The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

General list of Cardinals
9th Century (795-900)

Leo III (795-816) Stephen IV (V) (816-817) Paschal I (817-824) Eugenius II (824-827) Valentine (827) Gregory IV (827-844) [Antipope] John (844)
Sergius II (844-847) Leo IV (847-855) Benedict III (855-858) [Antipope] Anastasius III (855) Nicholas I (858-867) Adrian II (867-872)
John VIII (872-882) Marinus I (882-884) Adrian III (884-885) Stephen V (VI) (885-891) Formosus (891-896)
Boniface VI (896) Stephen VI (VII) (896-897) Romanus (897) Theodore II (897) John IX (898-900)
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Note 1. The term cardinalis may mean principalis, like the leading or principal priest heading the clergy of a church or titulo; and also it may signify a clergyman who was attached to a church other than the one for which he was ordained, mostly for liturgical functions. From the end of the fifth century until the second half of the eleventh century the term cardinalis was used to qualify presbyters permanently attached to the Roman tituli (or parishes), which were also often called tituli cardinales. When those presbyters subscribed the acts of the Roman council, they indicated the title in which they were the head presbyter or cardinalis. Pope Stephen III (IV) ( 769-772) decreed that the neighboring bishops should represent the pontiffs weekly at episcopal functions in the patriarchal Lateran basilica and should aid them with their counsel. They had been assisting the bishop of Rome, as the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly, for a long time. By that time, their service was already an ancient custom. These bishops received the name of episcopi cardinales. From the beginnings of the Church in Rome there were seven deacons with the duty of assisting the pope in liturgical functions and to helping in the administration of the material possessions of the Church. In the third century each deacon was assigned two of the fourteen regions in which the city of Rome was divided. Later, the number of deacons was increased and each region was assigned to one deacon, with subdeacons and notaries. Toward the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, a new institution appeared in Rome, originally from the East, the monastery deaconries, each one having a church. Each one had a deacon leading it but these deacons did not have anything to do with the deacons of the Roman Church. Towards the end of the 9th century, due to topographical changes in the city of Rome and the decline of the monastery deaconries, they all but disappeared. But not so the churches belonging to those deaconries. The cardinal deacons as we know them today did not begin to exist until the last quarter of the 11th century around the pontificates of Popes Urban II and Paschal II when they started to take part in papal functions with the banners of their deaconries and to subscribe the acts of the synods and council with the name of their deaconries like the priests cardinalis had been doing for centuries. Around 1051, the term cardinalis began to be used as a noun. The presbyters, bishops and deacons cardinalis (an adjective), listed in this site from the beginning until the time in which the term began to be used as a noun, thus describing an office, could be considered as pre-cardinals. A substantial bibliography has been consulted concerning the origin and developemt of the cardinalate during this epoch.

Note 2. Given the antiquity of this century, the date of creation of the cardinals is not exactly known. The date in which the cardinals are here organized indicates when they were mentioned as such by the sources consulted and by the documentation in which they appear, such as councils and synods.

Leo III (795-816)

796 (I)
(1) 1. Pasquale (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Paschal I on January 25, 817. Died on February 11, 824. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast, on February 11 or May 14, was suppressed from the liturgical calendar in 1963.

797 (II)
(2) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + Between 814 and 826.
(3) 2. Gregorio, O.S.B.Fossano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Gregory IV in September 827. Died on January 25, 844.

799 (III)
(4) 1. Issa (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Before 804.

803 (IV)
(5) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Frascati).

804 (V)
(6) 1. Bernardo (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + 805.
(7) 2. Teodoro (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Before 826.

805 (VI)
(8) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 826.
(9) 2. Romano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pudenziana). + Before 853.

815 (VII)
(10) 1. Stefano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Stefano IV (V) on June 22, 816. Died January 24, 817.

816 (VIII)
(11) 1. Eugenio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Eugenius II between February and May 824. Died in August 827.

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Stephen IV (V) (816-817)

Elected pope on June 22, 816. Died January 24, 817. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Paschal I (817-824)

820 (I)
(1) 1. Valentino (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Valentine in August 827. Died in September 827.

823 (II)
(2) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + 826.

824 (III)
(3) 1. Sisinnio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?) (1)

(1) Elected antipope in February 824, at the same time as Eugenius II, resigned a month later. He is considered Antipope by some authors but is not mentioned in the official list of Roman pontiffs in Annuario Pontificio per l'Anno 2009 (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009).

Unknown date (IV)
(4) 1. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti). (1)
(5) 2. Teodoro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

(1) Elected Pope Sergius II on January 25, 844. Died on January 27, 847.

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Eugenius II (824-827)

825 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni Datus (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

826 (II)
(2) 1. Cesareo (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 854.
(3) 2. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + Before 853.
(4) 3. Stefano (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + Before 853.
(5) 4. Costantino (bishop cardinalis of Palestrina). + (?).
(6) 5. Samuele (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Before 853.
(7) 6. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Probably before 844.

827 (III)
(8) 1. Giusto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 853.

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Valentine (827)

Elected pope in August 827. Died in September 827. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Gregory IV (827-844)

827 (I)
(1) 1. Luciano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio). + Before 853.

