).
- John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan, title of S. Saturnino, archbishop of Abuja, Nigeria (2012).
- Rubén Salazar Gómez, title of S. Gerardo Maiella, archbishop of Bogotá, Colombia (2012).
- Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle, title of S. Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle, archbishop of Manila, Philippines (2012).

Cardinal deacons (30)

- Jean-Louis Tauran, deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, protodeacon, president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog (2003).
- Attilio Nicora, deaconry of S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia, president of the Financial Information Authority; president emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (2003).
- William Joseph Levada, deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (2006).
- Franc Rodé, C.M., deaconry of S. Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life (2006).
- Leonardo Sandri, deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (2007).
- Giovanni Lajolo, deaconry of S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and president emeritus of the Governatorato of the same state (2007).
- Paul Josef Cordes, deaconry of S. Lorenzo in Piscibus, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum (2007).
- Angelo Comastri, deaconry of S. Salvatore in Lauro, archpriest of the papal basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican, vicar general of His Holiness for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica (2007).
- Stanisław Ryłko, deaconry of S. Cuore di Cristo Re, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity (2007).
- Raffaele Farina, S.D.B., deaconry of S. Giovanni della Pigna, archivist and librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (2007).
- Angelo Amato, S.D.B., deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints (2010).
- Robert Sarah, deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana, president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum (2010).
- Francesco Monterisi, deaconry of S. Paolo alla Regola, archpriest emeritus of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura (2010).
- Raymond Leo Burke, deaconry of S. Agata de' Goti, prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and of the Court of Cassation (2010).
- Kurt Koch, deaconry of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore in Circo Agonale, president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (2010).
- Paolo Sardi, deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, patron of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (2010).
- Mauro Piacenza, deaconry of S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane, prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy (2010).
- Velasio de Paolis, C.S., deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, president emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (2010).
- Gianfranco Ravasi, deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture and of the Pontifical Commissions for the Patrimony of the Church and of Sacred Archeology (2010).
- Fernando Filoni, deaconry of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (2012).
- Manuel Monteiro de Castro, deaconry of S. Domenico di Guzman, penitentiary major (2012).
- Santos Abril y Castelló, deaconry of S. Ponziano, archpriest of the papal Liberian basilica (2012).
- Antonio Maria Vegliò, deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples (2012).
- Giuseppe Bertello, deaconry of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia, president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and of the Governatorato of the same state (2012).
- Francesco Coccopalmerio, deaconry of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, president of the Pontifical Council for the Legislative Texts (2012).
- João Braz de Aviz, deaconry of S. Elena fuori Porta Prenestina, prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life (2012).
- Edwin Frederick O'Brien, deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (2012).
- Domenico Calcagno, deaconry of Annunciazione della Beata Vergine Maria a Via Ardeatina, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (2012).
- Giuseppe Versaldi, deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, president of the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (2012).
- James Michael Harvey, deaconry of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna, archpriest of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura (2012).

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The following cardinal electors were not able to participate in the conclave due to health and personal reasons respectively:

- Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, S.J., title of S. Cuore di Maria, archbishop emeritus of Jakarta, Indonesia (1994).
- Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien, title of Ss. Gioacchino e Anna al Tuscolano, archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, Scotland (2003).

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PARTICIPATING CARDINAL ELECTORS BY CONTINENT BY COUNTRY

AFRICA (11) - (10)
Democratic Republic of Congo 1
Egypt 1
Ghana 1
Guinea 1
Kenya 1
Nigeria 2
Sénégal 1
South Africa 1
Sudan 1
Tanzania 1

AMERICA (33) - (14)
Argentina 2
Bolivia 1
Brazil 5
Canada 3
Chile 1
Colombia 1
Cuba 1
Dominican Republic 1
Ecuador 1
Honduras 1
México 3
Perú 1
United States of America 11
Venezuela 1

ASIA (10) - (6)
Popular Republic of China 1
India 5
Lebanon 1
Philippines 1
Sri Lanka 1
Viêt Nam 1

EUROPE (60) - (17)
Austria 1
Belgium 1
Bosnia i Herzegovina 1
Croatia 1
Czech Republic 1
France 4
Germany 6
Hungary 1
Ireland 1
Italy 28
Lithuania 1
Netherlands 1
Poland 4
Portugal 2
Slovenia 1
Spain 5
Switzerland 1

OCEANIA (1) - (1)
Australia 1

SUMMARY
AFRICA - 11 cardinals from 10 countries
AMERICA - 33 cardinals from 14 countries
ASIA - 10 cardinals from 6 countries
EUROPE - 60 cardinals from 17 countries
OCEANIA - 1 cardinals from 1 country

TOTAL - 115 cardinals from 48 countries

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The following cardinals were unable to participate in the conclave for being older than eighty years of age, according to No. 33 of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, issued by Pope John Paul II on February 22, 1996:

Cardinal bishops and patriarchs of Oriental rite (6)

- Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Albano, dean of the College of Cardinals; title of S. Maria Nuova in commendam (1991).
- Roger Etchegaray, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto-Santa Rufina, vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, president emeritus of the Pontifical Councils Iustitia et Pax and Cor Unum (1979).
- Francis Arinze, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (1985).
- José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints (2001).
- Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, patriarch emeritus of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon (1994).
- Emmanuel III Delly, patriarch emeritus of Babylon of the Chaldeans, Iraq (2007).

