The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Consistories for the creation of Cardinals
15th Century (1394-1503)

[Antipope] Benedict XIII (1394-1423) Innocent VII (1404-1406) Gregory XII (1406-1415) [Antipope] Alexander V (1409-1410)
[Antipope] John XXIII (1410-1415) Martin V (1417-1431) [Antipope] Clement VIII (1423-1429) [Antipope] Benedict XIV (1425-1430?)
Eugenius IV (1431-1447) [Antipope] Felix V (1439-1449) Nicholas V (1447-1455) Callistus III (1455-1458) Pius II (1458-1464)
Paul II (1464-1471) Sixtus IV (1471-1484) Innocent VIII (1484-1492) Alexander VI (1492-1503)
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Note. The legitimacy of the popes of the different obediences during the Western Schism was not a clear cut matter for their contemporaries. It was even less so for the cardinals created by them. The documents of the time do not use the terms antipope and pseudocardinal or anticardinal. In the case of the cardinals, it was said that they belonged to this or that obedience but they were not referred to as pseudocardinal. In the conclave of 1417, all the cardinals who participated, regardless of which pope had created them, were called simply cardinals. It was so also in the documents emanating from Pope Martin V. The use of "anti" and "pseudo" did not start until the 18th century. Until 1904, "Annuario Pontificio" listed Alexander V and John XXIII as popes. When Cardinal Rodrigo de Borja y Borja was elected pope in 1492, he chose the name Alexander VI although Alexander V had been elected in the Council of Pisa and therefore was not of the "Roman obedience". For simplicity and, hopefully, clarity, this site uses the terms "antipope" and "pseudocardinal" to refer to those popes who were not of the Roman obedience and to the cardinals created by them. This is how some modern Roman Catholic historians call them.

[Antipope] Benedict XIII (1394-1423)
(Avignon obedience)

December 24, 1395 (I)
(1) 1. Pierre Blain, relative of Pope Urban V, referendary of His Holiness. + December 12, 1409.

September 22, 1397 (II)
(2) 1. Fernando Pérez Calvillo, bishop of Tarazona, Spain. + Before July 21, 1404.
(3) 2. Jofré de Boil, referendary of His Holiness. + November 7, 1400.
(4) 3. Pedro Serra, bishop of Catania, Sicily. + October 8, 1404.

December 21, 1397 (III)
(5) 1. Berenguer de Anglesola, bishop of Gerona. + August 23 (or 26), 1408.
(6) 2. Bonifacio Ammannati, notary apostolic. + July 19, 1399.
(7) 3. Louis de Bar, bishop of Langres, Fance. + June 23, 1430.

May 9, 1404 (IV)
(8) 1. Miguel de Zalba, bishop elect of Pamplona. + August 24, 1406.
(9) 2. Antonio de Challant, chancellor of Savoy. + September 4, 1418.

September 22, 1408 (V)
(10) 1. Pierre Ravat, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, archbishop of Toulouse, France. + Between March 22 and June 5, 1417.
(11) 2. Jean d'Armagnac, archbishop of Rouen, France. + October 8, 1408.
(12) 3. Juan Martínez de Murillo, O.Cis., abbot of monastery of Montearagón. + November 1420.
(13) 4. Carlos Jordán de Urriés y Pérez Salanova. + October 8, 1420.
(14) 5. Alfonso Carrillo de Albornoz, administrator of the diocese of Osma. + March 14, 1434.

December 14, 1412 (VI)
(15) 1. Pedro Fonseca. + August 21, 1422.

May 22, 1423 (VII) (1)
(16) 1. Julián Lobera y Valtierra, chaplain, scribe of apostolic letters, administrator of the diocese of Tarazona. + 1435.
(17) 2. Ximeno Dahe, auditor of the Papal Chamber. + (date unknown).
(18) 3. Domingo de Bonnefoi, O.Carth., prior of the monastery of Montealegre, Tiana, near Barcelona. + (date unknown).
(19) 4. Jean Carrier, archdeacon of Rodez, France and chaplain of Count Jean d'Armagnac. + 1437?.

(1) Antipope Benedict XIII created these pseudocardinals the day before he died to insure his succession. All the other pseudocardinals had left his obedience. After the death of Antipope Benedict XIII, which occurred on May 23, 1423, Gil Sánchez Muñoz Dousel, canon of Barcelona, was elected antipope and took the name Clement VIII. He abdicated on July 26, 1429 and died on December 28, 1446. Antipope Clement VIII is not listed in the official list of popes and antipopes of Annuario Pontificio published by the Vatican. He appears in a footnote to Antipope Benedict XIII in the 2007 edition, p. 17*, n. 30.

Note. According to Alfonso Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. (2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630), II cols. 741-742 and 746-747, Antipope Benedict XIII created Pseudocardinals Orlando Vulpelli; Roberto Joanis; Pierre de Foix (created by Antipope John XXIII in 1414); Jordan (confused with Pseudocardinal Carlos Jordán de Urriés y Pérez Salanova); Antonio Venerez; Cristóbal or Rodolfo Amerio; Raimundo Cescales; Juan Virinus; Arnaud Laurentius; Bartolomeo Celfor; and Bernard de Rieba. Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. adds Pseudocardinals Bernard Ravarius; and Raymond d'Avignon, O.S.B., as created by Antipope Benedict XIII. Moreover, Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae ( 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 600, says that the antipope also created Pseudocardinal Francisco Ximenes, O.F.M. (Eximini) (confused with Pseudocardinal Ximeno Dahe). "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VI. Les cardinaux du Grand Schisme (1378-1417). Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 157, indicates that all of the above should be eliminated from the list of pseudocardinals created by Antipope Benedict XIII because they either did not exist, or there is no documentary proof of their promotion, or their identities are confused with that of other pseudocardinals.

