The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Cardinals head of dicasteries of the Roman Curia

     One of the main functions of the cardinals is to act as advisors and assistants to the Roman Pontiff in the government of the Universal Church. Some of them discharge this responsibility heading the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organ of the Church. In the 20th century, three popes issued apostolic constitutions effecting a major reform and reorganization of the Roman Curia: Pius X's Sapienti consilio, June 29, 1908; Paul VI's Regimini Ecclesiae Universae, August 15, 1967; and John Paul II's Pastor bonus, June 28, 1988. Beginning in 1997, Pope John Paul II named some non-cardinal prelates to head Vatican dicasteries; the practice has been continued by Pope Benedict XVI. The main source used for the historical notes is Pontifical Yearbook. Supplement. Historical notes. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, [n.d.]. Following are the lists of Roman dicasteries headed by cardinals.

Secretariat of State Council for the Public Affairs of the Church

Congregations
Doctrine of the Faith Oriental Churches Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments Causes of the Saints Bishops
Evangelization of Peoples Clergy Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life Catholic Education

Tribunals
Apostolic Penitentiary Apostolic Signature

Councils
Laity Promotion of the Unity of Christians Family Iustitia et Pax Cor Unum Pastoral for Migrants and Itinerants Health Workers (Pastoral of Health)
Legislative Texts Promoting the New Evangelization Interreligious Dialog Culture Study of Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See

Offices
Apostolic Chamber Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See Prefecture of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Financial Information Authority

Commissions
State of Vatican City Latin America Ecclesia Dei

Committee
International Eucharistic Congresses

Another institution connected to the Holy See
Library and Archive of the Holy Roman Church

Abolished dicasteries
Congregation of the Index Congregation of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's Basilica Congregation Ceremonial Apostolic Chancery Apostolic Datary

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Secretariat of State

The origins of the Secretariat of State go back to the 15th century. The apostolic constitution of Non Debet Reprehensibile issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 31, 1487 established the Secretaria Apostolica or Collegio dei Segretari Apostolici, comprising 24 apostolic secretaries, one of whom had the title Secretarius Domesticus and held a position of pre-eminence. During the pontificate of Leo X (1513-1521), the office of the Secretarius intimus was created. This office was charged with the correspondence with the apostolic nuncios, who were being appointed with diplomatic prerogatives in permanent fashion. For a long time, the Secretarius Intimus, also called Secretarius Papae or Secretarius Maior, was almost always a prelate, often endowed with episcopal rank. From these beginnings, the Secretariat of State developed, especially at the time of the Council of Trent.

The Secretariat of State began in this way and was later directed by the cardinal nephew (cardinale nipote), who acted as prime minister of the pope, and gradually developed, in particular at the time of the Council of Trent (1545-1563). The office of secretary intimus was entrusted at the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent X (1644-1655) to someone who was already a cardinal and who did not belong to the pope's family. This personage was Cardinal Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli. Pope Innocent XII (1691-1700), with the bull Romanum decet Pontificum, dated June 22, 1692, abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew, who by then had become the General superintendent of the Papal States. The cardinal secretary of State took over his powers permanently. In 1814, Pope Pius VII established the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, expanding the Congregation Super Negotiis Ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum established by Pope Pius VI in 1793. Pope Pius X, in his apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio, June 29, 1908, divided the Secretariat of State into three sections: the first was concerned essentially with extraordinary affairs, while the second attended to the ordinary affairs, and the third, until then an independent body (the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs), had the duty of preparing and dispatching pontifical briefs, of which the first, became later the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. This was confirmed by canon 263 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law. The apostolic constitution Regimi Ecclesiae Universae, issued by Paul VI on August 15, 1967, reformed the Roman Curia, implementing the desire expressed by the bishops in the Second Vatican Council. This gave a new face to the Secretariat of State, suppressing the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs, formerly the third section, and transforming the former first section, the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, into a body distinct from the Secretariat of State, though closely related to it, which was to be known as the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church.

John Paul II with the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, June 28, 1988, introduced a reform of the Roman Curia and divided the Secretariat of State into two sections: the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, which incorporated the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. This guaranteed both unity of purpose and the specificity required in the service which the Secretariat of State is called to offer the pope.

First Section. The Section for General Affairs or the First Section is responsible for handling matters regarding the everyday service of the Supreme Pontiff, both in caring for the universal Church and in dealing with the dicasteries of the Roman Curia. It attends to the preparation of whatever documents the Holy Father entrusts to it. It enacts the provisions for appointments within the Roman Curia and keeps custody of the Lead Seal and the Fisherman's Ring. It regulates the duties and activity of the Holy See's representatives, especially in relation to the local Churches. It attends to all that concerns the embassies accredited to the Holy See. It supervises the Holy See's official communication agencies and is responsible for publishing the Acta Apostolicæ Sedis and the Annuario Pontificio. The First Section of the Secretariat of State is headed by an archbishop, who is assisted by a prelate, the assessor for general affairs. The position of the substitute first appeared in the hierarchical listing of the Secretariat of State in 1814.