Cardinal priests (70)

- Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M., title of S. Antonio di Padova in Via Tuscolana, protoprete, archbishop emeritus of São Paulo, Brazil (1973).
- William Wakefield Baum, title of S. Croce in Via Flaminia, penitentiary Major emeritus (1976)..
- Marco Cé, title of S. Marco, patriarch emeritus of Venice, Italy (1979).
- Franciszek Macharski, title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, archbishop emeritus of Kraksw, Poland (1979).
- Michael Michai Kitbunchu, title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, archbishop emeritus of Bangkok, Thailand (1983).
- Alexandre do Nascimento, title of S. Marco in Agro Laurentino, archbishop emeritus of Luanda, Angola (1983).
- Thomas Stafford Williams, title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, archbishop emeritus of Wellington, New Zealand (1983).
- Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, title of S. Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavelleggeri, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1985).
- Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, archbishop emeritus of Managua, Nicaragua (1985).
- Ricardo Jamin Vidal, title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense, archbishop emeritus of Cebu, Philippines (1985).
- Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, title of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarossa, archbishop emeritus of Wroclaw, Poland (1985).
- Jozef Tomko, title of S. Sabina, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of the Peoples, president emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses (1985).
- Paul Poupard, title of S. Prassede, president emeritus of Pontifical Council for Culture (1985).
- Friedrich Wetter, title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, archbishop emeritus of Münich und Freising, Germany (1985).
- Silvano Piovanelli, title of S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, archbishop emeritus of Florence, Italy (1985).
- Adrianus Johannes Simonis, title of S. Clemente, archbishop emeritus of Utrecht, Holland (1985).
- Bernard Francis Law, title of S. Susanna, archbishop emeritus of Boston, United States of America; archpriest emeritus of the papal Liberian basilica, Rome (1985).
- Giacomo Biffi, title of Ss. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, archbishop emeritus of Bologna, Italy (1985).
- Eduardo Martínez Somalo, title of SS. Nome di Gesù, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life; Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (1988).
- Achille Silvestrini, title of S. Benedetto fuori Porta S. Paolo, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; grand chancellor emeritus of the Pontifical Oriental Institute (1988).
- José Freire Falcão, title of S. Luca a Via Prenestina, archbishop emeritus of Brasília, Brazil (1988).
- Alexandre José María dos Santos, O.F.M., title of S. Fumenzio ai Prati Fiscali, archbishop emeritus of Maputo, Moçambique (1988).
- Giovanni Canestri, title of S. Andrea della Valle, archbishop emeritus of Genoa, Italy (1988).
- Simon Ignatius Pimenta, title of S. Maria "Regina Mundi" a Torre Spaccata, archbishop emeritus of Bombay, India (1988).
- Edward Bede Clancy, title of S. Maria in Vallicella, archbishop emeritus of Sydney, Australia (1988).
- Edmund Casimir Szoka, title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and president emeritus of the Governatorato of the State of Vatican City (1988).
- László Paskai, O.F.M., title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, archbishop emeritus of Ezstergom-Budapest, Hungary (1988).
- Christian Wiyghan Tumi, title of Ss. Martiri dell'Uganda a Poggio Armeno, archbishop emeritus of Douala, Cameroon (1988).
- Edward Idris Cassidy, title of S. Maria in Via Lata, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity (1991).
- Fiorenzo Angelini, title of S. Spirito in Sassia, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Workers (1991).
- Camillo Ruini, title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, vicar General emeritus of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome; archpriest emeritus of the papal basilica of S. Giovanni in Laterano; grand chancellor emeritus of the Pontifical Lateran University; and president emeritus of the Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem (1991).
- Ján Chryzostom Korec, S.J., title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli, bishop emeritus of Nitra, Slovakia (1991).
- Henri Schwery, title of Ss. Protomartiri a Via Aurelia Antica, bishop emeritus of Sion, Switzerland (1991).
- Miroslav Vlk, title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, archbishop emeritus of Prague, Czech Republic (1994).
- Carlo Furno, title of S. Onofrio, archpriest emeritus of the papal Liberian basilica, Rome (1994).
- Gilberto Agustoni, title of Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Prima Porta, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (1994).
- Emmanuel Wamala, title of S. Ugo, archbishop emeritus of Kampala, Uganda (1994).
- William Henry Keeler, title of S. Maria degli Angeli, archbishop emeritus of Baltimore, United States of America (1994).
- Ricardo María Carles Gordó, title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, archbishop emeritus of Barcelona, Spain (1994).
- Adam Joseph Maida, title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, archbishop emeritus of Detroit, United States of America (1994).
- Ersilio Tonini, title of SS. Redentore a Val Melaina, archbishop emeritus of Ravenna e Cervia, Italy (1994).
- Jorge Medina Estévez, title of S. Saba, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (1998).
- Darío Castrillón Hoyos, title of SS. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy; president of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei (1998).
- Lorenzo Antonetti, title of S. Agnese in Agone, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See and former pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, Italy (1998).
- James Francis Stafford, title of S. Pietro in Montorio, major Penitentiary emeritus (1998).
- Salvatore De Giorgi, title of S. Maria in Ara Coeli, archbishop emeritus of Palermo, Italy (1998).
- Serafim Fernandes de Araújo, title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion di Montfort, archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte, Brazil (1998).
- Marian Jaworski, title of S. Sisto, archbishop emeritus of Lviv of the Latins, Ukraine (1998).
- Jānis Pujats, title of S. Silvia, archbishop emeritus of Riga, Latvia (1998).
- Agostino Cacciavillan, title of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Girardino, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (2001).
- Sergio Sebastiani, title of S. Eustachio, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, president emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (2001).
- Jorge María Mejía, title of S. Girolamo della Carità, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, archivist and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church (2001).
- Pedro Rubiano Sáenz, title of Transfigurazione di N.S.G.C., archbishop emeritus of Bogotá, Colombia (2001)
- Theodore Edgar McCarrick, title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, archbishop emeritus of Washington, United States of America (2001).
- Desmond Connell, title of S. Silvestro in Capite, archbishop emeritus of Dublin, Ireland (2001).
- Bernard Agré, title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Monte Sacro Alto, archbishop emeritus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast (2001).
- Francisco Álvarez Martínez, title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, archbishop emeritus of Toledo, Spain (2001).
- Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, archbishop emeritus of Westminster, England (2001).
- Edward Michael Egan, title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, archbishop emeritus of New York, United States of America (2001).
- Lubomyr Husar, M.S.U., title of S. Sofia a Via Boccea, archbishop major emeritus of Kyiv and Halyć, Ukraine (2001).
- Roberto Tucci, S.J., title of S. Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title (2001).
- Bernard Panafieu, title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, archbishop emeritus of Marseille, France (2003).
- Eusébio Oscar Scheid, S.C.I., title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, archbishop emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2003).
- Gaudencio Borbon Rosales, title of SS. Nome di Maria a Via Latina, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines (2006).
- Nicholas Cheong Jin-Suk, title of S. Maria Immacolata di Lourdes a Boccea, archbishop emeritus of Seoul, South Korea; and Apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of P'yöng-yang, North Korea (2006).
- Joseph Zen Ze-Kiun, S.D.B., title of S. Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca, bishop emeritus of Hong Kong (Xianggang), Popular Republic of China (2006).
- Estanislao Esteban Karlic, title of Beata Maria Vergine Addolorata a piazza Buenos Aires, archbishop emeritus of Paraná, Argentina (2007).
- Medardo Joseph Mazombwe, title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia (2010).
- José Manuel Estepa Llaurens, title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acqua Traversa, general military vicar emeritus of Spain (2010).
- Lucian Mureşan, title of S. Atanasio, archbishop major of Făgăras şi Alba Iulia of the Romanians, Romania (2012).