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Innocent VII (1404-1406)
(Rome obedience)

June 12, 1405 (I)
(1) 1. Corrado Caracciolo, bishop of Mileto. + February 15, 1411.
(2) 2. Angelo Correr, Latin patriarch of Constantinople. (1)
(3) 3. Francesco Uguccione, archbishop of Bourdeaux, France. + July 14, 1412.
(4) 4. Giordano Orsini, archbishop of Naples. + May 29, 1438.
(5) 5. Giovanni Migliorati, nephew of His Holiness, archbishop of Ravenna. + October 16, 1410 (or 1411).
(6) 6. Pietro Filargis, O.F.M., archbishop of Milan. (2)
(7) 7. Antonio Arcioni, bishop of Ascoli Piceno. + July 21, 1405.
(8) 8. Antonio Calvi, bishop of Todi. + October 2, 1411.
(9) 9. Oddone Colonna, protonotary apostolic. (3)
(10) 10. Pietro Stefaneschi, protonotary apostolic. + October 30, 1417.
(11) 11. Jean Gilles, provost of Liège, legate in the dioceses of Cologne, Trier and Reims. + July 1, 1408.

(1) Elected Pope Gregory XII on November 30, 1406. Sent his resignation to the papacy to the Council of Constance on July 4, 1415. Died on October 18, 1417.
(2) Elected Antipope Alexander V on June 26, 1409. Died on May 3, 1410.
(3) Elected Pope Martin V on November 11, 1417. Died on February 20, 1431.

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Gregory XII (1406-1415)
(Rome obedience)

May 9, 1408 (I)
(1) 1. Antonio Correr, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine of S. Giorgio in Alga, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Bologna. + January 19, 1445.
(2) 2. Gabriele Condulmer, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine of S. Giorgio in Alga, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Siena. (1)
(3) 3. Giovanni Dominici, O.P., archbishop elect of Ragusa. + June 10, 1419. (2)
(4) 4. Giacopo del Torso, notary apostolic. + 1413.

(1) Elected Pope Eugenius IV on March 3, 1431, died on February 23, 1447.
(2) Beatified by Pope Gregory XVI on April 9, 1832.

September 19, 1408 (II)
(5) 1. Ludovico Bonito, archbishop of Tarento. + September 18, 1413.
(6) 2. Angelo Cino, bishop of Recanati. + June 21, 1412.
(7) 3. Angelo Barbarigo, bishop of Verona. + August 16, 1418.
(8) 4. Bandello Bandelli, bishop of Rimini. + October 1416.
(9) 5. Philip Repington, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Lincoln, England. + 1424.
(10) 6. Matthäus von Krakau, bishop of Worms, ambassador of Robert, king of the Romans, before the pope. + March 5, 1410.
(11) 7. Luca Manzoli, O.Hum., bishop of Fiesole. + September 14, 1411.
(12) 8. Vicente de Ribas, O.S.B., prior of the monastery of Santa María de Montserrat, ambassador of Martín el Viejo, king of Aragón, before the pope. + November 10, 1408.
(13) 9. Pietro Morosini, iuniore, canon of Treviso and protonotary apostolic. + August 11, 1424.
(14) 10. Ottaviano Ottaviani, Florentine patrician. + (?).

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[Antipope] Alexander V (1409-1410)
(Pisa obedience)

Antipope Alexander V was elected on June 26, 1409 and died on May 3, 1410. He did not create any pseudocardinals.

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[Antipope] John XXIII (1410-1415)
(Pisa obedience)

June 6, 1411 (I)
(1) 1. Francesco Lando, patriarch of Constantinople. + December 26, 1427.
(2) 2. Antonio Panciera, patriarch of Aquileia. + July 3, 1431.
(3) 3. Alamanno Adimari, archbishop of Pisa. + September 17, 1422.
(4) 4. João Alfonso Esteves, archbishop of Lisbon, Portugal. + January 23, 1415.
(5) 5. Pierre d'Ailly, bishop of Cambrai, France. + August 9, 1429.
(6) 6. Georg von Liechtenstein-Nicolsburg, prince-bishop of Trent. + August 20, 1419. (1)
(7) 7. Tommaso Brancaccio, bishop of Tricarico. + September 8, 1427.
(8) 8. Branda Castiglione, bishop of Piacenza. + February 4, 1443.
(9) 9. Thomas Langley, bishop of Durham, England. + November 28, 1437. (1)
(10) 10. Robert Hallam, bishop of Salisbury, England. + September 4, 1417. (1)
(11) 11. Gilles Deschamps, bishop of Coutances, France. + March 15 (or 5), 1413.
(12) 12. Guglielmo Carbone, bishop of Chieti. + Before November 22, 1418.
(13) 13. Guillaume Fillastre, dean of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Reims, France. + November 6, 1428.
(14) 14. Lucido Conti, protonotary apostolic. + September 9, 1437.
(15) 15. Francesco Zabarella, bishop of Florence. + September 26, 1417.

(1) Did not accept the promotion.

April 13, 1413 (II)
(16) 1. Simon de Cramaud, archbishop of Reims, France. + December 15, 1422.

November 18, 1413 (III)
(17) 1. Giacomo Isolani. + February 9, 1431.