Second Section. The Section for Relations with States or Second Section has the specific duty of attending to matters which involve civil governments. It has responsibility for (1) the Holy See's diplomatic relations with states, including the establishment of concordats or similar agreements; (2) for the Holy See's presence in international organizations and conferences; (3) in special circumstances, by order of the Supreme Pontiff and in consultation with the competent dicasteries of the Curia, provides for appointments to particular Churches, and for their establishment or modification; (4) in close collaboration with the Congregation for Bishops, it attends to the appointment of bishops in countries which have entered into treaties or agreements with the Holy See in accordance with the norms of international law. The Second Section is headed by an archbishop, the secretary for relations with states, who is aided by a prelate, the undersecretary for relations with states, and assisted by cardinals and bishops.

Secretaries of State:
Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli (1644-1651)
Decio Azzolini, iuniore, pro-secretary (1651)
Fabio Chigi (1651-1655)
Giulio Rospigliosi (1655-1667)
Decio Azzolini, iuniore (1667-1669)
Federico Borromeo, iuniore (1670-1673)
Francesco Nerli, iuniore (1673-1676)
Alderano Cibo (1676-1689)
Giambattista Rubini (1689-1691)
Fabrizio Spada (1691-1700)
Fabrizio Paolucci (1700-1721)
Giorgio Spinola (1721-1724)
Fabrizio Paolucci (1724-1726)
Niccolò Maria Lercari (1726-1730)
Antonio Banchieri (1730-1733)
Giuseppe Firrao (1733-1740)
Silvio Valenti Gonzaga (1740-1756)
Alberico Archinto (1756-1758)
Luigi Maria Torreggiani (1758-1769)
Lazzaro Opizio Pallavicino (1769-1785)
lgnazio Boncompagni-Ludovisi (1785-1789)
Francesco Saverio de Zelada (1789-1796)
Ignazio Busca (1796-1797)
Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphili (1797-1799)
Ercole Consalvi, pro-secretary (1800); secretary (1800-1806)
Filippo Casoni (1806-1808)
Giulio Gabrielli (1808)
Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj, pro-secretary (1808)
Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore, pro-secretary (1808-1814)
Ercole Consalvi (1814-1823)
Giulio Maria della Somaglia (1823-1828)
Tommaso Bernetti (1828-1829)
Giuseppe Albani (1829-1830)
Tommaso Bernetti, pro-secretary (1831); secretary (1831-1836)
Luigi Lambruschini, C.R.S.P. (1836-1846)
Tommaso Pasquale Gizzi (1846-1847)
Gabriele Ferretti (1847-1848)
Giuseppe Bofondi (1848)
Giacomo Antonelli (1848)
Anton Francesco Orioli, O.F.M.Conv., ad interim (1848)
Giovanni Soglia (1848)
Giacomo Antonelli (1848-1876)
Giovanni Simeoni (1876-1878)
Alessandro Franchi (1878)
Lorenzo Nina (1878-1880)
Lodovico Jacobini (1880-1887)
Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (1887-1903)
Rafael Merry del Val y Zulueta (1903-1914)
Domenico Ferrata (1914)
Pietro Gasparri (1914-1930)
Eugenio Pacelli (1930-1939)
Luigi Maglione (1939-1944)
Vacant (1944-1952)
Domenico Tardini, pro-secretary of State for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (1952-1958); secretary of State (1958-1961)
Giovanni Battista Montini, pro-secretary of State for Ordinary Affairs (1952-1954)
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1961-1969)
Jean Villot (1969-1979)
Agostino Casaroli, pro-secretary (1979); secretary (1979-1990)
Angelo Sodano, pro-secretary (1990-1991); secretary (1991-2006)
Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B. (2006-2013)
Pietro Parolin (2013-

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Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs

This congregation was set up by Pope Pius VII through a biglietto from Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, pro-secretary of State, to Fr. Francesco Fontana, dated July 19, 1814, and was thus an expansion of the Congregation set up for "Extraordinary Affairs from the Kingdom of the Gauls", which had been instituted by Pope Pius VI in 1793. Its task was to erect and to divide dioceses and to appoint bishops in those cases in which it is necessary to take these matters up with civil governments, as also to discuss those matters which the pope may turn over to it through the cardinal secretary of State, especially those dealing with civil laws, concordats, or other agreements entered into between the Holy See and different countries (can. 255; Letter of Pius XI, July 5, 1925; Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, vol. XVIII, p. 89). Its name was changed to Council for the Public Affairs of the Church in 1967. John Paul II with the apostolic constitution
Pastor bonus, June 28, 1988, which reformed the Roman Curia, divided the Secretariat of State into two sections: the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, which incorporated the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church.

Prefects:
Rafael Merry del Val y Zulueta (1908-1914)
Domenico Ferrata (1914)
Pietro Gasparri (1915-1930)
Eugenio Pacelli (1930-1939)
Luigi Maglione (1939-1944)
Vacant (1944-1958)
Domenico Tardini (1958-1961)
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1961-1967)

Council for the Public Affairs of the Church

Prefects:
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1967-1969)
Jean Villot (1969-1979)
Agostino Casaroli (1979-1988)

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CONGREGATIONS

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

     Established by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) with the constitution Licet ab initio, July 21, 1542, with the name of Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Pope Pius X changed its name to Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office (apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio, June 29, 1908). Reorganized and name changed to its present form by Paul VI (motu proprio Integrae servanda, December 7, 1965).

