The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

General list of Cardinals
11th Century (999-1099)

Sylvester II (999-1003) John XVII (1003) John XVIII (1003-1009) Sergius IV (1009-1012) Benedict VIII (1012-1024) [Antipope] Gregory (1012)
John XIX (1024-1032) Benedict IX (1032-1044) Sylvester III (1045) Gregory VI (1045-1046) Clement II (1046-1047) Damasus II (1048)
Leo IX (1049-1054) Victor II (1055-1057) Stephen IX (X) (1057-1058) [Antipope] Benedict X (1058-1059) Nicholas II (1058-1061)
Alexander II (1061-1073) [Antipope] Honorius II (1061-1064) Gregory VII (1073-1085)
[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100) Victor III (1086-1087) Urban II (1088-1099)
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Note 1. The term cardinalis may mean principalis, like the leading or principal priest heading the clergy of a church or titulo; and also it may signify a clergyman who was attached to a church other than the one for which he was ordained, mostly for liturgical functions. From the end of the fifth century until the second half of the eleventh century the term cardinalis was used to qualify presbyters permanently attached to the Roman tituli (or parishes), which were also often called tituli cardinales. When those presbyters subscribed the acts of the Roman council, they indicated the title in which they were the head presbyter or cardinalis. Pope Stephen III (IV) ( 769-772) decreed that the neighboring bishops should represent the pontiffs weekly at episcopal functions in the patriarchal Lateran basilica and should aid them with their counsel. They had been assisting the bishop of Rome, as the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly, for a long time. By that time, their service was already an ancient custom. These bishops received the name of episcopi cardinales. From the beginnings of the Church in Rome there were seven deacons with the duty of assisting the pope in liturgical functions and to helping in the administration of the material possessions of the Church. In the third century each deacon was assigned two of the fourteen regions in which the city of Rome was divided. Later, the number of deacons was increased and each region was assigned to one deacon, with subdeacons and notaries. Toward the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th, a new institution appeared in Rome, originally from the East, the monastery deaconries, each one having a church. Each one had a deacon leading it but these deacons did not have anything to do with the deacons of the Roman Church. Towards the end of the 9th century, due to topographical changes in the city of Rome and the decline of the monastery deaconries, they all but disappeared. But not so the churches belonging to those deaconries. The cardinal deacons as we know them today did not begin to exist until the last quarter of the 11th century around the pontificates of Popes Urban II and Paschal II when they started to take part in papal functions with the banners of their deaconries and to subscribe the acts of the synods and council with the name of their deaconries like the priests cardinalis had been doing for centuries. Around 1051, the term cardinalis began to be used as a noun. The presbyters, bishops and deacons cardinalis (an adjective), listed in this site from the beginning until the time in which the term began to be used as a noun, thus describing an office, could be considered as pre-cardinals. A substantial bibliography has been consulted concerning the origin and developemt of the cardinalate during this epoch.

Note 2. Given the antiquity of this century, the date of creation of the cardinals is not exactly known. The date in which the cardinals are here organized indicates when they were mentioned as such by the sources consulted.

Sylvester II (999-1003)

1000 (I)
(1) 1. Fasano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli?). (1)

(1) Elected Pope John XVIII on December 6, 1003. Died in June/July 1009.

1001 (II)
(2) 1. Teofilatto (bishop cardinalis of Porto). (1)
(3) 2. Friedrich von Sachsen (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title or deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + 1004.

(1) Elected Pope Benedict VIII on May 18, 1012. Died on April 9, 1024.

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John XVII (1003)

1003 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + 1005.

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John XVIII (1003-1009)

1004 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro, O.S.B. (Boccapecora) (bishop cardinalis of Albano). (1)

(1) Elected Pope Sergius IV on July 31, 1009. Died on May 12, 1012. He is inscribed in the Benedictine Menology, a listing of saints, with brief biographies, arranged in calendar order.

1005 (II)
(2) 1. Tiberio (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + ca. 1012.

Note. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1927, p. 130, indicates that Cristofori mentions in this pontificate a Gionata (or Jonathan), seniore, cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, but his dates (from 1008 to 1006 ? sic) are certainly wrong since many authors such as Chacón, Moroni, Mas-Latrie, etc., place this cardinal at the end of the 11th Century, ca. 1099; close enough, consequently, to Gionata, iuniore (1120) to justify his surname.

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Sergius IV (1009-1012)

Note. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1927, p. 130, says that all the cardinals mentioned by Cristofori for 1012, without a doubt for the election of Benedict VIII, were created by Sergius IV and they are listed in his pontificate. Chacón also mentions them only in the pontificate of Benedict VIII.

1010 (I)
(1) 1. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio). + Before 1012.
(2) 2. Gregorio (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

1012 (II)
(3) 1. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + or resigned ca. 1024.
(4) 2. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 1033.
(5) 3. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme). + Before 1033.
(6) 4. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Susanna). + Before 1033.
(7) 5. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + ca. 1027.
(8) 6. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + Before 1033.
(9) 7. Sebastiano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + ca. 1021.
(10) 8. Vernerio, O.S.B. (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

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Benedict VIII (1012-1024)

1012 (I)
(1) 1. Benedetto de Potio (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + ca. 1030.
(2) 2. Azzone (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before December 1021.
(3) 3. Teobaldo (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + 1044.
(4) 4. Giovanni Graziano (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). (1)
(5) 5. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + ca. 1037.
(6) 6. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + Before 1033.
(7) 7. Crescenzio (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio). + (?).
(8) 8. Benedetto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(9) 9. Crescenzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(10) 10. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(11) 11. Crescenzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(12) 12. Pietro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + October 1050.