September 1414 (IV)
(18) 1. Pierre de Foix, O.F.M., le vieux, bishop of Lescar, France. + December 13, 1464.

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Martin V (1417-1431)
(Rome obedience)

June 23, 1419 (I)
(1) 1. Baldassare Cossa, former Antipope John XXIII, bishop of Frascati. + December 22, 1419.

July 23, 1423 (II)
(2) 1. Domingo Ram i Lanaja, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, bishop of Lérida, Spain. + April 25, 1445.
(3) 2. Domenico Capranica, bishop of Fermo. + August 14, 1458.

Note. According to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932, 1932, p. 131, Pope Martin V was the first pope who created cardinals without "publishing" them at the same time. These secret creations are different than those created and reserved in pectore. The latter ones are known only to the pope while the former creations are also known to the other cardinals. It was Pope Paul III who created the first cardinals in pectore.

May 24, 1426 (III)
(4) 1. Jean de la Rochetaillée, archbishop of Rouen, France. + March 24, 1437.
(5) 2. Louis Aleman, C.R.S.J., archbishop of Arles, France. + October 16, 1450. (1)
(6) 3. Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, England. + April 11, 1447.
(7) 4. Johann von Bucka, O. Praem., bishop of Olomouc, administrator of Leitomischl and Prague. + October 9, 1430.
(8) 5. Antonio Casini, bishop of Siena. + February 4, 1439.
(9) 6. Niccolò Albergati, O.Carth., bishop of Bologna. + May 9, 1443. (2)
(10) 7. Raimond Mairose, bishop of Castres, France. + October 21, 1427.
(11) 8. Juan de Cervantes, archdeacon of Sevilla and procurator of the king of Castilla in the Roman Curia. + November 25, 1453.
(12) 9. Ardicino della Porta, seniore, consistorial advocate. + April 9, 1434.
(13) 10. Hugues de Lusignan, archbishop of Nicosia and titular patriarch of Jerusalem. + Before August 24, 1442.
(14) 11. Prospero Colonna, nephew of His Holiness, notary apostolic. + March 24, 1463. (3
(15) 12. Giuliano Cesarini, seniore, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. + November 10, 1444. (3)

(1) Deprived of the cardinalate and all his benefices by Pope Eugenius IV on December 11, 1440 because of his active participation in the Council of Basle, maintaining the supremacy of the council over the pope, the deposition of Pope Eugenius IV and the election of Antipope Felix V, whom he consecrated and crowned. Reinstated by Pope Nicholas V on December 19, 1449. In a papal brief, Pope Clement VII allowed his veneration as a blessed on April 9, 1527.
(2) In a papal brief, Pope Benedict XIV approved his veneration as a blessed on October 6, 1741.
(3) Created in secret and published in the consistory of November 8, 1430.

November 8, 1430 (IV)
(16) 1. Juan Casanova, O.P., bishop of Elne, France. + March 1, 1436. (1)
(17) 2. Guillaume Ragenel de Montfort, bishop of Saint Malo, France. + September 27, 1432. (2)

(1) Created in secret and published by Pope Eugenius IV on July 4, 1431.
(2) Created in secret and published by Pope Eugenius IV on March 11, 1432.

Note. According to some sources, Pope Martin V created two cardinals in secret: Stefano Mucciarelli, O.S.M., superior general of his order and nuncio in Poland, who died before being published; and Leonardo Dati, O.P., master general of his order, created in secret in the consistory of March 16, 1425; he died on that same day.

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[Antipope] Clement VIII (1423-1429)
(Avignon obedience)

Antipope Benedict XIII died on May 23, 1423. He had made his four pseudocardinals promise that they would elect a successor after his death. Three of them met in conclave and elected Gil Sánchez Muñoz, provost of Valencia and archpriest of Teruel, Spain, who took the name Clement VIII. One of the pseudocardinals, Jean Carrier, was in Armagnac, France, and arrived after the election had taken place. Antipope Clement VIII abdicated on July 26, 1429 and died on December 28, 1445. Not listed in the official list of Popes and Antipopes of the Annuario Pontificio published by the Vatican, he appears in a footnote to Antipope Benedict XIII in the 2007 edition, p. 17*, n. 30.

July 26, 1429 (I)
(1) 1. Francisco Rovira y Escuder, secretary of Antipope Benedict XIII and confidential agent of King Alfonso V, el Magnánimo, of Aragón. + November 22, 1450.
(2) 2. Gil Sánchez Muñoz, el joven, nephew of Antipope Clement VIII. + September 1, 1471.

Note. Both pseudocardinals presented their submission to Pope Martin V after the abdication of Antipope Clement VIII.

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[Antipope] Benedict XIV (1425-1430?)
(Avignon obedience)

Pseudocardinal Jean Carrier, title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, who was absent from the election of Antipope Clement VIII, decided, after consulting theologians and canonists, that the election was invalid because "it was done by liars, thieves and excommunicated persons" and declared that he alone had the right to fill the Holy See. Carrier gathered a notary and several witnesses in Armagnac, France, and on November 12, 1425, designated pope Bernard Garnier, a sacristan of Rodez, France, and consecrated him. He took the name Benedict XIV. As antipope, he conducted his office so secretly that even his residence was uncertain, and he thus became known as the "hidden pope." In a letter from the count of Armagnac to St. Joan of Arc, it was revealed that only pseudo Cardinal Carrier knew the antipope's location. Benedict, having few followers, ended his reign in 1430, after having named four pseudocardinals. Benedict XIV is not listed in the official list of popes and antipopes of the Annuario Pontificio published by the Vatican. He appears in a footnote to Benedict XIII in the 2007 edition, p. 17*, n. 30. He is also known as the hidden pope.