Secretaries:
Camillo Borghese (1602-1605)
Pompeio Arrigoni (1605-1616)
Giovanni Garzia Millini (1616-1629)
Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap. (1629-1633)
Francesco Barberini, seniore (1633-1679)
Cesare Facchinetti (1679-1683)
Alderano Cibo (1683-1700)
Galeazzo Marescotti (1700-1716)
Fabrizio Spada (1716-1717)
Niccolo Acciaioli (1717-1719)
Francesco del Giudice (1719-1725)
Fabrizio Paolucci (1725-1726)
Pietro Ottoboni (1726-1740)
Tommaso Ruffo (1740-1753)
Neri Maria Corsini (1753-1770)
Giovanni Francesco Stoppani (1770-1774)
Luigi Maria Torregiani (1775-1777)
Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore (1777-1799)
Leonardo Antonelli (1800-1811)
Giulio Maria Della Somaglia (1814-1830)
Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore (1830-1844)
Vincenzo Macchi (1844-1860)
Costantino Patrizi Naro (1860-1876)
Prospero Caterini (1876-1881)
Antonio Maria Panebianco, O.F.M.Conv. (1882-1883)
Luigi Maria Bilio, C.R.S.P. (1883-1884)
Raffaele Monaco La Valetta (1884-1896)
Lucido Maria Parocchi (1896-1903)
Serafino Vannutelli (1903-1908)
Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (1908-1913)
Domenico Ferrata (1914)
Rafael Merry del Val y Zulueta (1914-1930)
Donato Raffaele Sbarretti (1930-1939)
Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani (1939-1951)
Giuseppe Pizzardo (1951-1959)
Alfredo Ottaviani, pro-secretary (1953-1959); secretary (1959-1966); pro-prefect (1966-1968)

Prefects:
Franjo Šeper (1968-1981)
Joseph Ratzinger (1981-2005)
William Joseph Levada (2005-2012)
Gerhard Ludwig Müller (2012-

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Congregation for the Oriental Churches

Created in 1862 by Pope Pius IX within the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, the dicastery was made autonomous by Pope Benedict XV in 1917 and its competence was increased by Pope Pius XI in 1938. The congregation exercises "ad normam iuris" over eparchies, bishops, clergy, religious and faithful of Oriental rite, the faculty that the Congregations for Bishops, the Clergy, the Institutes of Consecrated Life, Catholic Education have over the dioceses, bishops, clergy and faithful of the Latin rite. The congregation has exclusive authority over Egypt and Sinai, Eritrea and North Ethiopia, Southern Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestina, Syria, Jordan and Turkey. The pope reserved for himself the prefecture of the congregation, which was run by its secretary. On August 15, 1967, the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiæ Universæ changed its name from Congregation for the Oriental Church and gave the title of prefect to the cardinal heading the dicastery.

Secretaries:
Nicolò Marini (1917-1922)
Giovanni Tacci (1922-1927)
Luigi Sincero (1927-1936)
Eugène Tisserant (1936-1959)
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1959-1961)
Gabriel Acacius Coussa, B.A., pro-secretary (1961); secretary (1962)
Gustavo Testa (1962-1967)

Prefects:
Gustavo Testa (1967-1968)
Maximilien de Furstenberg (1968-1973)
Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P. (1973-1980)
Władysław Rubin (1980-1985)
Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy (1985-1991)
Achille Silvestrini (1991-2000)
Ignace Moussa I Daoud (2000-2007)
Leonardo Sandri (2007-

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Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments

     This congregation resulted from the unification of two dicasteries originally autonomous: the Congregation for Divine Worship, established by Paul VI with the motu propio Sacra Ritum Congregatio, on May 8, 1969 and the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments, instituted by Pope Pius X with the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio, on June 29, 1908. Already unified by the apostolic constitution Constans nobis studium issued by Paul VI on July 11, 1975, with the name of S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship. John Paul II separated them again with a chirograph dated April 5, 1984. Four years later, on June 28, 1988, this pope reunited them again through the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus with its current name.

Prefects:
Domenico Ferrata (1908-1914)
Filippo Giustini (1914-1920)
Michele Lega (1920-1935)
Domenico Jorio (1935-1954)
Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1954-1968)
Francis James Brennan (1968)
Antonio Samorè (1968-1974)
James Robert Knox (1974-1981)
Giuseppe Casoria, pro-prefect (1981-1983); prefect (1983-1984)
Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., pro-prefect (1984-1985); prefect (1985-1988)
Eduardo Martínez Somalo (1988-1992)
Antonio María Javierre Ortas, S.D.B. (1992-1996)
Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, pro-prefect (1996-1998); prefect (1998-2002)
Francis Arinze (2002-2008)
Antonio Cañizares Llovera (2008-2014)
Robert Sarah (2014-

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Congregation for the Causes of the Saints

Prefects:
Paolo Bertoli (1969-1973)
Luigi Raimondi (1973-1975)
Corrado Bafile (1976-1980)
Pietro Palazzini (1980-1988)
Angelo Felici (1988-1995)
Alberto Bovone, pro-prefect (1995-1998); prefect (1998)
José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F. (1998-2008)
Angelo Amato, S.D.B. (2008-

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Congregation of Rites

     Sixtus V (1585-1590) established the S.C. of Rites by his constitution Immensa aeterni Dei of January 22, 1588 charging it with the direction of divine worship and the handling of the causes of the saints. Through the motu proprio published on February 6, 1930, Pope Pius XI added to it an Historical Section to handle the historical causes of servants of God and to see to the correction of liturgical books. It had competence over all the rites and ceremonies of the Latin Church (can. 253, § I) insofar as they refer to the sacrifice of the mass, the administration of the sacraments, sacred ceremonies and, in general, divine worship (can. 253, § 2). It also handles the causes of saints and everything pertaining to sacred relics (can. 253, § 3). On May 8, 1969, the dicastery was divided into two different congregations by Pope Paul VI with the apostolic constitution Sacra Ritum Congregatio: the S.C. for Divine Worship and the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints.

