The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

General list of Cardinals
8th Century (701-795)

John VI (701-705) John VII (705-707) Sisinnius (708) Constantinus (708-715) Gregory II (715-731) Gregory III (731-741)
Zacharias (741-752) Stephen (II) (752) Stephen II (III) (752-757) Paul I (757-767) [Antipope] Constantine (767-768)
[Antipope] Philip (768) Stephen III (IV) (768-772) Adrian I (772-795)
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Note 1. The term cardinalis may mean principalis, like the leading or principal priest heading the clergy of a church or titulo; and also it may signify a clergyman who was attached to a church other than the one for which he was ordained, mostly for liturgical functions. From the end of the fifth century until the second half of the eleventh century the term cardinalis was used to qualify presbyters permanently attached to the Roman tituli (or parishes), which were also often called tituli cardinales. When those presbyters subscribed the acts of the Roman council, they indicated the title in which they were the head presbyter or cardinalis. Pope Stephen III (IV) ( 769-772) decreed that the neighboring bishops should represent the pontiffs weekly at episcopal functions in the patriarchal Lateran basilica and should aid them with their counsel. They had been assisting the bishop of Rome, as the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly, for a long time. By that time, their service was already an ancient custom. These bishops received the name of episcopi cardinales. From the beginnings of the Church in Rome there were seven deacons with the duty of assisting the pope in liturgical functions and to helping in the administration of the material possessions of the Church. In the third century each deacon was assigned two of the fourteen regions in which the city of Rome was divided. Later, the number of deacons was increased and each region was assigned to one deacon, with subdeacons and notaries. Toward the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, a new institution appeared in Rome, originally from the East, the monastery deaconries, each one having a church. Each one had a deacon leading it but these deacons did not have anything to do with the deacons of the Roman Church. Towards the end of the 9th century, due to topographical changes in the city of Rome and the decline of the monastery deaconries, they all but disappeared. But not so the churches belonging to those deaconries. The cardinal deacons as we know them today did not begin to exist until the last quarter of the 11th century around the pontificates of Popes Urban II and Paschal II when they started to take part in papal functions with the banners of their deaconries and to subscribe the acts of the synods and council with the name of their deaconries like the priests cardinalis had been doing for centuries. Around 1051, the term cardinalis began to be used as a noun. The presbyters, bishops and deacons cardinalis (an adjective), listed in this site from the beginning until the time in which the term began to be used as a noun, thus describing an office, could be considered as pre-cardinals. A substantial bibliography has been consulted concerning the origin and developemt of the cardinalate during this epoch.

Note 2. Given the antiquity of this century, the date of creation of the cardinals is not exactly known. The date in which the cardinals are here organized indicates when they were menitoned as such by the sources consulted and by the documentation in which they appear, such as councils and synods.

John VI (701-705)

Unknown date (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope John VII on March 1, 705. Died on October 18, 707.

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John VII (705-707)

Before 707 (I)
(1) 1. Sisinnius (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Sisinnius on January 15, 708. Died on February 4, 708.

Before 708 (II)
(2) 1. Constantinus (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Constantine on March 25, 708. Died on April 9, 715.

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Sisinnius (708)

Consecrated pope on January 15, 708. Died on February 4, 708. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate.

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Constantinus (708-715)

714 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 734.

Unknown date (II)
(2) 1. Gregorio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(3) 3. Michele (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + Ca. 720.

(1) Consecrated Pope Gregory II on May 19, 715. Died on February 11, 731. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on February 11.

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Gregory II (715-731)

Documented in the Roman Council of April 12, 721 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + Before 732.
(2) 2. Mariano (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). (?).
(3) 3. Giorgio (bisho pf Porto). + Before 732.
(4) 4. Tiberio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida). + Before 732.
(5) 5. Andrea (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Before 743.
(6) 6. Sergio (bishop cardinalis of Præneste) (?).
(7) 7. Sisinnio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + Before 735.
(8) 8. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + Before 761.
(9) 9. Sisinnio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 741.
(10) 10. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + Before 761.
(11) 11. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + Before 745.
(12) 12. Eustrasio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + Before 745.
(13) 13. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + Before 731.
(14) 14. Talasio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria Madre di Dio in Callisto in Trastevere). + Before 745.
(15) 15. Marino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + Before 741.
(16) 16. Costantino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme). + Before 745.
(17) 17. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + Before 745.
(18) 18. Epifanio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + Before 745.
(19) 19. Marino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. XII Apostoli). + (?).
(20) 20. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Aquila e Prisca). + Before 745.
(21) 21. Pietro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Apostolic See). + (?).
(22) 22. Mosco (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Apostolic See). + After 735.
(23) 23. Gregorio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Apostolic See). + (?).
(24) 24. Benedetto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Apostolic See). + (?).