-Jean Farald (1).

(1) No information has been found about his life. He was the sole elector of Antipope Benedict XIV-II.

Note. The names of the other three psuedocardinals created by Antipope Benedict XIV are not known.

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Eugenius IV (1431-1447)

September 19, 1431 (I)
(1) 1. Francesco Condulmer, nephew of His Holiness, protonotary apostolic. + October 30, 1453.
(2) 2. Angelotto Fosco, bishop of Cava. + September 12, 1444.

August 9, 1437 (II)
(3) 1. Giovanni Vitelleschi, titular patriarch of Alexandria and archbishop of Florence. + April 2, 1440.

December 18, 1439 (III)
(4) 1. Regnault de Chartres, archbishop of Reims, France. + April 4, 1444.
(5) 2. Giovanni Berardi, archbishop of Tarento. + January 21, 1449.
(6) 3. John Kempe, archbishop of York, England. + March 22, 1454.
(7) 4. Niccolò d'Acciapaccio, archbishop of Capua. + April 3, 1447.
(8) 5. Louis de Luxembourg, archbishop of Rouen, France, and administrator of Ely, England. + September 18, 1443.
(9) 6. Giorgio Fieschi, archbishop of Genoa. + October 8, 1461.
(10) 7. Isidore of Kiev, archbishop of Kiev of the Ruthenians. + Apil 27, 1462.
(11) 8. Bessarion, archbishop of Nicæa of the Greeks. + November 18, 1472.
(12) 9. Gerardo Landriani Capitani, bishop of Como. + October 9, 1445.
(13) 10. Zbigniew z Oleśnicy, bishop of Kraków, Poland. + April 1, 1455. (1)
(14) 11. António Martins de Chaves, bishop of Porto, Portugal. + July 6, 1447.
(15) 12. Peter von Schaumberg, bishop of Augsburg, Germany. + April 12, 1469.
(16) 13. Jean Le Jeune, bishop of Terouanne, France. + September 9, 1451.
(17) 14. Dénes Szécsi, bishop of Eger, Hungary. + February 1, 1465.
(18) 15. Guillaume d'Estouteville, bishop elect of Angers, France. + January 22, 1483.
(19) 16. Juan de Torquemada, O.P., master of the Sacred Palace.
(20) 17. Alberto Alberti, bishop elect of Camerino. + August 11, 1445.

July 1, 1440 (IV)
(21) 1. Ludovico Trevisano, patriarch of Aquileia. + March 22, 1465.
(22) 2. Pietro Barbo, nephew of His Holiness, protonotary apostolic (1).

(1) Elected Pope Paul II on August 30, 1464. Died on July 26, 1471.

May 2, 1444 (V)
(23) 1. Alfonso de Borja, bishop of Valencia, Spain (1).

(1) Elected Pope Callistus III on April 8, 1455. Died on August 6, 1458.

December 16, 1446 (VI)
(24) 1. Enrico Rampini, archbishop of Milan. + July 4, 1450.
(25) 2. Tommaso Parentucelli, bishop of Bologna. (1)
(26) 3. Juan de Carvajal, bishop elect of Plasencia, Spain. + December 6, 1469.
(27) 4. Giovanni de Primis, O.S.B.Cas., abbot of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. + January 21, 1449.

(1) Elected Pope Nicholas V on March 6, 1447. Died on March 21, 1455.

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[Antipope] Felix V (1439-1449)

April 12, 1440 (I)
(1) 1. Louis de La Palud, O.S.B., bishop of Lausanne, Switzerland. + September 21, 1451. (1).
(2) 2. Bartolomeo Aicardi Visconti, bishop of Novara. + April 28, 1457. (2)
(3) 3. Walram von Moers, bishop elect of Utrecht, Netherlands. + October 3, 1456. (3)
(4) 4. Alfonso Carrillo de Acuña, el joven, administrator of the see of Sigüenza. + July 1, 1482. (4)

(1) Submitted himself to Pope Nicholas V. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1449.
(2) He seems to have accepted the promotion in private while refusing it in public.
(3) Declined the promotion.
(4) Declined the promotion.

Note. In this consistory, Antipope Felix V created pseudocardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicy, bishop of Kraków, Poland, but in a courteous letter dated October 4, 1441, the bishop thanked the antipope for the nomination but declined because he had already been promoted to the cardinalate by Pope Eugenius IV on December 18, 1439.

October 2, 1440 (II)
(5) 1. Aleksander Mazowiecki, prince-bishop of Trent. + June 2, 1444.
(6) 2. Otón de Moncada i de Luna, bishop of Tortosa, Spain. + February 20, 1473. (1)
(7) 3. Jordi d'Ornos, bishop of Vich, Spain. + 1452.
(8) 4. François de Meez, O.S.B., bishop of Geneva, Switzerland. + March 7, 1444.
(9) 5. Bernard de La Planche, O.S.B., bishop of Dax, France. + ca. 1448-1449.
(10) 6. Giovanni di Ragusa, O.P., bishop of Ardjisch, Walachia. + October 20, 1443.
(11) 7. Johann Grünwalder, vicar general of Freising, Germany. + December 2, 1452.
(12) 8. Juan de Segovia, archdeacon of Villaviciosa, Oviedo, Spain. + May 24, 1458. (2)

(1) Resigned the promotion on April 13, 1445.
(2) By 1444 he had made his submission to Pope Nicholas V.