(1) Elected Pope Gregory VI on May 1, 1045; he was the archpresbyter of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, and godfather or confessor of Pope Benedict IX, who resigned the pontificate in his favor for a large sum of money. Deposed in the Synod of Sutri (1046), he was sent by Emperor Heinrich III to Cologne, where he prepared his testament and died around 1047/1048.

1014 (II)
(13) 1. Bosone (bishop cardinalis of Tivoli). + April 1, 1029. (1)

(1) According to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1927, p. 131, n. 1, the see of Tivoli was declared a suburbicarian diocese in 1049 but, without a doubt, many of its occupants had already been personally created cardinals.

1015 (III)
(14) 1. Raniero (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). + 1044.
(15) 2. Lotario di Segni, seniore (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

1020 (IV)
(16) 16. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Labico). + Shortly after December 1024.

1021 (V)
(17) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + ca. 1037.
(18) 2. Roberto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + ca. 1029.

1023 (VI)
(19) 1. Gregorio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + 1025.

Unknown date (VII)
(20) 1. Romano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (1)
(21) 2. Teofilatto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). (2)

(1) Elected Pope John XIX on April 19, 1024. Died on October 20, 1032.
(2) Elected Pope Benedict IX in August or September 1032. He is the only pontiff who has occupied the see of Peter three times: August or September 1032 to September 1044, when he was expelled from Rome and replaced by Pope Sylvester III, whom he excommunicated in February 1045; March 10, 1045 to May 1, 1045, when he retired to his estate and was deposed by the Roman synod of December 23-24, 1046; and October 1047 to July 1048, when he was expelled from Rome for the last time. He died in 1054, in the abbey of Grotta-Ferrata, where he is buried. He created cardinals only in his first pontificate.

Notes. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1927, p. 132, n. 1, says that a papal bull of August 18, 1012, cited by Jaffé, has Walter, archbishop of Magdeburg, with the rank of cardinal of the Roman Church, giving him the same privileges of the archbishops of Trier, Cologne and Mainz, notably, to have in their churches twelve cardinal presbyters and seven cardinal deacons. But most authors doubt of the legitimacy of the document since such Cardinal Walter is not in any of the Roman lists. Also, in n. 2, Annuaire indicates that the Ordo of the diocese of La Rochelle, includes as cardinal from the the diocese of Saintes, Pierre de Rabayne in 1018. Loius Audiat, Saint-Pierre de Saintes, p. 27, says that he was bishop of that diocese and cardinal presbyter of S. Maria sopra Minerva. But he is not in the traditional episcopal lists of Saintes (such as the one of abbé Th. Grasilier and that of J. Depoin) nor is he mentioned in the Roman cardinalitial lists of Chacón, Cardella, Cristofori, etc. Furthermore, the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva was not erected until March 24, 1567. It could be that his name was confused with that of Pierre de Rabat, archbishop of Toulouse, cardinal presbyter of S. Stefano al Monte Celio on September 22, 1408.

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[Antipope] Gregory (VI?) (1012)

Gregory (VI?) was elected in May 1012. King Heinrich III of Germany, to whom he had appealed for recognition against Pope Benedict VIII, took from him his ceremonial cross and recognized the latter. Kelly, Oxford History of Popes, p. 141, says that from that "moment the luckless Gregory disappears from history." He did not create any cardinals.

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John XIX (1024-1032)

1025 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni Ponzio (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + 1033.
(2) 2. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + 1049.
(3) 3. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + Before 1033.
(4) 4. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + Before 1049.
(5) 5. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of S. Agata in Suburra). + December 13, 1039.

1026 (II)
(6) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Palestrina). + Before 1036.
(7) 2. Dodone (suburbicarian see is not known). + After July 13, 1031.
(8) 3. Rodolfo (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(9) 4. Ranierio (deacon cardinalis of S. Giorgio in Velabro). + (?)
(10) 5. Gregorio (deacon cardinalis of S. Lucia (in Silice or in Septisolio). + (?)

1029 (III)
(11) 1. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + Before 1049.

1032 (IV)
(12) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + 1046.

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Benedict IX (1032-1044; 1045; 1047-1048)

Note. Pope Benedict IX, Cardinal Teofilatto, of an unknown deaconry, is the only pontiff who has occupied the see of Peter three times: August or September 1032 to September 1044, when he was expelled from Rome and replaced by Pope Sylvester III, whom he excommunicated in February 1045; March 10, 1045 to May 1, 1045, when he retired to his estate and was deposed by the Roman synod of December 23-24, 1046; and October 1047 to July 1048, when he was expelled from Rome for the last time. Died in 1065 in the abbey of Grotta-Ferrata, where he was buried. He created cardinals only in his first pontificate.