Prefects:
Serafino Cretoni (1908-1909)
Sebastiano Martinelli, O.S.A. (1909-1914)
Scipione Tecchi, pro-prefect (1914-1915)
Antonio Vico, pro-prefect (1915-1918); prefect (1918-1929)
Camillo Laurenti (1929-1938)
Carlo Salotti (1938-1947)
Clemente Micara, prefect (1947 or 1948-1950); pro-prefect (1950-1953)
Gaetano Cicognani (1953-1962)
Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F. (1962-1968)
Benno Walter Gut, O.S.B. (1968-1969)

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Congregation for Divine Worship

     Established by Paul VI with the apostolic constitution Sacra Ritum Congregatio, on May 8, 1969. Unified with the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments by the apostolic constitution Constans nobis studium issued by Paul VI on July 11, 1975, with the name of S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship. John Paul II separated them again with a chirograph dated April 5, 1984. Four years later on June 28, 1988, this pope reunited them again through the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus with its current name.

Prefects:
Benno Walter Gut, O.S.B. (1969-1970)
Arturo Tabera Araoz, C.M.F. (1971-1973)
James Robert Knox (1974-1981)

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Congregation for Bishops

     Set up and organized in stable form by Sixtus V (1585-1590) through his constitution Immensa aeterni Dei, January 22, 1588. Its name was Congregatio pro erectione ecclesiarum et provisionibus consistorialibus. It had the task of providing for the erection of dioceses and preparing the discussion of matters to be decided in consistory. That is why it was called Consistorial Congregation. Pope Pius X with his apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio, June 29, 1908, widened its duties, giving it competence over bishops, which had formerly been exercised by the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, which was suppressed. The name of the congregation was changed to S.C. for the Bishops by the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae issued by Paul VI on August 15, 1967.

Prefects:
Gaetano de Lai (1908-1928)
Carlo Perosi (1928-1930)
Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D. (1930-1948)
Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D. (1948-1957)
Marcello Mimmi (1957-1961)
Carlo Confalonieri (1961-1973)
Sebastiano Baggio (1973-1984)
Bernardin Gantin (1984-1998)
Lucas Moreira Neves, O.P. (1998-2000)
Giovanni Battista Re (2000-2010)
Marc Ouellet, P.S.S. (2010-

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Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

     Established by Pope Gregory XV, bull Inescrutabili, June 22, 1622. Named Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (or Propaganda Fide) until 1967.

Prefects:
Antonmaria Sauli (1622)
Ludovico Ludovisi (1622-1632)
Antonio Barberini, iuniore (1632-1671) (1)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1671-1698)
Carlo Barberini (1698-1704)
Giuseppe Sacripante (1704-1727)
Vincenzo Petra (1727-1747)
Silvio Valenti Gonzaga (1747-1756)
Giuseppe Spinelli (1756-1763)
Giuseppe Maria Castelli (1763-1780)
Leonardo Antonelli (1780-1795)
Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil, C.R.S.P. (1795-1802)
Stefano Borgia, pro-prefect (1798-1800); prefect (1802-1804)
Antonio Dugnani, pro-prefect (1804-1805)
Michele di Pietro (1805-1814)
Lorenzo Litta (1814-1818)
Francesco Luigi Fontana, C.R.S.P. (1818-1822)
Ercole Consalvi, pro-prefect (1822-1824); prefect (1824)
Giulio Maria della Somaglia, pro-prefect (1824-1826)
Mauro Cappellari, O.S.B.Cam. (1826-1831)
Carlo Maria Pedicini (1831-1834)
Filippo Fransoni (1834-1856)
Alessandro Barnabò (1856-1874)
Alessandro Franchi (1874-1878)
Giovanni Simeoni (1878-1892)
Miecyslas Halka Ledóchowski (1892-1902)
Girolamo Maria Gotti, O.C.D. (1902-1916)
Domenico Serafini, O.S.B.Cas., pro-prefect (1916); prefect (1916-1918)
Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R. (1918-1932)
Pietro Fumasoni Biondi (1933-1960)
Samuel Alphonse Stritch, pro-prefect (1958) (2)
Gregoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect (1958-1960); prefect (1960-1970)
Agnelo Rossi (1970-1984)
Dermot Ryan, archbishop of Dublin, Ireland, pro-prefect (1984-1985)
Jozef Tomko, pro-prefect (1985); prefect (1985-2001)
Crescenzio Sepe (2001-2006)
Ivan Dias (2006-2011)
Fernando Filoni (2011-

(1) During the long stay of Cardinal Barberini in France, Cardinal Luigi Capponi acted as vice-prefect from 1645 until 1653.
(2) Appointed on March 1, 1958, he died the following May 27 before taking possession.