November 12, 1440 (III)
(13) 1. Amédée de Talaru, archbishop of Lyon, France. + February 11, 1444 (1).
(14) 2. Denis du Moulin, bishop of Paris, France. + September 15, 1447.
(15) 3. Philippe de Coetquis, archbishop of Tours, France. + July 12, 1441.
(16) 4. Niccolò Tedeschi, O.S.B., archbishop of Palermo, Sicily. + February 24, 1445.
(17) 5. Gérard Machet, bishop of Castres, France. + July 17, 1448.
(18) 6. Jean de Malestroit, bishop of Nantes, France. + September 14, 1443.

(1) It is not known if he accepted the promotion.

Note. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, I, 9, n.10, questions this creation of cardinals based on the fact that in a letter of Antipope Felix V, dated February 4, 1441, he mentions nothing about it. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, col. 941, definitively states the date and names of those included in this promotion.

April 6, 1444 (IV)
(19) 1. Jean d'Arces, archbishop of Tarentaise, France. + December 12, 1454. (1)
(20) 2. Luis Gonçalves de Amaral, bishop of Viseu, Portugal. + February 10, 1444. (2)
(21) 3. Wincenty Kot z Dębna, archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland. + August 14, 1448. (3)
(22) 4. Guillaume-Hugues d'Estaing, O.S.B., archdeacon of Metz, France. + October 28, 1455. (4)
(23) 5. Bartolomeo Vitelleschi, bishop of Corneto e Montefiascone. + December 13, 1463. (5)
(24) 6. Thomas de Courcelles, canon of the cathedral chapter of Amiens, France. + October 23, 1469. (6)

(1) Created cardinal by Pope Nicholas V on December 19, 1449.
(2) He died three weeks before his promotion was announced.
(3) Resigned the promotion on October 2, 1447.
(4) Declined the promotion. Created cardinal by Pope Nicholas V on December 19, 1449.
(5) Resigned the promotion and was absolved of all the censures by Pope Nicholas V on July 14, 1449.
(6) Declined the promotion.

Before August 1447 (V)
(25) 1. Lancelot de Lusignan, patriarch of Jerusalem. + Between April 6, 1451 and mid August of that same year.

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Nicholas V (1447-1455)

February 16, 1448 (I)
(1) 1. Antonio Cerdà i Lloscos, O.SS.T., archbishop of Messina, Sicily. + September 12, 1459.

December 20, 1448 (II)
(2) 1. Astorgio Agnesi, archbishop of Benevento. + October 10, 1451.
(3) 2. Latino Orsini, archbishop of Trani. + August 11, 1477.
(4) 3. Alain de Coëtivy, bishop of Avignon, France. + May 3, 1474.
(5) 4. Jean Rolin, bishop of Autun, France. + June 23, 1483.
(6) 5. Filippo Calandrini, bishop of Bologna. + July 18 (or 22), 1476.
(7) 6. Nikolaus von Cusa, archdeacon of Brabante, diocese of Liège, Belgium. + August 12, 1464.

April 23, 1449 (III)
(8) 7. Amedeo di Savoie, bishop of Sabina. + January 7, 1451. (1)

(1) Elected Antipope Felix V on November 5, 1439 in the Council of Basle. Resigned on April 7, 1449. Died on January 7, 1451.

December 19, 1449 (IV)
(9) 1. Jean d'Arces, archbishop of Tarentaise, France. + December 12, 1454. (1)
(10) 2. Louis de La Palud, O.S.B., bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, France. + September 21, 1451. (2)
(11) 3. Guillaume d'Estaing, O.S.B., archdeacon of Metz. + October 28, 1455. (3)

(1) Pseudocardinal created by Antipope Felix V on April 6, 1444. Created cardinal by Pope Nicholas V on this date.
(2) Pseudocardinal created by Antipope Felix V on April 12, 1440. Created cardinal by Pope Nicholas V on this date.
(3) Pseudocardinal created by Antipope Felix V on April 6, 1444; he declined the promotion. Created cardinal by Pope Nicholas V on this date.

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Callistus III (1455-1458)

September 17, 1456 (I)
(1) 1. Luis Juan del Milà, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Segorbe, Spain. + 1510.
(2) 2. Jaime de Portugal, administrator of the archdiocese of Lisbon, Portugal. + August 27, 1459.
(3) 3. Rodrigo de Borja y Borja, nephew of His Holiness, sacristan of Valencia, Spain. (1)

(1) Elected Pope Alexander VI on August 11, 1492. Died on August 18, 1503.

December 17, 1456 (II)
(4) 1. Rinaldo Piscicello, archbishop of Naples. + July 4, 1457.
(5) 2. Juan de Mella, bishop of Zamora, Spain. + October 12, 1467.
(6) 3. Giovanni Castiglione, bishop of Pavia. + April 14, 1460.
(7) 4. Enea Silvio Piccolomini, bishop of Siena. (1)
(8) 5. Giacomo Tebaldi, bishop of Montefeltro. + September 4, 1465.
(9) 6. Richard Olivier de Longueil, bishop of Coutances, France. + August 19, 1470.

(1) Elected Pope Pius II on August 19, 1458. Died on August 14, 1464.

Note. Pope Callistus III wanted to name Father Jean Soreth, O.Carm., a bishop or a cardinal, but he refused because he wanted to devote himself to his Order and the promotion of religious zeal and monastic observance.

