The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

General list of Cardinals
6th Century (498-604)

Symmachus (498-514) [Antipope] Laurentius (498-499; 502-506) Hormisdas (514-523) John I (523-526) Felix IV (III) (526-530)
Boniface II (530-532) [Antipope] Dioscorus (530) John II (533-535) Agapetus I (535-536) Silverius (536-537) Vigilius (537-555)
Pelagius I (556-561) John III (561-574) Benedict I (575-579) Pelagius II (579-590) Gregory I (590-604)
Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Note 1. The term cardinalis may mean principalis, like the leading or principal priest heading the clergy of a church or titulo; and also it may signify a clergyman who was attached to a church other than the one for which he was ordained, mostly for liturgical functions. From the end of the fifth century until the second half of the eleventh century the term cardinalis was used to qualify presbyters permanently attached to the Roman tituli (or parishes), which were also often called tituli cardinales. When those presbyters subscribed the acts of the Roman council, they indicated the title in which they were the head presbyter or cardinalis. Pope Stephen III (IV) ( 769-772) decreed that the neighboring bishops should represent the pontiffs weekly at episcopal functions in the patriarchal Lateran basilica and should aid them with their counsel. They had been assisting the bishop of Rome, as the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly, for a long time. By that time, their service was already an ancient custom. These bishops received the name of episcopi cardinales. From the beginnings of the Church in Rome there were seven deacons with the duty of assisting the pope in liturgical functions and to helping in the administration of the material possessions of the Church. In the third century each deacon was assigned two of the fourteen regions in which the city of Rome was divided. Later, the number of deacons was increased and each region was assigned to one deacon, with subdeacons and notaries. Toward the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, a new institution appeared in Rome, originally from the East, the monastery deaconries, each one having a church. Each one had a deacon leading it but these deacons did not have anything to do with the deacons of the Roman Church. Towards the end of the 9th century, due to topographical changes in the city of Rome and the decline of the monastery deaconries, they all but disappeared. But not so the churches belonging to those deaconries. The cardinal deacons as we know them today did not begin to exist until the last quarter of the 11th century around the pontificates of Popes Urban II and Paschal II when they started to take part in papal functions with the banners of their deaconries and to subscribe the acts of the synods and council with the name of their deaconries like the priests cardinalis had been doing for centuries. Around 1051, the term cardinalis began to be used as a noun. The presbyters, bishops and deacons cardinalis (an adjective), listed in this site from the beginning until the time in which the term began to be used as a noun, thus describing an office, could be considered as pre-cardinals. A substantial bibliography has been consulted concerning the origin and developemt of the cardinalate during this epoch.

Note 2. Given the antiquity of this century, the date of creation of the cardinals is not exactly known. The date in which the cardinals are here organized indicates when they were mentioned as such by the sources consulted and by the documentation in which they appear, such as councils and synods.

Symmachus (498-514)

Note. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1926, p. 140, indicates that this list is based on Cristofori's Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa.

499 (I)
(1) 1. Epifanio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Fasciolæ (Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo)). + (?).
(2) 2. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + (?).
(3) 3. Lorenzo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + 500.
(4) 4. Marcellino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + Before 514 (?).
(5) 5. Marciano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 514.
(6) 6. Urbico (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + (?).

500 (II)
(7) 1. Anastasio (title of S. Anastasia). + (?).
(8) 2. Specioso (title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + (?).

Ca. 501 (III)
(9) 1. Andrea (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + Between 532 and 535.

Before 514 (IV)
(10) 1. Ormisda (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Hormisdas on July 20, 514. He died on August 6, 523. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrolgy, his feast is celebrated on August 6.

514 (V)
(11) 1. Giovanni Celio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + (?).
(12) 2. Ponzio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

[Antipope] Laurentius (498-499; 502-506)

On November 22, 499, the same day of the election of Pope Symmachus, a minority of the clergy who were friendly to the Byzantines and were supported by a party in the senate elected the Roman Archpresbyter cardinalis Lorenzo of S. Prassede as antipope. Both candidates agreed to appear before the Gothic King Theodoric (an Arian), the ruler of Italy, and abide by his decision. Theodoric favored Symmachus based on the fact that he was elected first and by the majority of the clergy. Laurentius accepted the decision and at a Roman synod held on March 1, 499, was named bishop of Nocera in Campagna. At the end of 502, those opposed to the pope called Lorenzo again to Rome and recognized and installed him in the Lateran palace. The schism lasted for four years, both parties carrying on furious quarrels in Rome. Finally, in 506 Antipope Laurentius was forced to leave Rome and retired to a farm that belonged his protector Senator Rufio Postumio Festo. There he devoted himself to an ascetic life and died soon afterward. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Hormisdas (514-523)

515 (I)
(1) 1. Felice (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Silvestro nelle Esquilie). (1)
(2) 2. Lorenzo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede). + (?).