726 (II)
(25) 1. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Gregory III on March 18, 731. Died on Novembr 28, 741. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on December 10 or November 28 pro clero Romano.

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Gregory III (731-741)

731 (I)
(1) 1. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + (?).
(2) 2. Michele (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + 735 (?).

Documented in the Roman Synod of April 12, 732 (II)
(3) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + (?).
(4) 2. Sisinnio (bishop cardinalis of Gabi). + (?).
(5) 3. Sisinnio (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 745.
(6) 4. Epifanio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida). + (?).
(7) 5. Venanzio (bishop cardinalis of Praeneste). + (?).
(8) 6. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + (?).
(9) 7. Giovanni (archpresbyter of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(10) 8. Eustrasio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(11) 9. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(12) 10. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(13) 11. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(14) 12. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(15) 13. Teodoro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(16) 14. Domenico (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(17) 15. Teodoro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(18) 16. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(19) 17. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(20) 18. Andrea (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(21) 19. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(22) 20. Sisinnio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(23) 21. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(24) 22. Teofanio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(25) 23. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(26) 24. Giordanes (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(27) 25. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(28) 26. Zaccaria (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(29) 27. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?)
(30) 28. Teofilatto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?)
(31) 29. Gemmulo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?)

(1) Consecrated Pope Zacharias on December 3, 741. Died on March 15, 752. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on March 22.

735 (III)
(32) 1. Sigismondo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + Before 745.

741 (IV)
(33) 1. Maginensio Ascanio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + 761.

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Zacharias (741-752)

Note. Following is a list of 16 cardinal presbyters given by Chacón-Oldoini, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 520, and completed with information from Cristofori's work Cronotassi dei Cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa. The remaining 6 cardinals are added by Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1926, p. 147.

741 (I)
(1) 1. Tordono (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + Before 745.

743 (II)
(2) 1. Tiberio (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Before 761.

Documented on October 25-28, 745 (III)
(3) 1. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Susanna). + Before 761.
(4) 2. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + (?).
(5) 3. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + Before 761.
(6) 4. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio). + Before 761.
(7) 5. Domenico (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prisca). + Before 761.
(8) 6. Teodoro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + Before 761.
(9) 7. Anastasio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Callisto or Trastevere). + Before 761.
(10) 8. Giorgio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + (?).
(11) 9. Sergio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pudenziana). + (?).
(12) 10. Giordano (tilte of S. Sabina). + Before 761.
(13) 11. Teofanio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + Before 761.
(14) 12. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + Before 761.
(15) 13. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + Before 761.
(16) 14. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + Before 761.
(17) 15. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). (1)
(18) 16. Eustachio (his presbyter cardinalis of the title is not known). + (?).
(19) 17. Procopio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme). + Before 765.

(1) Elected Pope Stephen II on March 27, 752. Died four days after without having received the episcopal consecration. The canon law in force at the time marked the beginning of the pontificate the day the elected was consecrated. For this reason, the Liber Pontificalis, as well as other papal catalogs, do not mention him among the Roman Pontiffs.

Before 750 (IV)
(20) 1. Stefano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(21) 2. Paolo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (2)

(1) Consecrated Pope Stephen II (III) on March 26, 752. Died on April 26, 757.
(2) Consecrated Pope Paul I on April 29, 757. Died on June 28, 767. Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on June 28.

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Stephen (II) (752)

At the death of Pope Zacharias, Stephen, cardinal presbyter of S. Crisogono, was elected pope but he died 4 days later without having received the episcopal consecration. The canon law in force at the time marked the beginning of the pontificate the day the elected was consecrated. For this reason, the Liber Pontificalis, as well as other papal catalogs, do not mention him among the Roman Pontiffs. The successive popes who took the same name are listed in the official series in the Annuario Pontificio with two Roman numerals: the first one disregarding the election of the second Stephen, and the second one, in parentheses, including him as a pope. No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his brief pontificate.

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Stephen II (III) (752-757)

752 (I)
(1) 1. Anastasio, O.S.B.Cas. (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(2) 2. Pietro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

753 (I)
(3) 1. Giorgio (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + 783 (?).