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Pius II (1458-1464)

March 5, 1460 (I)
(1) 1. Angelo Capranica, brother of Cardinal Domenico, bishop of Rieti. + July 3, 1478.
(2) 2. Berardo Eroli, bishop of Spoleto. + April 2, 1479.
(3) 3. Niccolò Fortiguerra, bishop of Teano. + December 21, 1473.
(4) 4. Alessandro Oliva, O.E.S.A., prior general of his order. + August 20, 1463.
(5) 5. Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, nephew of His Holiness, protonotary apostolic. (1)
(6) 6. Burkhard Weisbriach, archbishop of Salzburg, Austria. + February 16, 1466. (2)

(1) Elected Pope Pius III on September 22, 1503. Died on October 18, 1503.
(2) Created in secret and published on May 31, 1462.

December 18, 1461 (II)
(7) 1. Bartolomeo Roverella, archbishop of Ravenna. + May 3, 1476.
(8) 2. Jean Jouffroy, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Arras, France. + Before December 7, 1473.
(9) 3. Jaime Francisco de Cardona i de Aragón, bishop of Urgel, Spain. + December 1, 1466.
(10) 4. Louis d'Albret, bishop of Cahors, France. + September 4, 1461.
(11) 5. Giacomo Ammannati-Piccolomini, bishop of Pavia. + September 10, 1479.
(12) 6. Francesco Gonzaga, protonotary apostolic. + October 21, 1483.

May 31, 1462 (III)
(13) 7. Johann von Eych, bishop of Eichstätt, Bavaria. + January 1, 1464.

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Paul II (1464-1471)

Note. At the end of 1464 or beginning of 1465, Pope Paul II created Cardinals Teodoro Lelli, bishop of Treviso, and Giovanni Barozzi, patriarch of Venice, but they died before being published.

September 18, 1467 (I)
(1) 1. Thomas Bourchier, archbishop of Canterbury, England. + March 22, 1486.
(2) 2. István Várdai, archbishop of Kalocza-Bacs, Hungary. + Before February 26, 1471(or 1473).
(3) 3. Oliviero Carafa, archbishop of Naples. + January 20, 1511.
(4) 4. Amico Agnifili, bishop of Aquila. + November 9, 1476.
(5) 5. Marco Barbo, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Vicenza. + March 11, 1491.
(6) 6. Jean Balue, bishop of Angers, France. + October 5, 1491.
(7) 7. Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M.Conv., minister general of his Order. (1)
(8) 8. Teodoro Paleologo di Montferrato, protonotary apostolic. + January 21, 1484.

(1) Elected Pope Sixtus IV on August 10, 1471. Died on August 12, 1484.

November 21, 1468 (II)
(9) 1. Giovanni Battista Zeno, nephew of His Holines, protonotary apostolic. + May 7, 1501.
(10) 2. Giovanni Michiel, nephew of His Holiness, protonotary apostolic. + April 10, 1503.

Note. According to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1933, p. 145, in the consistory of November 21, 1468, the pope secretly created two cardinals: Hugues de Coat Tredrez, fomer bishop of Tréguier, France, and Pedro Ferris, bishop of Tarazona, Spain. The first one died before his creation was published. The second was actually created by Pope Sixtus IV in the consistory of December 18, 1476.

Note. According to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1933, p. 145, at the beginning of 1471, Pope Paul II created and did not publish four more cardinals: János Vitéz, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary; Pietro Foscari, Ferry de Clugny, and Giovanni Battista Savelli. All of them, except Archbishop Vitéz, who had died on August 11, 1472, were created cardinals by Pope Sixtus IV in the promotions of December 10, 1477 and May 15, 1480.

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Sixtus IV (1471-1484)

December 16, 1471 (I)
(1) 1. Pietro Riario, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Treviso. + January 5, 1474.
(2) 2. Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Carpentras. (1)

(1) Elected Pope Julius II on November 1, 1503. Died on February 21, 1513.

May 7, 1473 (II)
(3) 1. Philippe de Levis, bishop of Arles, France. + November 4, 1475.
(4) 2. Stefano Nardini, archbishop of Milan. + October 22, 1484.
(5) 3. Ausias Despuig, archbishop of Monreale, Sicily. + September 3, 1483.
(6) 4. Pedro González de Mendoza, bishop of Sigüenza, Spain. + January 11, 1495.
(7) 5. Giacopo Antonio Venier, bishop of Cuenca, Spain. + August 3, 1479.
(8) 6. Giovanni Battista Cibo, bishop of Molfetta. (1)
(9) 7. Giovanni Arcimboldo, bishop of Novara. + October 2, 1488.
(10) 8. Philibert Hugonet, bishop of Mâcon, France. + September 11, 1484.

(1) Elected Pope Innocent VIII on August 29, 1484. Died on July 25, 1492.

Note. According to some sources, Chacón and Moroni among them, Thibaud de Luxembourg, O.Cist., bishop of Le Mans, was created cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV in 1474 but never published.

December 18, 1476 (III)
(11) 1. Jorge da Costa, archbishop of Lisbon, Portugal. + September 18, 1508.
(12) 2. Charles I de Bourbon, archbishop of Lyon, France. + September 13, 1488.
(13) 3. Pedro Ferris, bishop of Tarazona, Spain. + September 25, 1478.
(14) 4. Giovanni Battista Mellini, bishop of Urbino. + July 24, 1478.
(15) 5. Pierre de Foix, le jeune, bishop of Vannes and Aire, France. + July 17, 1490.