Cardinal deacons (14)

- Renato Raffaele Martino, deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax and president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Migrants and Itinerants (2003).
- Francesco Marchisano, deaconry of S. Lucia del Gonfalone, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, president emeritus of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, archpriest emeritus of the papal basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, vicar general emeritus of His Holiness for Vatican City, president emeritus of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, and president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See (2003).
- Julián Herranz Casado, deaconry of S. Eugenio, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of the Legislative Texts and president emeritus of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia (2003).
- Javier Lozano Barragán, deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo, president emeritus of Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers (2003).
- George Marie Martin Cottier, O.P., deaconry of Ss. Domenico e Sisto (2003).
- Stanisław Nagy, S.C.I., deaconry of S. Maria della Scala (2003).
- Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, deaconry of S. Maria in Portico. archpriest emeritus of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome (2006).
- Albert Vanhoye, S.J., deaconry of S. Maria della Mercede e Sant'Adriano a Villa Albani (2006).
- Giovanni Coppa, deaconry of S. Lino (2007).
- Elio Sgreccia, deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, president emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life (2010).
- Walter Brandmüller, deaconry of S. Giuliano dei Fiaminghi (2010).
- Domenico Bartolucci, deaconry of SS. Nomi de Gesù e Maria in via Lata (2010).
- Prosper Grech, O.S.A., deaconry of S. Maria Goretti (2012).
- Karl Josef Becker, S.J., deaconry of S. Giuliano Martire (2012).

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