829 (II)
(2) 1. Elario (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede). + (?).

842 (III)
(3) 1. Adriano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Adrian II on December 14, 867. Died on December 14, 872.

844 (IV)
(4) 1. Lucino (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

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[Antipope] John (844)

[Antipope] John was elected by the populace of Rome on January 25, 844. He was a deacon, not cardinalis, and was quickly ejected from the Lateran palace, where his supporters had enthroned him, by Pope Sergius II. He was confined to a monastery and nothing more is known about him. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate.

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Sergius II (844-847)

844 (I)
(1) 1. Leone, O.S.B. (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quatro Coronati). (1)
(2) 2. Amalario Fortunato (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

(1) Elected Pope Leo IV in January 847. Died July 17, 855. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast was celebrated on July 17 and is now suppressed.

846 (II)
(3) 1. Niccolò (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

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Leo IV (847-855)

847 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro (?) (bishop cardinalis of of Frascati). + (?).
(2) 2. Anastasio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + Between 877 and 879. (1)

(1) Shortly after having been created cardinal, he abandoned his title, left Rome, sought refuge under Emperor Louis II, intrigued against the pope and refused to return to Rome. He was deposed, anathematized and excommunicated in the Council of Rome on December 16, 850; in Ravenna on May 29, 853; and again in Rome on December 8, 853. At the death of Pope Leo IV, he had himself elected Antipope Anastasius III on September 21, 855. A few days later, he had to leave the post to the legitimate Pope Benedict III, who reduced him to the lay state and confined him to the monastery of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome. Reconciled with Pope Nicholas I in 858, he became his secretary and legate. Pope Adrian II lifted his suspension as presbyter and named him Librarian of the Roman Church, hence his nickname Bibliotecario.

Note. Following is the list of the participants in the Council of Rome of 853 convoked by Pope Leo IV given by Alfonso Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificum Romanorum : et S.R.E. Cardinalium ab initio nascentis Ecclesiae usque ad Clementem IX P. O. M. (Romæ : P. et A. De Rubeis, 1677), I, col. 625. Not included in Chacón's list are Cardinals Rodoaldo, bishop cardinalis of Porto and Petronacio, bishop cardinalis of Albano. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792), I, pt. 1, 58, says that a Cardinal Leone, bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida, omitted by Chacón should be added among those who participated in that council and adds that Cardinal Leone is mentioned as participant by Abbot Gaetano Cenni in his book Concilio Lateranense di Stefano III, p. 81. Cardella provides no additional details about this cardinal.

(853) (II)
(3) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + Before 867.
(4) 2. Rodoaldo (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + (?). (1)
(5) 3. Sergio (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Before 879.
(6) 4. Petronacio (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + ca. 867.
(7) 5. Romano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pudenziana). + (?).
(8) 6. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + (?).
(9). 7. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 867.
(10) 8. Zaccaria (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + After 867.
(11) 9. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere). (2)
(12) 10. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + (?).
(13) 11. Paolo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + Before 867.
(14) 12. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciariaco alle Terme). + Before 867.
(15) 13. Giorgio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + (?).
(16) 14. Romano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + Before 872.
(17) 15. Lucino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio). + (?).
(18) 16. Gioviniano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + (?).
(19) 17. Adriano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio). + (?).
(20) 18. Giorgio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + Before 867.
(21) 19. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(22) 20. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quatro Coronati). + Before 882.
(23) 21. Martino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + (?).
(24) 22. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prisca). + (?).
(25) 23. Giovanni (archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(26) 24. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(27) 25. Niccolò (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (3)
(28) 26. Benedetto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(29) 27. Leonzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(30) 28. Benedetto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

(1) Deposed and excommunicated in 864 because of simony.
(2) Elected Pope Benedict III in July 855. He died on April 17, 858.
(3) Elected Pope Nicholas I on April 24, 858. Died on November 13, 867. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology by Pope Urban VIII, his feast is on November (September?) 13.

854 (III)
(31). 1. Megisto (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 868.

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Benedict III (855-858)

Elected pope in July 855. He died on April 17, 858. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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[Antipope] Anastasius III (855)

Had himself elected Antipope Anastasius III on September 21, 855. A few days later, he had to leave the place to the legitimate Pope Benedict III, who reduced him to the lay state and confined him to the monastery of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome. Reconciled with Pope Nicholas I in 858. He died between 877 and 879. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate.

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Nicholas I the Great (858-867)

863 (I)
(1) 1. Leone (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + 867.

864 (II)
(2) 1. Formoso (bishop cardinalis of Porto). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Formosus on October 6, 891. Died on April 4, 896. His body was exhumed and he was tried and excommunicated by Pope Stephen V (VI) in January 897, nine months after his death. Buried in a common grave and later thrown in the river Tiber. A hermit retrieved his body and reburied him. He was rehabilitated by Pope John IX in the Roman Synod of April 898.