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Congregation for the Clergy

Instituted by Pope Pius IV through the constitution Alias nos, August 2, 1564, with the title of "Sacred Congregation of the Cardinals Interpreters of the Council of Trent", to provide the correct interpretation and practical observance of the norms sanctioned by the Council of Trent. Pope Gregory XIII widened its field of competence, and Pope Sixtus V entrusted to it the revision of the acts of provincial councils and, in general, the task of carrying out the reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent. When the task of interpreting the canons of the celebrated council no longer existed, the Congregation retained competence over many matters which were the object of the reforms introduced by Trent. In fact, in general it kept watch over the discipline of the clergy and the faithful (can. 250, § 1), directed catechetical instruction and saw to the observance of the precepts of the Christian life. It exercised its authority over pastors, canons, confraternities, pious associations, Catholic Action, pious legacies, benefices, offices, ecclesiastical property, taxes and tributes (can. 250, §§ 2-3), and retained the right to revise the acts of councils and of episcopal conferences (can. 250, § 4). As part of the Sacred Congregation there is the "Studium", which was reorganized by Pope Benedict XV with an order issued on October 28, 1919, in order that young priests may acquire practical experience in the ordinary and regular dispatching of ecclesiastical business and in the particular applications of canonical laws in the administrative field.

The dicastery was known as Congregation of the Council until August 15, 1967, when Pope Paul VI renamed it the Congregation for the Clergy and redefined its competency through the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae. Pope John Paul II gave it added responsibilities on June 28, 1988 by the apostolic constitution Pastor Bonus.

Currently, the congregation has three offices with competencies concerning the life, discipline, rights and duties of the clergy (Office of the Clergy); the preaching of the Word, catechetics, norms for religious education of children and adults (Office of Catechetics); preservation and administration of the temporal goods of the Church (Administrative Office). Attached to it are the International Council for Catechetics, which was established in 1973 by Pope Paul VI; and the Institute "Sacrum Ministerium" for the permanent formation of the clergy, established in line with Pope John Paul II's 1992 apostolic exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis, which was annexed to the congregation in the academic year 1994-1995. In that same year, the journal "Sacrum Ministerium", published twice a year, was founded. The congregation has competency over the dispensation of the obligations inherent to the sacred ordination of the diaconate and the presbyterate of the regular and diocesan clergy of the Latin and Oriental Churches, according to the letter of the Secretariat of State, no. 907 of June 21, 2005.

Prefects:
Carlo Borromeo (1564-1565)
Francesco Alciati (1565-1580)
Filippo Boncompagni (1580-1586)
Antonio Carafa (1586-1591)
Girolamo Mattei (1591-1603)
Paolo Emilio Zacchia (1604-1605)
Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria (1606-1616)
Orazio Lancellottti (1616-1620)
Roberto Ubaldini (1621-1623)
Cosimo de Torres (1623-1626)
Bonifacio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini (1626-1627)
Fabrizio Verospi (1627-1639)
Giambattista Pamphilj (1639-1644)
Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1644-1645)
Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645-1655)
Francesco Paolucci (1657-1661)
Giulio Cesare Sacchetti (1661-1663)
Angelo Celsi (1664-1671)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1671-1672)
Vincenzo Maria Orsini de Gravina, O.P. (1673-1675)
Federico Baldeschi Colonna (1675-1691)
Galeazzo Marescotti (1692-1695)
Giuseppe Sacripante (1696-1700)
Bandino Panciatici (1700-1718)
Pier Marcellino Corradini (1718-1721)
Curzio Origo (1721-1737)
Antonio Saverio Gentili (1737-1753)
Mario Millini (1753-1756)
Giovanni Giacomo Millo (1756-1757)
Clemente Argenvilliers (1757-1758)
Ferdinando Maria de' Rossi (1759-1775)
Carlo Vittorio Amedeo Delle Lanze (1775-1784)
Guglielmo Pallotta (1785-1795)
Tommaso Antici (1795-1798)
Filippo Carandini (1800-1810)
Giulio Gabrielli (1814-1820)
Emmanuele De Gregorio (1820-1834)
Vincenzo Macchi (1834-1841)
Paolo Polidori (1841-1847)
Pietro Ostini (1847-1849)
Angelo Mai (1851-1853)
Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1853-1860)
Prospero Caterini (1860-1881)
Lorenzo Nina (1881-1885)
Luigi Serafini (1885-1893)
Angelo Di Pietro (1893-1902)
Vincenzo Vannutelli (1902-1908)
Casimiro Gennari (1908-1914)
Francesco di Paola Cassetta (1914-1919)
Donato Raffaele Sbarretti (1919-1930)
Giulio Serafini (1930-1938)
Luigi Maglione (1938-1939)
Francesco Marmaggi (1939-1949)
Giuseppe Bruno (1949-1954)
Pietro Ciriaci (1954-1966)
Jean Villot (1967-1969)
John Joseph Wright (1969-1979)
Silvio Oddi (1979-1986)
Antonio Innocenti (1986-1991)
José Tomás Sánchez (1991-1996)
Darío Castrillón Hoyos, pro-prefect (1996-1998); prefect (1998-2006)
Cláudio Hummes, O.F.M. (2006-2010)
Mauro Piacenza (2010-2013)
Beniamino Stella (2013-

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Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

     Name changed from Congregation of Religious and Secular Institutes in 1967; name changed to the current one in 1988.