December 10, 1477 (IV)
(16) 1. Cristoforo della Rovere, archbishop of Tarentaise, France. + February 1, 1478.
(17) 2. Girolamo Basso della Rovere, nephew of His Holiness, bishop of Recanati. + September 1, 1507.
(18) 3. Georg Hesler, protonotary apostolic, counselor of Emperor Friedrich III. + September 21, 1482.
(19) 4. Gabriele Rangone, O.F.M.Obs., archbishop of Eger. + September 27, 1486.
(20) 5. Pietro Foscari, primicerius of the cathedral of S. Marco, Venice. + August 11, 1485.
(21) 6. Giovanni d'Aragona, protonotary apostolic. Son of King Ferdinando I of Naples. + October 17, 1485.
(22) 7. Raffaele Sansoni Riario, protonotary apostolic. + July 9, 1521.

February 10, 1478 (V)
(23) 1. Domenico della Rovere, apostolic subdeacon. + April 22, 1501.

May 15, 1480 (VI)
(24) 1. Paolo Fregoso, archbishop of Genoa. + April 22, 1498.
(25) 2. Cosma Orsini, O.S.B., archbishop of Trani. + November 21, 1481.
(26) 3. Ferry de Clugny, bishop of Tournai, France. + October 7, 1483.
(27) 4. Giovanni Battista Savelli, protonotary apostolic. + September 18, 1498.
(28) 5. Giovanni Colonna, protonotary apostolic. + September 26, 1508.

November 15, 1483 (VII)
(29) 1. Giovanni Conti, archbishop of Conza. + October 20, 1493.
(30) 2. Hélie de Bourdeilles, O.F.M.Obs., archbishop of Tours, France. + July 5, 1484.
(31) 3. Juan Margarit i Pau, bishop of Gerona, Spain. + November 21, 1484.
(32) 4. Giovanni Giacomo Schiaffinati, bishop of Parma. + December 9, 1497.
(33) 5. Giovanni Battista Orsini, protonotary apostolic. + February 22, 1503.

March 17, 1484 (VIII)
(34) 1. Ascanio Maria Sforza, bishop of Pavia. + May 27, 1505.

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Innocent VIII (1484-1492)

March 9, 1489 (I)
(1) 1. Lorenzo Cibo de' Mari, nephew of His Holiness, archbishop of Benevento. + December 21, 1503.
(2) 2. Ardicino della Porta, iuniore, bishop of Aleria, Corsica. + February 4, 1493.
(3) 3. Antonio Gentile Pallavicino, datary of His Holiness, bishop of Orense, Spain. + September 10, 1507.
(4) 4. André d'Espinay, archbishop of Bordeaux, France. + November 10, 1500.
(5) 5. Pierre d'Aubusson, grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. + July 3 , 1503.
(6) 6. Maffeo Gherardi, O.S.B.Cam., patriarch of Venice. + September 14, 1492. (1)
(7) 7. Giovanni de' Medici, protonotary apostolic. (2)
(8) 8. Federico Sanseverino, protonotary apostolic. + August 7, 1516. (3)

(1) Created cardinal without being published; on July 3, 1489, the pope declared that he will be created cardinal in the next consistory for the promotion of new cardinals and that if this does not take place, he should be considered as published and allowed to participate in the conclave. Participated in the conclave of August 6-11, 1492.
(2) Created cardinal but prevented from wearing any cardinalitial insignias for three years because he was 13 years old when promoted. Published on March 26, 1492. Elected Pope Leo X March 9, 1513. Died on December 1, 1521.
(3) Created cardinal but not published because of his youth; the pope died without publishing him. Admitted to the Sacred College of Cardinals because of the intervention of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and published sede vacante on July 26, 1492.

Note 1. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1934 (Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934), p. 133, mentions that several sources indicate that Pantaleone Cibo, Niccolò Cibo, and Ermolao Barbaro, iuniore, were created cardinals by Pope Innocent VIII and never published. "Essai" also mentions that the sources indicate that Fryderyk Jagiellończyk, administrator of Kraków, Poland; and Ippolito I d'Este, administrator of the metropolitan see of Esztergom, Hungary, were created by that pope and never published but they were actually elevated to the cardinalate by Pope Alexander VI in the consistory of September 20, 1493.

Note 2. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936 (Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936), p. 131, indicates that Pope Innocent VIII planned to promote Niccolò Fieschi to the cardinalate but the promotion never took place. He was created cardinal by Pope Alexander VI in 1503.

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Alexander VI (1492-1503)

August 31, 1492 (I)
(1) 1. Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor, nephew of His Holiness, archbishop of Monreale. + August 1, 1503.

September 20, 1493 (II)
(2) 1. Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas, O.S.B., bishop of Lombès, abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis, near Paris, ambassador of the King of France. + August 6, 1499.
(3) 2. Giovanni Antonio Sangiorgio, bishop of Alessandria, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. + March 14 (or 28), 1509.
(4) 3. Bernardino López de Carvajal, bishop of Cartagena, Spain. + December 16, 1523.
(5) 4. Cesare Borgia, archbishop elect of Valencia, Spain. + March 12, 1507 (1).
(6) 5. Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore, protonotary apostolic. + May 1, 1510.
(7) 6. Domenico Grimani, protonotary apostolic. + August 27, 1523.
(8) 7. Alessandro Farnese, seniore, protonotary apostolic. (2)
(9) 8. Bernardino Lunati, protonotary apostolic. + August 8, 1497.
(10) 9. Raymund Pérault, O.S.A., bishop of Gurk. + September 5, 1505.
(11) 10. John Morton, archbishop of Canterbury, England. + September 15, 1500.
(12) 11. Fryderyk Jagiellończyk, administrator of Kraków, Poland. + March 19, 1503.
(13) 12. Ippolito I d'Este, administrator of the metropolitan see of Esztergom, Hungary. + September 3, 1520.