1033 (I)
(1) 1. Stefano (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + 1043.
(2) 2. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + Before 1044.
(3) 3. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Corce in Gersualemme). + Long before 1088.
(4) 4. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + Before 1049.
(5) 5. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + Before 1049.
(6) 6. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marcello). + Long before 1088.
(7) 7. Martino (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sabina). + Before 1058.
(8) 8. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Susanna). + Before 1062.
(9) 9. Franco (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(10) 10. Giovanni (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(11) 11. Leone (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(12) 12. Giovanni Rampoaldo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(13) 13. Reginerio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

1035 (II)
(14) 1. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + ca. 1040.
(15) 2. Orso Orsini (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

1036 (III)
(16) 1. Leone (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + 1044.
(17) 2. Hermann, archbishop of Cologne and prince-elector after August 1036 (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + February 11, 1056.

1037 (IV)
(18) 1. Gregorio, O.S.B., abbot of the monastery of Ss. Cosma e Damiano ad Micam auream, Rome (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + May 9, 1044.
(19) 2. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Sisto). + Before 1060.
(20) 3. Benedetto (presbyter cardinalis of the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino). + Before 1044.

1040 (V)
(21) 1. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + Before 1049 or in 1051.

1043 (VI)
(22) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Palestrina). + Before 1058.

1044 (VII)
(23) 1. Benedetto (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + Before 1050.
(24) 2. Amato (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). + ca. 1050.
(25) 3. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Sabina). (1)
(26) 4. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Labico). + Before 1055.
(27) 5. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Anastasia). + Before 1061.
(28) 6. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Cecilia). + Before 1058.
(29) 7. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Crisogono). + ca. 1054.
(30) 8. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Silvestro e Martino). + ca. 1059.
(31) 9. Teodaldo (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(32) 10. Onesto (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title. + (?).
(33) 11. Benedetto (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(34) 12. Crescenzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(35) 13. Ugo (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(36) 14. Leone (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(37) 15. Pietro Mancio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(38) 16. Romano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(39) 17. Romano (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

(1) Elected Pope Sylvester III on January 13 (or 20), 1045. Expelled from Rome on March 10 of that same year, returned to his see of Sabina. Deposed as pope by the Synod of Sutri on December 20, 1046, was sentenced to be confined in a monastery (the abbey of Grotta-Ferrata) and be deprived of orders. The sentence must have been suspended because he continued to head his diocese until at least 1062. He died before October 1063. There was debate concerning his legitimacy and if he should be considered an antipope but in the revision of the official list of popes effected in 1947, he was declared to be legitimate.

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Sylvester III (1045)

Elected Pope Sylvester III on January 13 (or 20), 1045. Expelled from Rome the following March, returned to his see of Sabina. Deposed as pope by the synod of Sutri on December 20, 1046. Died before October 1063. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2009, p. 14*, officially lists him as pope; and so does Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 144, although he says that Sylvester's "right to be considered an authentic pope is open to question." Both, Annuaire Pontifical Catholique and The Catholic Encyclopedia list him as antipope. The revision of the official list of popes effected in 1947, declared to be legitimate. The official list appears in Annuario Pontificio and is based on Louis Duchesne's Le Liber Pontificalis, I, Paris, 1886; and II, Paris, 1892; and Theodor Mommsen's Gestorum Romanorum Pontificum, I, Berlin, 1898. He did not create any cardinals.

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Gregory VI (1045-1046)

1045 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Labico). + before 1055.
(2) 2. Pietro (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + After February 18, 1047.

1046 (II)
(1) 3. Giorgio (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + ca. 1049.
(2) 4. Pietro (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).

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Clement II (1046-1047)

Pope Clement II, Cardinal Suidger Morsleben von Horneburg, bishop of Bamberg, Germany, title not known, was designated as pope by Emperor Heinrich III in Sutri, and elected on December 21, 1046. He was consecrated on December 24, 1046 and died on October 9, 1047. Did not create any cardinals.

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Damasus II (1048)

Pope Damasus II, Bishop Poppo of Brixen, Tyrol, was not a cardinal when he was elected on July 17, 1048. He died on August 9, 1048.

1048 (I)
(1) 1. Altwin (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + February 28, 1097.

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Leo IX (1049-1054)

1049 (I)
(1) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Porto). + After September 30, 1061 and before December 31, 1062.
(2) 2. Crescenzio (bishop cardinalis of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + 1051.
(3) 3. Bonifazio (bishop cardinalis of Albano). + Probably in 1072.
(4) 4. Bonizzo (bishop cardinalis of Frascati). + ca. 1050.
(5) 5. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Tivoli). + ca. 1071.
(6) 6. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + 1088/1099. (1)
(7) 7. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Marco). + After April 13, 1059.
(8) 8. Leone (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + ca. 1072.
(9) 9. Guido (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + Before 1061.
(10) 10. Hugo Candidus, O.S.B. (presbyter cardinalis of the title of S. Clemente). + ca. 1099. (2)
(11) 11. Giovanni (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + (?).
(12) 12. Raynier (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + After October 1, 1071.
(13) 13. Mainardo, O.S.B.Cas. (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + Before August 8, 1074.
(14) 14. Stefano, abbot of the monastery of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo Scauri, Rome (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + ca. 1072.
(15) 15. Étienne, O.S.B.Clun. (presbyter cardinalis of an unknown title). + February 11, 1069.
(16) 16. Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B. Cas. (deacon cardinalis of S. Maria in Domnica). (3)

(1) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1180. Deposed as a cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. Died without reconciling with the legitimate pope.
(2) Accused of simony in the Roman synod of March 1073. Excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in 1075; and in the Lateran synod of March 3, 1078. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1084. Never reconciled with the legitimate pope.
(3) Elected Pope Stephen IX (X) on August 2, 1057. Died on March 29, 1058. Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium, calls him a blessed and the Benedictine Martyrology celebrates his feast on March 29.