Prefects
José de Calasanz Vives Tutó, O.F.M., Cap. (1908-1913)
Ottavio Cagiano de Azevedo (1913-1915)
Domenico Serafini, O.S.B. (1916)
Diomede Falconio, O.F.M. (1916-1917)
Giulio Tonti (1917-1918)
Raffaele Scapinelli di Léguigno (1918-1920)
Teodoro Valfrè di Bonzo (1920-1922)
Camillo Laurenti (1922-1928)
Alexis-Henri-Marie Lépicier, O.S.M. (1928-1935)
Vincenzo La Puma (1935-1943)
Luigi Lavitrano (1945-1950)
Clemente Micara (1950-1953)
Valerio Valeri (1953-1963)
Ildebrando Antoniutti (1963-1973)
Arturo Tabera Araoz, C.M.F. (1973-1975)
Eduardo Francisco Pironio, pro-prefect (1975-1976); prefect (1976-1984)
Jean Jérôme Hamer, O.P., pro-prefect (1984-1985); prefect (1985-1992)
Eduardo Martínez Somalo (1992-2004)
Franc Rodé, C.M. (2004-2011)
João Braz de Aviz (2011-

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Congregation for Catholic Education (Seminaries and Institutes of Studies)

     Name changed to Congregation of Seminaries and Universities in 1917 and to Congregation for Catholic Education in 1967.

Prefects:
Francesco Satolli (1908-1909)
Beniamino Cavicchioni (1910-1911)
Benedetto Lorenzelli (1914-1915)
Francesco di Paola Cassetta (1911-1914)
Gaetano Bisleti (1915-1937)
Giuseppe Pizzardo (1939-1968)
Gabriel-Marie Garrone (1968-1980)
William Wakefield Baum (1980-1990)
Pio Laghi, pro-prefect (1990-1991); prefect (1991-1999)
Zenon Grocholewski (1999-

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TRIBUNALS

Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary

     In connection with absolutions from censures and dispensations reserved to the pope we find mention from the end of the XII century of the "Cardinal who hears confessions for the pope ", who had the title of "Penitentiary" under Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) and was later called the "Great" or "Major" Penitentiary. Since the time of Pope Clement V (1305-1314), his faculties no longer expire with the death of the pope ( 1311 - 1312). From the beginning he was assisted by "Penitentiary Chaplains" (or "Minor Penitentiaries "), who still exist in the patriarchal Basilicas and other basilicas which are directly dependent on the Holy See, but without forming part of the Tribunal of the Sacred Penitentiary.

     As early as the thirteenth century we find correctors, writers, distributors, and the sealer. Pope Benedict XII (1334-1342) added the office of "Doctor Expert in Canon Law" (April 13, 1338). The office of "Regent" existed under Pope Eugenius IV (April 13, 1438), and that of "Datary" under Pope Alexander VI (1491-1503). Pope Pius V (1566-1572), after having revoked all the faculties of the cardinal penitentiary and having suppressed the Penitentiary itself (April 23, 1569), re-established it (May 18, 1569) after a radical reform, reducing to an absolute minimum the faculties of the cardinal penitentiary in foro externo, and creating the office of "Theologian" which, by privilege, is reserved to the Society of Jesus, and also the Office of "Canonist ". A further reorganization of the faculties and the procedure of the S. Penitentiary took place under Pope Benedict XIV (April I3, 1744); with some modifications, its constitutions remained unchanged under the reform of Pope Pius X, who restricted its jurisdiction exclusively to the internal forum, and under a further reform by Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922), who separated the Office of Indulgences from the Holy Office and placed it under the S. Penitentiary (March 25, 1917). These constitutions served as the basis for the apostolic constitution De poenitentiaria apostolica of Pope Pius XI (March 25, 1935). The Congresses for the Tribunal and for Indulgences are held by the regent and by the secretary, along with the substitute of the respective section. The prelates of the Penitentiary meet periodically, under the presidency of the cardinal grand penitentiary, for whom they act as a council, in the meeting which has the name of Signature of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary.

     The apostolic constitution Pastor bonus issued on June 28, 1988, by Pope John Paul II (1978-2005), confirmed that the competence of the Tribunal of the Penitentiary comprises all that belongs to the foro interno although not sacramental and moreover all that related to the concessions and the use of the indulgences, except the right of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to examine all matters related to the dogmatic doctrine about the indulgences.