(1) Consecrated Pope Felix IV (III) on July 12, 526. He died on September 20 or 22, 530.

523 (II)
(3) 1. Basilio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + (?)
(4) 2. Pelagio (archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

John I (523-526)

526 (I)
(1) 1. Andrea (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + 533.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Felix IV (III) (526-530)

Before 530 (I)
(1) 1. Bonifacio (archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(2) 2. Dioscorus (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). (2)
(3) 3. Vigilio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (3)

(1) Named his successor by Pope Felix IV (III), Boniface II became pope on September 22, 530. He died on October 17, 532.
(2) Elected Antipope Dioscorus by the Roman clergy after the death of Pope Felix IV (III), who had named Boniface as his successor. He died 22 days after the election on October 14, 530.
(3) Consecrated Pope Viglius on March 29, 537. He died on June 7, 555. According to the Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2007, p. 10*, note 14, he was imposed by Belisarius on March 29, 537 and became legitimate pope when Pope Silverius resigned and he was recognized by the Roman clergy, "che sanò così i vizi dell'elezione."

530 (II)
(4) 1. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede). + (?).
(5) 2. Agapito (archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church or presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Apostoli, later of Ss. XII Apostoli). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Agapetus I on May 13, 535. He died on April 22, 536. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on April 22.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Boniface II (530-532)

Before 532 (I)
(1) 1. Mercurio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope John II on December 31, 532 or January 2, 533. He died on May 8, 535. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2001 (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010), p. 9*, indicates that he is the first pope to have changed his name (from Mercury, a Pagan deity) when elected to the papacy.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

[Antipope] Dioscorus (530)

Elected antipope by the Roman clergy after the death of Pope Felix IV (III), who had named Boniface as his successor. He died 22 days after the election on October 14, 530. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

John II (533-535)

Consecrated pope on December 31, 532. He died on May 8, 535. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Agapetus I (535-536)

Consecrated pope on May 13, 535. He died on April 22, 536. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on April 22. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Silverius (536-537)

Son of Pope Hormisdas before he was ordained. He was a subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church when consecrated pope on June 8, 536. He was deposed violently in March 537 and resigned the pontificate. He died a few months later in the island of Palmaria in the Gulf of Gaeta. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology as a martyr, his feast is celebrated on on June 20.

537 (I)
(1) 1. Gioviano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Vigilius (537-555)

540 (I)
(1) 1. Sebastiano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + 608.

544 (II)
(2) 1. Pelagio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Pelagius I on April 16, 556. He died on March 4, 561.

553 (III)
(3) 1. Aratore (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + ca. 560.
(4) 2. Rustico (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + ca. 595.
(5) 3. Anatolio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(6) 4. Stefano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?)
(7) 5. Pietro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(8) 6. Teofanio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Pelagius I (556-561)

Documented in September 558 (I)
(1) 1. Applicatus (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(2) 2. Stefano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Before 560 (II)
(3) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis or deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church) (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope John III on July 17, 561. He died on July 13, 574.

Documented ca. 560
(4) 1. Menanzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

John III (561-574)

Consecrated pope on July 17, 561. He died on July 13, 574. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Benedict I (575-579)

He was not a presbyter cardinalis or a deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church. Elected pope at the death of Pope John III on July 13, 574. He was consecrated on June 2, 575. Died on July 30, 579. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Pelagius II (579-590)

He was not a deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church or a presbyter cardinalis. Elected pope at the death of Pope Benedict I on July 30, 579, he was consecrated on November 26, 579. Died on February 7, 590.

580 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(2) 2. Lorenzo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

585 (II)
(3) 1. Andrea (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

Gregory I the Great (590-604)

He was the abbot of the monastery of S. Andrea in Rome when elected to the papacy. Consecrated Pope Gregory I on September 3, 590. He died on March 12, 604. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on September 3. He was declared Doctor of the Church.

Note. Following is the list of 25 presbyters cardinalis given by Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 408. The majority of them had probably been created in previous pontificates but it is not known in which. Then follows the list of 6 deacons cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church (nos. 27-32), also from Chacón-Oldoini, col. 418-419. Finally, the remaining 11 names, nos. 26 and 33-42, are taken from Cristofori's Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa.