1050 (II)
(17) 1. Giovanni (bishop cardinalis of Ostia). + 1058.
(18) 2. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Ostia between 1050 (?) and 1058 (?)). + 1058.
(19) 3. Giovanni Mincius (bishop cardinalis of Velletri). (1)
(20) 4. Pietro (bishop cardinalis of Tusculum). + 1059.
(21) 5. Amando (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(22) 6. Gregorio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(23) 7. Crescenzio (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).
(24) 8. Odon, primicerius of the cathedral of Toul, France (deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church). + (?).

(1) Elected Antipope Benedict X on April 5, 1058. Deposed by the Synod of Sutri in January 1059. Died ca. 1073/1074.

1051 (III)
(25) 1. Humbert, O.S.B. (bishop of Silva Candida or Santa Rufina). + May 5, 1061.

Note. Until the 11th century, the word "cardinal" was used as an adjective: "bishop cardinal" and "presbyter cardinal". When Humbert of Silva Candida was created cardinal, he was called "cardinal bishop", the word cardinal then becoming a noun (A. Giraud ; Peter Canisus van Lierde. What is a cardinal? Translated by A. Manson. Vol. LXXXIV of Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Edited by Henri Daniel-Rops. 122 vols. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1964, p. 38-39).

Around 1054 (IV)
(26) 1. Giovanni (bishop of Sabina). + After June 1062.

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Victor II (1055-1057)

1055 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro (bishop of Labico or Frascati). + After 1061.
(2) 2. Giovanni (bishop of Tivoli). + (?).

1057 (II)
(3) 1. Benedetto (bishop of Frascati). + after October 18, 1057.
(4) 2. Bennone (title is not known). + (?).
(5) 3. Aribone (deaconry is not known). + ca. 1061.

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Stephen IX (X) (1057-1058)

Note. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 813, says that the first creation of cardinals celebrated by this pope took place on March 14, 1058, Ember Saturday, with the promotion of 2 cardinal bishops, 4 cardinal presbyters and 1 cardinal deacon. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1927, p. 138, says that this was the first creation of the kind and that it ignores if the same took place in consistory as happened from then on.

1058 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro Damiano, O.S.B.Cam., abbot of the monastery of Fontavellana, Gubbio (bishop of Ostia). + February 22, 1072. (1)
(2) 2. Uberto Poggi (bishop of Palestrina). + Shortly after his promotion.
(3) 3. Bruno (title of S. Sabina). + 1092 or shortly after. (2)
(4) 4. Bonifazio (title of S. Marco). + Before 1062.
(5) 5. Pietro Alberini, O.S.B.Cas. (title is not known). + 1100.
(6) 6. Benedetto (title is not known). + (?).
(7) 7. Giovanni (title is not known). + Shortly after his promotion.
(8) 8. Giovanni ( title is not known). + (?).
(9) 9. Ugobaldo degli Obizi (title is not known). + During the pontificate of Urban II (1088-1099). (3)
(10) 10. Pietro (title is not known). + (?).
(11) 11. Riccardo (title is not known). + (?).
(12) 12. Alberico, seniore, O.S.B.Cas. (deaconry is not known). + October 17, 1088.
(13) 13. Giovanni (deaconry is not known). + (?).

(1) Resigned the pastoral government of the suburbicarian see to return to his monastery ca. 1066. Canonized by equipollence (no formal canonization ever took place); his feast is celebrated on February 23. Declared "Doctor of the Church" by Pope Leo XII on October 1, 1828.
(2) Resigned before 1088. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1092. Died without having made his submission to the legitimate pope.
(3) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III. Died without having made his submission to the legitimate pope.

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[Antipope] Benedict X (1058-1059)

Cardinal Giovanni Mincius, bishop of Velletri, of the counts of Galeria and Tusculum, was elected Antipope Benedict X on April 5, 1058. Deposed by the Synod of Sutri in January 1059, after the election of Nicholas II. He sought refuge in Galeria and returned to Rome in March 1060. Deposed again the following April. Died ca. 1073.

1058 (I)
(1) 1. Rainiero, abbot of the monastery of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, Rome. + October 1060.

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Nicholas II (1058-1061)

Pope Nicholas II, Bishop Gerardo of Florence, was not a cardinal when he was elected in December 1058. At the Lateran synod of April 13, 1059, he promulgated the decree In Nomine Domine which gave the cardinal bishops the exclusive right to elect the Roman Pontiff. The other cardinals were then to be brought in, and the rest of the clergy and the people were to give their assent to the election. There was a vague mention of the emperor's right to approve the election which had to be granted to each successor and which could be lost if misused. Since then, the cardinals have been second only to the pope in the hierarchy of the Church. He died on July 27, 1061.