Grand penitentiaries:
Giuliano della Rovere (1476-1503)
Pedro Luis de Borja-Lanzol de Romaní (1503-1511)
Leonardo Grosso della Rovere (1511-1520)
Lorenzo Pucci (1520-1529)
Antonio Pucci (1529-1544)
Roberto Pucci (1545-1547)
Ranuccio Farnese, O. S. Io. Hieros. (1547-1565)
Carlo Borromeo (1565-1572)
Giovanni Aldobrandini (1572-1573)
Stanisław Hosius (1574-1579)
Filippo Boncompagni (1579-1586)
Ippolito Aldobrandini (Pope Clement VIII) (1586-1592)
Giulio Antonio Santorio (1592-1602)
Pietro Aldobrandini (1602-1605)
Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini (1605-1610)
Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese (1610-1633)
Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap. (1633-1646)
Orazio Giustiniani, Orat. (1647-1649)
Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi (1650-1687)
Leandro Colloredo, Orat. (1688-1709)
Fabrizio Paolucci, pro-penitentiary (1709-1710); penitentiary (1710-1721)
Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721-1730)
Vincenzo Petra, pro-penitentiary (1730); penitentiary (1730-1747)
Gioacchino Besozzi, O.Cist. (1747-1755)
Antonio Andrea Galli, C.R.SS.S. (1755-1767)
Giovanni Carlo Boschi (1767-1788)
Francesco Saverio de Zelada (1788-1801)
Leonardo Antonelli (1801-1811)
Michele di Pietro, penitentiary major ad interim (1811-1814); penitentiary major (1814-1821)
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni (1821-1829)
Emmanuele de Gregorio (1829-1839)
Castruccio Castracane degli Antelminelli (1839-1852)
Gabriele Ferretti (1852-1860)
Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1860-1867)
Antonio Maria Panebianco, O.F.M.Conv. (1867-1877)
Luigi Bilio, C.R.S.P. (1877-1884)
Raffaele Monaco La Valletta (1884-1896)
Isidoro Verga (1896-1899)
Serafino Vannutelli (1899-1915)
Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R. (1915-1918)
Oreste Giorgi (1918-1924)
Andreas Frühwirth, O.P. (1925-1927)
Lorenzo Lauri (1927-1941)
Nicola Canali (1941-1961)
Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F. (1961-1962)
Fernando Cento (1962-1967)
Giuseppe Antonio Ferretto (1967-1973)
Giuseppe Paupini (1973-1984)
Luigi Dadaglio, pro-penitentiary (1984-1985); penitentiary (1985-1990)
William Wakefield Baum (1990-2001)
Luigi De Magistris, titular archbishop of Nova, pro-penitentiary (2001-2003)
James Francis Stafford (2003-2009)
Fortunato Baldelli (2009-2012)
Manuel Monteiro de Castro (2012-2013)
Mauro Piacenza (2013-

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Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature

     In the thirteenth century the Sovereign Pontiffs used the services of officials-reporters (referendarii) to prepare petitions for signature or to refer questions involving justice or favors to the auditors (cardinals-auditors and chaplains-auditors). There has been a permanent Office of the Signature from the time that Pope Eugenius IV (1431-1417) turned over to the referendaries themselves the signature of certain petitions. The division of this Signature, known as the Signature of favor and commissions under Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484), into two dicasteries, had already begun under Pope Alexander VI (May 4, 1493) and was completed by Julius II (1503-1513). Beginning with the end of the fifteenth century there are cardinal prefects for the two Signatures, of which the Signature of Justice was transformed into a real Tribunal. The growing number of the referendaries of the two Signatures led as a practical measure to the formation of a select group known as the voting referendaries, which was erected on July 13, 1659 by Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667) into a college in its own right and which was to draw its members from the ranks of the simple referendaries, who had only consultative voice. With the creation of the Sacred Congregations and the widening held of competence of the Rota and the Apostolic Chamber -- which did not need special orders from the Sovereign Pontiff -- the duties of the Signature gradually diminished, and it eventually became mainly a tribunal of appeal (even for civil cases from the Papal States, according to a decree of Gregory XVI, November 10, 1834). The Signature of favor, which was transformed into a congregation on January 22, 1588 by Pope Sixtus V 1585-1590), lost its importance with the evolution of the Datary, which, from the time of Pope Clement IX (1667-1669) and in the seventeenth century, took over the granting of almost all favors.

     The Holy Father Pope Pius X re-established the one sole Apostolic Signature (Constitution, Sapienti Consilio and the Lex Propria S. R. Rotae Signaturae Apostolicae, June 29, 1908) as a Supreme Tribunal, transforming it into a committee of six Cardinals, one of whom was to act as prefect. But with of the 1917 Code of Canon Law the number of cardinals composing the Signature was left unrestricted (can. 1602). Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) re-established the College of Votanti and that of the Referendaries as consultative organs of the Tribunal (Chirograph, June 28, 1915).

     The Apostolic Signature judges with ordinary power: 1) in appeals based on a violation of secrecy by the Auditors of the Rota and on damages caused by the same through unjust or invalid acts; 2) in objections of suspicion against the Auditors of the Rota; 3) in claims of nullity against decisions of the Rota; 4) in requests for restitution against Rotal decisions which have become final; 5) in appeals against Rotal decisions in matrimonial cases which the Rota has refused to admit for further investigation; 6) in conflicts of competence between ecclesiastical tribunals which are not apostolic, conformably to can. 1612, § 2. In virtue of delegated jurisdiction, it deals with petitions of commission to refer a judgment to the Sacred Rota. Lastly, through decisions to be submitted for the approval of the Holy Father, it passes judgment on any question connected with the administration of justice.

     The faculties and privileges of the voting prelates and of the referendary prelates are determined by the apostolic constitution Ad incrementum, issued by Pope Pius XI (1922-1939) on August 15, 1934, and later modified by the Normae speciales Signaturae Apostolicae, approved by Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) on March 23, 1968.