(1) He resigned the cardinalate on August 18, 1498, with the unanimous consent of the Sacred College of Cardinals; he also resigned all his bishoprics and abbeys.
(2) Elected Pope Paul III on October 13, 1534. Died on November 10, 1549.

Note. In this consistory a cardinal was created secretly and his name was never published.

May 1494 (III)
(14) 1. Luigi d'Aragona, protonotary apostolic. + January 21, 1519. (1)

(1) Reserved in pectore and published in the consistory of February 19, 1496.

January 16, 1495 (IV)
(15) 1. Guillaume Briçonnet, bishop of Saint Malo, France. + December 14, 1514.

January 21, 1495 (V)
(16) 1. Philippe de Luxembourg, bishop of Le Mans, France. + June 2, 1519.

Note. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, in 1495, Pope Alexander VI tried to bribe with a read hat Dominican reformer Girolamo Savonarola, who was preaching aginst the ponitff in Florence, but the friar refused saying: "No hat will I have but that of a martyr, reddened with my own blood." On May 12, 1497, he was excommunicated. He was burned in the stake on May 23, 1498, in Piazza della Signoria, Florence.

February 19, 1496 (VI)
(17) 1. Juan López, bishop of Perugia. + August 5, 1501.
(18) 2. Bartolomé Martí, bishop of Segorbe, Spain + March 25, 1500.
(19) 3. Juan de Castro, bishop of Agrigento. + October 2, 1506.
(20) 4. Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el menor, grand-nephew of His Holiness, bishop elect of Melfi. + January 17, 1500.

September 17, 1498 (VII)
(21) 1. Georges I d'Amboise, archbishop of Rouen, France. + May 25, 1510.

March 20, 1500 (VIII)
(22) 1. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain. + October 14, 1502.
(23) 2. Amanieu d'Albret, protonotary apostolic. + December 20, 1520.
(24) 3. Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, archbishop-elect of Valencia, Spain. + October 4, 1511.

September 28, 1500 (IX)
(25) 1. Jaime Serra i Cau, archbishop of Oristano, Sardinia. + March 5, 1517.
(26) 2. Pietro Isvalies, archbishop of Reggio Calabria. + September 22, 1511.
(27) 3. Francisco de Borja, archbishop of Cosenza. + November 4, 1511.
(28) 4. Juan de Vera, archbishop of Salerno. + May 4, 1507.
(29) 5. Ludovico Podocathor, bishop of Capacio. + August 25, 1504.
(30) 6. Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, Can. Reg. of Sant'Antonio, bishop of Como. + March 16, 1508.
(31) 7. Giovanni Battista Ferrari, bishop of Modena. + July 20, 1502.
(32) 8. Tamás Bakócz, chancellor of the Kingdom of Hungary, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary. + June 11, 1521.
(33) 9. Marco Cornaro, protonotary apostolic. + July 24, 1524.
(34) 10. Gianstefano Ferrero, bishop of Vercelli. + October 5, 1510. (1)

(1) Reserved in pectore and published in the consistory of June 28, 1502.

May 31, 1503 (X)
(35) 1. Juan Castellar y de Borja, archbishop of Trani. + January 1, 1505.
(36) 2. Francisco de Remolins, archbishop of Sorrento. + February 5, 1518.
(37) 3. Francesco Soderini, bishop of Volterra. + May 17, 1524.
(38) 4. Melchior von Meckau, bishop of Brixen, Tyrol. + May 2, 1509.
(39) 5. Niccolò Fieschi, bishop elect of Fréjus, France. + June 14, 1524.
(40) 6. Francisco Desprats, bishop of León, Espain. + September 9, 1504.
(41) 7. Adriano di Castello, bishop of Hereford, England. + Between December 1521 and January 1522.
(42) 8. Jaime de Casanova, chamberlain of His Holiness. + June 4, 1504.
(43) 9. Francisco Lloris y de Borja, bishop of Elne, France. + July 22, 1506.

Note. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1936 (Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936), p. 133, mentions three "secret" creations of Pope Alexander VI: Johann, ambassador of the duke of Saxony to the Holy See; Pietro Ciera, Venetian, protonotary apostolic; and François Busleiden, archbishop of Besançon, France.

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SUMMARY
[Antipope] Benedict XIII (1394-1423) - 19 pseudocardinals
Innocent VII (1404-1406) - 11 cardinals
Gregory XII (1406-1415) - 13 cardinals
[Antipope] Alexander V (1409-1410) - did not create any pseudocardinals
[Antipope] John XXIII (1410-1415) - 18 pseudocardinals
Martin V (1417-1431) - 17 cardinals
[Antipope] Clement VIII (1423-1429) - 2 pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Benedict XIV (1425-1430?) - did not create any pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Benedict XIV-II (1430-1437?) - did not create any pseudocardinals
Eugenius IV (1431-1447) - 27 cardinals
[Antipope] Felix V (1439-1449) - 25 pseudocardinals
Nicholas V (1447-1455) - 11 cardinals
Callistus III (1455-1458) - 9 cardinals
Pius II (1458-1464) - 13 cardinals
Paul II (1464-1471) - 10 cardinals
Sixtus IV (1471-1484) - 34 cardinals
Innocent VIII (1484-1492) - 8 cardinals
Alexander VI (1492-1503) - 43 cardinals
Total: 198 cardinals and 64 pseudocardinals

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