867 (III)
(3) 1. Gauderico, O.S.B.Cas. (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + (?). (1)
(4) 2. Leone (tiitle of Ciriaco alle Terme). + (?).
(5) 3. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + (?).
(6) 4. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 872.
(7) 5. Paolo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + Before 872.
(8) 6. Romano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli). (2)
(9) 7. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (3)

(1) Resigned cardinalate in 879 and returned to the monastery of Montecassino.
(2) Elected Pope Romanus in July or August 897. He died in November 897.
(3) Elected Pope John VIII on December 14, 872. He was assassinated on December 16, 882.

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Adrian II (867-872)

868 (I)
(1) 1. Donato (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + 870.

869 (II)
(2) 1. Tedone (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + After 872.
(3) 2. Paolo (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Before 898.

872 (III)
(4) 1. Leone (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + Before 879.
(5) 2. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + (?).
(6) 3. Germano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + (?).
(7) 4. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + (?).
(8) 5. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + (?).
(9) 6. Paolo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(10) 7. Leone (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Unknown date (IV)
(11) 1. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

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John VIII (872-882)

875 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + (?). (1)
(2) 2. Adriano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo (in Damaso?)). + (?).

876 (II)
(3) 1. Walpert (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + (?).

878 (III)
(4) 1. Eugenio (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 898.

879 (IV)
(5) 1. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + Before 884.
(6) 2. Leone (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Long before 928.

880 (V)
(7) 1. Marino (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(8) 2. Giovanni, O.S.B. (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + ca. 880.

(1) Elected Pope Marinus I in December 882. He died on May 15, 884.

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Marinus I (882-884)

882 (I)
(1) 1. Basilio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + 882.
(2) 2. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Stephen V (VI) toward the end of September 885. He died at the end of September 891.

883 (II)
(3) 1. Valentino (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + 883.

884 (III)
(4) 1. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + Before 906.

Unknown date (IV)
(5) 1. Adriano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church or priest cardinalis of an unknown title). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Adrian III on May 17, 884. He died in mid-September 885. His cultus was confirmed on June 2, 1891. His feast, according to the Roman Martyrology, is celebrated on July 8.

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Adrian III (884-885)

Elected pope on May 17, 884. He died in August or September 885. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Stephen V (VI) (885-891)

890 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

Unknown date (II)
(2) 1. Sergio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church or priest cardinalis of an unknown title). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Sergius III on January 29, 904. He died on April 14, 911.

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Formosus (891-896)

891 (I)
(1) 1. Silvestro (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + 898.

896 (I)
(2) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + 898.
(3) 2. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(4) 3. Martino (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(5) 4. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(6) 5. Pasquale (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(7) 6. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(8) 7. Leone (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Unknown date (II)
(9) 1. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso) + (?).
(10) 2. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eudoxia (S. Pietro in Vincoli)) + (?).
(11) 3. Bonifacio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). (1)
(12) 4. Stefano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (2)
(13) 5. Teodoro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (3)
(14) 6. Giovanni, O.S.B. (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (4)

(1) Elected Pope Boniface VI on April 11, 896. He died on April 26, 896.
(2) Elected Pope Stephen VI (VII) in May or June 896. He died in July or August 897.
(3) Elected Pope Theodore II in December 897. He died in December 897 or January 898.
(4) Elected Pope John IX in December 897 or January 898. He died between January and May 900.

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Boniface VI (896)

Elected pope on April 11, 896. He died on April 26, 896. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Stephen VI (VII) (896-897)

Elected pope in May or June 896. He died in July or August 897. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Romanus (897)

Elected pope in July or August 897. He died in November 897. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Theodore II (897)

Elected pope in December 897. He died in December 897 or January 898. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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John IX (898-900)

898 (I)
(1) 1. Stefano (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 900.
(2) 2. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + (?).
(3) 3. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Leo V in July 903. He died in September 903.

900 (II)
(1) 1. Guido (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 946.
(2) 2. Cristoforo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). (1)

(1) He deposed Pope Leone V and installed himself in his place in September 903, taking the name Christopher. He is listed by the sources as both pope and antipope. The official list of popes in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2009 (Cittá del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana), p. 12*, has him as antipope. He was deposed and imprisoned by Pope Sergius III in January 904. Some authors say that he spent the rest of his life in a monastery and others say that he was murdered in prison. He did not create any pseudocardinals.

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SUMMARY
Leo III (795-816) - 11 cardinals
Stephen IV (V) (816-817) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Paschal I (817-824) - 5 cardinals
Eugenius II (824-827) - 8 cardinals
Valentine (827) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Gregory IV (827-844) - 4 cardinals
[Antipope] John (844) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate
Sergius II (844-847) - 3 cardinals
Leo IV (847-855) - 31 cardinals
Benedict III (855-858) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
[Antipope] Anastasius III (855) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate
Nicholas I (858-867) - 9 cardinals
Adrian II (867-872) - 11 cardinals
John VIII (872-882) - 8 cardinals
Marinus I (882-884) - 5 cardinals
Adrian III (884-885) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Stephen V (VI) (885-891) - 2 cardinals
Formosus (891-896) - 12 cardinals
Boniface VI (896) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Stephen VI (VII) (896-897) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Romanus (897) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Theodore II (897) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
John IX (898-900) - 2 cardinals
Total - 111 cardinals

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