1059 (I)
(1) 1. Gilberto (bishop of Labico or Frascati). + ca. 1062.
(2) 2. Desiderio, O.S.B.Cas., abbot of Montecassino (title of S. Cecilia) (1).
(3) 3. Ildebrando, O.S.B. (deacon of S. Maria in Domnica). (2)
(4) 4. Oderisio, O.S.B.Cas. (deacon of S. Agata in Suburra). + December 1105. (3)

(1) Elected Pope Victor III on May 24, 1086. Died on September 16, 1087.
(2) Elected Pope Gregory VII on April 22, 1073. Died May 25, 1085. Pope Gregory XIII placed his name in the Roman Martrology as a blessed in 1584. Pope Paul V auhtorized his cult in 1606; he was declared a saint by Pope Benedict XIII in 1728. His feast is celebrated on May 25.
(3) Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium, says that he is considered a blessed by the Benedictine Martyrology, which celebrates his feast on December 2.

1060 (II)
(5) 1. Bruno (bishop of Palestrina). + ca. 1065.
(6) 2. Gregorio (suburbicarian see is not known) (Velletri ?). + (?).
(7) 3. Bonifazio (bishop of Gabio) . + After September 30, 1061.
(8) 4. Landolfo (title is not known). + (?).
(9) 5. Giovanni (title is not known). + ca. 1080.
(10) 6. Guido (title of Ss. Silvestro e Martin). + Before 1073.
(11) 7. Bernardo (deaconry is not known). + After 1076.

1061 (III)
(12) 1. Gaudenzio (title of S. Anastasia). + 1063.
(13) 2. Giovanni Minuzzo (title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + ca. 1090.

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Alexander II (1061-1073)

Pope Alexander II, Bishop Anselmo da Baggio of Lucca, was not a cardinal when he was elected on September 30, 1061. He died on April 21, 1073.

1061 (I)
(1) 1. Romano (title of S. Clemente). + 1063.
(2) 2. Emanno (title of Ss. Quattro Coronati?). + After July 1088.
(3) 3. Udeberto (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(4) 4. Leone, O.S.B. (deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin). + 1088.

1062 (II)
(5) 1. Pietro (bishop of Frascati). + Before 1065.
(6) 2. Ubaldo (bishop of Sabina). + October 1071.
(7) 3. Bonifazio (title of S. Marco). + ca. 1088.
(8) 4. Adimaro, O.S.B.Cas. (title of S. Prassede). + ca. 1073.
(9) 5. Pietro (title of S. Susanna). + Before 1099.
(10) 6. Anselmo da Baggio, bishop of Lucca (title is not known). + March 18, 1086 (1).
(11) 7. Teodino Sanseverino, O.S.B.Cas., deacon of the Lateran patriarchate (deaconry is not known). + August 18, 1099. (2)
(12) 8. Pietro (deacon of S. Adriano al Foro). + 1120. (3)

(1) He is venerated as patron saint of Mantua. Equipollent canonization (no formal canonization process ever took place); his feast is celebrated in the Roman Martyrology, which does not mention his cardinalate, on March 18.
(2) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III. Died after repenting and being absolved.
(3) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III. It is not known when he made his submission to the legitimate pope.

1063 (III)
(13) 1. Ponone (title of S. Anastasia). + 1073.
(14) 2. Attone (title is not known). + Before December 1083 or ca. 1092.
(15) 3. Hugues, prior of the monastery of Saint-Marcel-lès-Chalon, Burgundy (title is not known). + October 7, 1106. (1)

(1) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III after 1085. Condemned by Pope Victor III in the council of Benevento in August 1087. Made his submission to Pope Urban II.

1065 (IV)
(16) 1. Leopertus (bishop of Palestrina). + Early in 1069.
(17) 2. Giovanni (bishop of Frascati). + 1088.
(18) 3. Bernard de Milhau, O.S.B. (title is not known). + 1079.
(19) 4. Pietro Atenolfo, O.S.B.Cas., abbot of the monastery of S. Benedetto, Salerno (title is not known). + (?).
(20) 5. Ottaviano (title is not known). + (?).

1066 (V)
(21) 1. Giovanni (bishop of Porto). + Before 1095.

1067 (VI)
(22) 1. Gerhard, O.S.B.Clun. (bishop of Ostia). + December 6, 1077. (1)
(23) 2. Giovanni (bishop of Labico). + Before 1080.
(24) 3. Ubaldo (title of S. Maria in Trastevere). 1067. + Before 1077.
(25) 4. Bernardo (title of Ss. XII Apostoli). + Before 1073.
(26) 5. Giovanni (title of S. Ciriaco). + (?).

(1) According to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 141, Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium, declares him a blessed or saint as a result of a popular canonization, but he is not listed in the Roman Martyrology or in the list of those whom the College of Cardinals may celebrate their feast.

1068 (VII)
(27) 1. Basilios (bishop of Albano). + ca. 1074.
(28) 2. Uberto Belmonte (bishop of Palestrina). + After May 2, 1082.

1069 (VIII)
(29) 1. Pietro Orsini (deaconry is not known). + ca. 1073.