590
(1) 1. Lorenzo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Silvestro nelle Esquilie (Equitii)). + (?).
(2) 2. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio (Vestinæ)). + (?).
(3) 3. Specio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio). + (?).
(4) 4. Deusdedit (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachius or Bizantis)). (1)
(5) 5. Andromaco (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli) + (?).
(6) 6. Crescente (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + (?).
(7) 7. Rustico (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Gabino e Susanna alle due Case). + (?).
(8) 8. Vilio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + (?).
(9) 9. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere (Giulio e Callisto)). + (?).
(10) 10. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + (?).
(11) 11. Basso (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + Before 603.
(12) 12. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + (?).
(13) 13. Giusto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo). + Before 604.
(14) 14. Specioso (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + (?).
(15) 15. Mauro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Aquila e Prisca). + Before 604.
(16) 16. Vittore (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia in Trastevere). + Before 604.
(17) 17. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono in Trastevere). + (?).
(18) 18. Avenzio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prassede). + (?).
(19) 19. Felice (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina nel Monte Aventino). + Before 612.
(20) 20. Bono (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio nelle Esquilie). + (?).
(21) 21. Basso (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Pudente e Pudenziana (Pastore)). + (?).
(22) 22. Albino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro). + (?).
(23) 23. Aventino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme di Diocleziano). + (?).
(24) 24. Fortunato (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + (?).
(25) 25. Andromaco (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli (Eudoxiæ ad Vincula)). + (?).
(26) 26. Giovino (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(27) 27. Sabiniano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (2)
(28) 28. Anatolio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + Before November 27, 602.
(29) 29. Bonifacio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (3)
(30) 30. Onorato (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(31) 31. Pietro, O.S.B. (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + March 12, 606.
(32) 32. Gordiano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(33) 33. Agapito (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

(1) Consecrated Pope Deusdedit or Adeodato I on October 19, 615. Died on November 8, 618. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on November 8 together with that of Pope Nicholas I the Great.
(2) Elected Pope Sabinianus in March 604, he was consecrated on September 13, 604. He died on February 22, 606.
(3) Consecrated Pope Boniface III on February 19, 607. He died on November 10, 607.

591 (I)
(34) 1. Bonifacio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Boniface IV on August 25, 608. He died on May 8, 615. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on May 25; and on June 1, pro clero Romano.

600 (II)
(35) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + Before 604 (?).
(36) 2. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(37) 3. Virgilio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

603 (III)
(38) 1. Felice (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + (?).

604 (IV)
(39) 1. Grazioso (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo). + (?)
(40) 2. Agapito (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + (?).
(41) 3. Rufo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + (?)
(42) 4. Adeodato (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prisca). + (?).

Note. Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 409, adds to his list of cardinal presbyters cardinalis and deacons cardinalis, a third list of 11 archpresbyters (head of the priests ministering in a title but different from the presbyter cardianlis): Stefano, archpresbyter in the title of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio (Vestinae); Placido, archpresbyter in the title of S. Balbina; Andrea, archpresbyter in the title of S. Marco; Giovanni, archpresbyter in the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo (Pammachius); Candido, archpresbyter in the title of S. Clemente al Monte Celio (Cristofori, Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa, indicates that he became a presbyter cardinalis of this title in 590); Romano, archpresbyter in the title of S. Marcello; Leone, archpresbyter in the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; Probino, archpresbyter in the title of S. Ciriaco alle terme; Agapito, archpresbyter in the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli (Eudoxiae ad Vincola); Grazioso,archpresbyter in the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo (Cristofori indicates that he became a presbyter cardinalis of this title in 604 (?), no.39 above); Bonifacio, archpresbyter in the title of S. Sisto; Bonifacio Gotus, archpresbyter in the title of S. Cecilia.

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

SUMMARY
Symmachus (498-514) - 12 cardinals
[Antipope] Lawrence (498-499; 502-506) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate
Hormisdas (514-523) - 4 cardinals
John I (523-526) - 1 cardinal
Felix IV (III) (526-530) - 5 cardinals
Boniface II (530-532) - 1 cardinal
[Antipope] Dioscorus (530) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his pontificate
John II (533-535) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Agapitus I (535-536) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Silverius (536-537) - 1 cardinal
Vigilius (537-555) - 8 cardinals
Pelagius I (556-561) - 4 cardinals
John III (561-574) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Benedict I (575-579) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Pelagius II (579-590) - 3 cardinals
Gregory I (590-604) - 42 cardinals
Total - 81 cardinals

Top Summary General List Catalogs Home Search

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.