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Paul I (757-767)

Documented in the Roman Council of June 2, 761 (I)
(1) 1. Leone (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Before 767.
(2) 2. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Palestrina). + July 5, 767.
(3) 3. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida). + 769.
(4) 4. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Balbina). + (?).
(5) 5. Filippo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + Before 797.
(6) 6. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + (?).
(7) 7. Teofilo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + 761.
(8) 8. Eustochio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(9) 9. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). (1)
(10) 10. Costantino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + Before 772.
(11) 11. Marino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + (?).
(12) 12. Teopempto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Eusebio). + (?).
(13) 13. Leonzio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Susanna). + Before 796.
(14) 14. Eusebio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + (?).
(15) 15. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + (?).
(16) 16. Clemente (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + (?).
(17) 17. Cristoforo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio). + (?).
(18) 18. Donato (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + (?).
(19) 19. Andrea (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Callisto or Trastevere). + (?).
(20) 20. Saxolo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme). + (?).
(21) 21. Ermogene (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Prisca). + (?).
(22) 22. Pietro (archdeacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

(1) Consecrated Pope Stephen III (IV) on August 1, 768. Died on January 24, 772.

761 (II)
(23) 1. Citonato (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + 769 or before 775.
(24) 2. Eustasio (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + 769.
(25) 3. Pietro Guglielmo (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + (?).
(26) 4. Filippo (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). (1).

(1) Elected Antipope Philip on July 31, 768. On that same day, he abdicated and returned to his monastery. Some sources do not consider him an antipope.

Unknown date (III)
(27) 1. Citonato (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + Before 797.

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[Antipope] Constantine (767-768)

Constantine, a layman, was installed as antipope on June 5, 767, by the soldiers and supporters of his brother Duke Toto of Nepi. On July 30, 768, he was arrested and his brother was killed. A week later, on August 6, he was stripped of the papal insignia and deposed. Imprisoned, he had his eyes taken out by a gang that attacked the monastery where he was confined. He was treated very harshly in the Lateran Synod of April 769 and sentenced to do penance for life in a monastery. Nothing further is known about him. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his turbulent reign.

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[Antipope] Philip (768)

Elected antipope on July 31, 768. On that same day he abdicated and returned to his monastery. Kelly, Oxford History of Popes, pp. 94-95, says that nothing "is known about his earlier or subsequent history, but he should in all fairness be reckoned as neither a pope nor an antipope." Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2001, p. 11*, lists him as an antipope in the official series of Roman Pontiffs. No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his one day reign.

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Stephen III (IV) (768-772)

Note. A decree issued in the session of April 13, 769 of the Roman Council convoked by Pope Stephen III (IV) in the Lateran basilica mandated that all future popes had to be either deacon or presbyter cardinalis and that laymen could not vote in papal elections. The word cardinalis, then an adjective, appears for the first time in the Liber Pontificalis in the biography of this pope.

769 (I)
(1) 1. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + Before 775.
(2) 2. Andrea (bishop cardinalis of Palestrina). + 773.
(3) 3. Teodosio (title is not known). + (?).
(4) 4. Teofilato (title is not known). + (?).
(5) 5. Anastasio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

Before 770 (II)
(6) 1. Adriano (deacon cardinalis of the region of S. Maria in Via Lata). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Adrian I on February 1, 772. Died on December 25, 795.

772 (III)
(7) 1. Costanzo (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Before 826.
(8) 2. Ubaldo Cornelio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + during the pontificate of Pope Adrian I.
(9) 3. Giovanni (title is not known). + (?).

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Adrian I (772-795)

772 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni, bishop elect of Ferrara (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + Before 816.

775 (II)
(2) 1. Teodoro (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + Before 823.

April 778 (III)
(3) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + Before 799.

787 (IV)
(4) 1. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 804.

Unknown date (V)
(5) 1. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Susanna). (1)

(1) Consecrated Pope Leo III on December 26, 795. Died on June 12, 816. He was included in the catalogue of saints in 1673 by Pope Clement X because of the presumed miracle of the restoration of his eyes and tongue, even though the sources say that it was only an attempt to remove them. His feast, celebrated on February 11 and on May 14 pro clero Romano, has been suppressed..

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SUMMARY
John VI (701-705) - 1 cardinal
John VII (705-707) - 2 cardinals
Sisinnius (708) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Constantinus (708-715) - 3 cardinals
Gregory II (715-731) - 25 cardinals
Gregory III (731-741) - 33 cardinals
Zacharias (741-752) - 21 cardinals
Stephen (II) (752) - No names of new bishops, priests or deacons cardinalis are found in his pontificate
Stephen II (III) (752-757) - 3 cardinals
Paul I (757-767) - 27 cardinals
[Antipope] Constantine (767-768) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his reign
[Antipope] Philip (768) - No names of new pseudocardinals are found in his reign
Stephen III (IV) (768-772) - 9 cardinals
Adrian I (772-795) - 5 cardinals
Total - 129 cardinals

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