1170 (IX)
(30) 1. Firmino (title is not known). + (?).
(31) 2. Alberto, O.S.B. (deaconry is not known). + January 12, 1116.

1072 (X)
(32) 1. Pietro Igneo Aldobrandini, O.S.B.Vall. (bishop of Albano). + January 9, 1087. (1)
(33) 2. Guitmond, O.S.B. (title is not known). + 1084.
(34) 3. Paolo Boschetti (deacon of S. Adriano al Foro). + 1073.
(35) 4. Nicola, abbot of the monastery of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome (deaconry is not known). + (?). (2)
(36) 5. Nicola, abbot of the monastery of S. Pancrazio, Rome (his deaconry is not known). + (?). (3)

(1) The Roman Martyrology celebrates his feast on February 8. The Ordo Romanus included his office and mass on March 4, 1673; and the archdiocese of Florence on May 16, 1676.
(2) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III.
(3) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III.

1073 (XI)
(37) 1. Rodolfo (title is not known). + (?).
(38) 2. Giovanni (title of Ss. XII Apostoli). + Before 1099.
(39) 3. Uberto (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(40) 4. Roberto (deacon of S. Teodoro). + Before 1099.
(41) 5. Arduino (deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano). + ca. 1099.

Unknown date (XII)
(42) 1. Ferdinando (title is not known). + (?).
(43) 2. Ugo (title is not known). + (?).
(44) 3. Ugo (title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio). + (?).
(45) 4. Curione (title of S. Vitale). + Before 1099.

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[Antipope] Honorius (1061-1064)

Antipope Honorius II, Bishop Cadalo (or Pietro Cadalus, or Cadalous) of Parma, was not a cardinal when he was nominated by Empress Agnes and elected by a miscellaneous assembly in Basle on October 28, 1061. He was anathematized by the synod of Mantua in May 1064 which recognized Alexander II as legitimate Pope. He returned to Parma and remained its bishop until his death towards the end of 1071 or the beginning of 1072. He never abandoned his claim to the papacy. No information has been found about any creation of pseudocardinals.

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Gregory VII (1073-1085)

1073 (I)
(1) 1. Regizzo (bishop of Sabina). + ca. 1078.
(2) 2. Eudes de Lagery, O.S.B.Clun., prior of the monastery of Cluny (title is not known). (1)
(3) 3. Conone, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine (title of S. Anastasia). + May 17, 1123.
(4) 4. Deusdedit (title of S. Pietro in Vincoli). + March 2, 1098 or 1099.
(5) 5. Benedetto Cao (title of S. Prassede). + 1087.
(6) 6. Jean (title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino). + June 27 of an unknown year.
(7) 7. Raniero, O.S.B.Clun., abbot of the monastery of Ss. Lorenzo and Stefano fuori le mura, Rome (title of S. Clemente). (2)
(8) 8. Natrone (title is not known). + (?).
(9) 9. Giovanni (title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + Before 1088.
(10) 10. Éven, O.S.B., abbot of the monastery of Saint-Mélaine in Rennes, France (deaconry is not known). + September 26, 1081.
(11) 11. Gregorio (deaconry is not known). + ca. 1086.
(12) 12. Giovanni (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(13) 13. Gregorio (deaconry is not known). + ca. 1085.

(1) Elected Pope Urban II on March 12, 1088. Died on July 29, 1099. His ancient cultus as a blessed was confirmed by Pope Leo XIII on July 14, 1881. His feast in Rome is celebrated on July 30.
(2) Elected Pope Paschal II on August 13, 1099. Died on January 21, 1118. The Benedictine Menology gives him the title of blessed and celebrates his feast on January 18.

1074 (II)
(14) 1. Giovanni, bishop of Viviers (title is not known). + (?).

1075 (III)
(15) 1. Graziano (title is not known). + Shortly after the election of Victor III on May 24, 1086.
(16) 2. Falco (title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + Before June, 1079.
(17) 3. Innocenzo (title is not known. + October 20 of an unknown year.
(18) 4. Bonsignor (title is not known). + ca. 1085.
(19) 5. Crescenzio (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(20) 6. Licinio Savelli (deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro). + Before 1088.
(21) 7. Berardo (deaconry of S. Adriano). + ca. 1115.

1076 (IV)
(22) 1. Pietro Damiano, O.S.B.Cam., iuniore (his deaconry is not known). + After March 20, 1091.

1077 (IV)
(23) 1. Benedetto (title of S. Pudenziana). + After May 5, 1125 (?).
(24) 2. Desiderio (title of S. Prassede). + Before 1099.
(25) 3. Pietro (title is not known). + (?).

1078 (V)
(26) 1. Gregorio (bishop of Sabina). + Before 1086.
(27) 4. Richard de Milhau, O.S.B. (title is not known). + February 15, 1121. (1)

(1) Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III ca. 1083 and was deposed by Pope Gregory VII. Repented and was reinstated by the same pope. Relapsed and was excommunicated by Pope Victor III in the Council of Benevento in August 1087. Repented and was pardoned and reinstated by Pope Urban II on February 20, 1089.

1080 (VI)
(28) 1. Giovanni Minuto (bishop of Labico). + After April 5, 1094.
(29) 2. Stefano (it is not known if he was a cardinal presbyter or deacon). + (?).

1084 (VII)
(30) 1. Gebizo, O.S.B., bishop of Cesena (title is not known). + After March 3, 1097.

1085 (VIII)
(31) 1. Azzo (title is not known). + Before 1124.

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[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100)

Antipope Clement III, Archbishop Guibert of Ravenna, was not a cardinal when King Henry IV of Germany had him elected pope on June 25, 1080. He had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in February 1076 for his part in the meeting of the bishops of Lombardy who tried to depose the pope. He controlled Rome during the pontificate of Pope Victor III and for most of Pope Urban II's. He died on September 8, 1100, in his schism.

Pseudocardinal bishops (8)
(1) 1. Pietro (bishop of Porto). + (ca. 1085).
(2) 2. Giovanni (bishop of Porto). + (?).
(3) 3. Giovanni (bishop of Ostia). + (?).
(4) 4. Alberto (bishop of Nepi). + ca. 1100.
(5) 5. Tiderico (bishop of Albano). + (?).
(6) 6. Alberto (bishop of Silva Candida) (1).

(1) Elected Antipope Albert in February 1101 and deposed shortly after. Died in the monastery of S. Lorenzo, Aversa. The date of his death is not known.

Pseudocardinal presbyters (16)
(7) 1. Pietro (title is not known). + (?).
(8) 2. Anastase, canon of St-Dié (title of S. Anastasia.). + (?).
(9) 3. Guerino (title of SS. XII Apostoli). + (?).
(10) 4. Guido (title of S. Balbina). + (?).
(11) 5. Ottaviano (title of S. Susanna). + (?).
(12) 6. Roberto, bishop of Faenza (title of S. Marco). + January 13, 1004.
(13) 7. Roberto (title is not known). + (?).
(14) 8. Adalmaro (title is not known). + (?).
(15) 9. Cenzio (title of S. Crisogono). + (?).
(16) 10. Deodato (title of S. Prassede). + (?).
(17) 11. Giovanni (title of S. Prisca). + (?).
(18) 12. Nicola, O.S.B. (title of S. Sabina). + (?).
(19) 13. Romano (title of S. Ciriaco). + (?).
(20) 14. Romano (title of S. Marco). + (?).
(21) 15. Teuzo (title is not known). + (?).
(22) 16. Pietro (title is not known) + (?).

Pseudocardinal deacons (7)
(23) 1. Secondo (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(24) 2. Paolo (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(25) 3. Maginulfo (deaconry is not known). (1)
(26) 4. Ugo (deacon of the Sacred Palace). + (?).
(27) 5. Teodorico (deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata). (2)
(28) 6. Guido (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(29) 7. Pagano (deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata) + (?).

(1) Elected Antipope Sylvester IV on September 18, 1105. Abdicated on April 12, 1111. Spent the rest of his life under the protection of Count Werner of Ancona, his patron. Died ca. 1111/1112.
(2) Elected Antipope Theodoric in September 1100. He was deposed in January 1101. Died in 1102.

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Victor III (1086-1087)

1086 (I)
(1) 1. Bruno, librarian of the Holy Roman Church (bishop of Segni). + 1123 (1).

(1) He was canonized by Pope Lucius III in 1183. His feast is celebrated on July 18.

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Urban II (1088-1099)

1088 (I)
(1) 1. Domnizzone (bishop of Sabina). + ca. 1090.
(2) 2. Odon de Châtillon, O.S.B.Clun. (bishop of Ostia). + Around March 31, 1101.
(3) 3. Pietro (title of Ss. Martino e Silvestro). + ca. 1099.
(4) 4. Amico, seniore, O.S.B., abbot of the monastery of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome (title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme). + ca. 1122.
(5) 5. Giovanni (title of S. Anastasia). + ca. 1115.
(6) 6. Gregorio (title of S. Crisogono). + ca. 1092.
(7) 7. Gianroberto Capizucchi (title of S. Clemente). + 1128.
(8) 8. Robert (title of S. Eusebio). + After March 1112.
(9) 9. Bone, seniore (title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo). + ca. 1098.
(10) 10. Riso (title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso). + 1118.
(11) 11. Leone (title of S. Marco). + (?).
(12) 12. Gregorio Paparoni (title of S. Maria in Trastevere). + ca. 1099.
(13) 13. Alberico (title of S. Pietro in Vincoli). + Shortly after November 1100.
(14) 14. Gregorio (title of S. Prisca). + 1122.
(15) 15. Alberico (title of S. Sabina). + ca. 1092.
(16) 16. Paolo Gentili (title of S. Sisto). + Shortly after 1106.
(17) 17. Benedetto (title is not known). + After the election of Gelasius II in 1118.
(18) 18. Landolfo Rangone (title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina). + August 4, 1119.
(19) 19. Giovanni da Gaeta, O.S.B.Cas. (deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin) (1).
(20) 20. Gregorio, O.S.B., abbot of the monastery of Subiaco (deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio). + ca. 1099.
(21) 21. Gregorio (deaconry of S. Eustachio). + 1099.
(22) 22. Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat. (deaconry is not known) (2).
(23) 23. Raniero (deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro). + ca. 1099.
(24) 24. Cosma (deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro). + After April 1139.
(25) 25. Giovanni, O.S.B. (deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica). + May 2, 1117.
(26) 26. Pagano (deaconry of S. Maria Nuova). + 1101.
(27) 27. Leone, O.S.B.Cas. (deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto).+ 1116.
(28) 28. Azone (deaconry is not known). + (?).

(1) Elected Pope Gelasius II on January 24, 1118. Died on January 29, 1119.
(2) Elected Pope Innocent II on February 14, 1130. Died on September 24, 1143.

1090 (II)
(29) 1. Ubaldo (bishop of Sabina). + After April 5, 1094.
(30) 2. Bovo (bishop of Labico). + After April 13, 1111.
(31) 3. Oddone (bishop of Albano). + ca. 1096.
(32) 4. Giovanni (deaconry of S. Adriano). + ca. 1099.

1091 (III)
(33) 1. Gualterio (bishop of Albano). + 1101.
(34) 1. Rangier, O.S.B. (title of S. Susanna). + After March 23, 1112.

1092 (IV)
(35) 1. Berardo (bishop of Palestrina). + ca. 1098.
(36) 2. Bruno (title of S. Sabina). + ca. 1099.

1093 (V)
(37) 1. Giovanni Minuto (bishop of Frascati). + ca. 1111.

1094 (VI)
(38) 1. Theodoric (title not known). + December 22, 1118.
(39) 2. Geoffroy, O.S.B. (title of S. Prisca). + March 26, 1132.
(40) 3. Alberto (title is not known). + (?).

1095 (VII)
(41) 1. Maurizio (bishop of Porto). + ca. 1100 or 1103.
(42) 2. Anastasio (title of S. Clemente). + Soon after May 6, 1125.
(43) 3. Buonsignore (title is not known). + May 1118.
(44) 4. Dietrich (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(45) 5. Hermann (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(46) 6. Hugues (deaconry is not known). + (?).
(47) 7. Rogero (deaconry is not known). + (?).

1097 (VIII)
(48) 1. Raniero (title of S. Clemente). + ca. 1101.
(49) 2. Bernardo degli Uberti, O.S.B.Vall. (title of S. Crisogono). + December 4, 1133 (1).

(1) Inscribed in the Roman Martyrology, his feast is celebrated on December 4.

1098 (IX)
(50) 1. Milon (bishop of Palestrina). + 1104 or 1105.

1099 (X)
(51) 1. Offo, bishop of Nepi. + After 1113.
(52) 2. Pietro (title of S. Cecilia). + ca. 1107.
(53) 3. Bobone (title of Ss. Quattro Coronati). + Before April 1100.
(54) 4. Pietro (title of S. Marcello). + ca. 1112.
(55) 5. Raniero (title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro). + After April 17, 1121.
(56) 6. Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine (title of S. Prassede) (1).
(57) 7. Gerardo (title of S. Prisca). + ca. 1100.
(58) 8. Ottone (title of S. Pudenziana). + 1120.
(59) 9. Alberto (title of S. Sabina). + Shortly after April 11, 1100.
(60) 20. Sigizzone, seniore (title of S. Sisto). + ca. 1100.
(61) 12. Benedetto (title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino). + ca. 1102.
(62) 13. Giovanni (title is not known). + (?).
(63) 14. Giovanni (title is not known). + (?).
(64) 15. Litusense (title is not known). + (?).
(65) 16. Gionata, seniore (deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano). + ca. 1106.
(66) 17. Bobone (deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro). + Shortly after 1107.
(67) 17. Gregorio Gaetani (deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio). + Between 1124 and 1130.
(68) 18. Stefano (deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice). + ca. 1123.
(69) 19. Ugo (deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere). + Shortly after April 20, 1117.
(70) 20. Aldo da Ferentino (deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco). + ca. 1123.
(71) 21. Bernardo (deaconry is not known). + (?).

(1) Elected Pope Honorius II on December 15, 1124. Died on February 13, 1130.

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SUMMARY
Sylvester II (999-1003) - 3 cardinals
John XVII (1003) - 1 cardinal
John XVIII (1003-1009) - 2 cardinals
Sergius IV (1009-1012) - 10 cardinals
Benedict VIII (1012-1024) - 21 cardinals
[Antipope] Gregory (1012) - no cardinals created
John XIX (1024-1032) - 12 cardinals
Benedict IX (1032-1044) - 39 cardinals
Sylvester III (1045) - no cardinals created
Benedict IX (1045) - no cardinals created
Gregory VI (1045-1046) - 4 cardinals
Clement II (1046-1047) - no cardinals created
Benedict IX (1047-1048) - no cardinals created
Damasus II (1048) - 1 cardinal
Leo IX (1049-1054) - 26 cardinals
Victor II (1055-1057) - 5 cardinals
Stephen IX (X) (1057-1058) - 13 cardinals
[Antipope] Benedict X (1058-1059) - 1 pseudocardinal
Nicholas II (1058-1061) - 13 cardinals
Alexander II (1061-1073) - 45 cardinals
[Antipope] Honorius II (1061-1064) - no pseudocardinals created
Gregory VII (1073-1085) - 31 cardinals
[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100) - 29 pseudocardinals
Victor III (1086-1087) - 1 cardinal
Urban II (1088-1099) - 70 cardinals
Total: 297 cardinals and 30 pseudocardinals

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