     The current competence of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature was established by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, of June 28, 1988, art. 121-125.

     Concerning strictly the judicial powers of the Apostolic Signature, it judges: the complaints of invalidity, the demands for restitutio in integrum against the Rotal sentences; the recourses in the causes on the status of the persons, that the Roman Rota refused to admit to new examination; the causes against the Auditors of the Roman Rota for actions during the exercise of their functions; the conflicts of competence according to the can. 1416. As a litigation-administrative court, the Tribunal decides: the disputes resulting from an ecclesiastical administrative action, legitimately submitted; in these cases, besides the illegitimacy judgment, it can also adjudicate, if the recurrent asks for it, the approximate reparation of the damages brought by the illegitimate act; the other administrative controversies submitted to it by the Roman Pontiff or the dicasteries of the Roman Curia; and the conflicts of competence between the same dicasteries. In virtue of the administrative power concerning the judicial forum, the Tribunal is expected to: supervise the fair administration of justice; extend the competence of the courts; to promote and to approve of the erection of the courts according to canons 1423 and 1439. The Tribunal also has other duties deriving from the juridical organization of the State of Vatican City and from certain concordats (e. g. the Concordat with Italy, art. 34; the Concordat with Portugal, art. 25; the Concordat with Santo Domingo, art. 16).

     The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature is formed by cardinals, archbishops, and bishops appointed by the pope. One of the cardinals acts as prefect and is assisted by the secretary.

Prefects:
Vincenzo Vannutelli (1908-1914)
Michele Lega (1914-1920)
Augusto Silj (1920-1926)
Francesco Ragonesi (1926-1931)
Bonaventura Cerretti (1931-1933)
Enrico Gasparri (1933-1946)
Massimo Massimi (1946-1954)
Giuseppe Bruno (1954)
Gaetano Cicognani, pro-prefect (1954-1959)
Francesco Roberti (1959-1969)
Dino Staffa (1969-1977)
Pericle Felici (1977-1982)
Aurelio Sabattani, pro-prefect (1982-1983); prefect (1983-1988)
Achille Silvestrini (1988-1991)
Gilberto Agustoni, pro-prefect (1992); prefect (1994-1998)
Zenon Grocholewski (1998-1999)
Mario Francesco Pompedda (1999-2004)
Agostino Vallini (2004-2008)
Raymond Leo Burke (2008-

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COUNCILS

Pontifical Council for the Laity
Established by Paul VI ad experimentum on January 6, 1967, by motu proprio Catholicam Christi Ecclesiam with the name of Council of the Laity; given permanent status and name changed to Pontifical Council for the Laity by Paul VI on December 10, 1976, by motu proprio Apostolatus Peragendi.

Presidents:
Maurice Roy (1967-1976)
Opilio Rossi (1976-1984)
Eduardo Francisco Pironio (1984-1996)
James Francis Stafford (1996-2003)
Stanisław Ryłko (2003-

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Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the Unity of the Christians

On June 5, 1960, the day of Pentecost, with his motu proprio "Superno Dei Nutu", Pope John XXIII established, along with the eleven preparatory commissions for the Second Vatican Council, a Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity. In 1988 Pope John Paul II, with his apostolic constitution "Pastor Bonus", changed the name of the secretariat to that of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.

Presidents:
Augustine Bea, S.J. (1966-1968)
Johannes Willebrands (1969-1989)
Edward Idris Cassidy (1989-2001)
Walter Kasper (2001-2010)
Kurt Koch (2010-

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Pontifical Council for the Family

Presidents:
James Robert Knox (1981-1983)
Édouard Gagnon, P.S.S., pro-president (1983-1985); president (1985-1990)
Alfonso López Trujillo (1990-2008)
Ennio Antonelli (2008-2012)
Vincenzo Paglia, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Terni-Narni-Amelia, Italy (2012-

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Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax
On March 11, 2006, the presidency of the council was united to that of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants. On February 28, 2009, it was separated again.

Presidents:
Maurice Roy (1967-1976)
Bernardin Gantin, pro-president (1976-1977); president (1977-1984)
Roger Etchegaray (1984-1998)
François Xavier Nguyên Van Thuân (1998-2002)
Renato Raffaele Martino (2002-2009)
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson (2009-

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Pontifical Council Cor Unum
Established July 15, 1971 by an autograph letter of Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State.

Presidents:
Jean Villot (1971-1978)
Bernardin Gantin (1978-1984)
Roger Etchegaray (1984-1995)
Paul Josef Cordes (1995-2010)
Robert Sarah (2010-2014)

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Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants
With the motu proprio Apostolicæ Caritatis of March 19, 1970, Pope Paul VI established the Pontifical Commission for the Spiritual Care of Migrants and Itinerants. The dicastery was later named Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrations and Tourism; it was changed to the current one on June 28, 1988. The presidency of the council was united to that of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax on March 11, 2006. On February 28, 2009, it was separated again.

Presidents:
Giovanni Cheli, pro-president (1986-1989); president (1989-1998)
Stephen Fumio Hamao (1998-2006)
Renato Raffaele Martino (2006-2009)
Antonio Maria Vegliò (2009-

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Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Workers
This council was established Pope John Paul II with his motu proprio Dolentium Hominum, dated February 11, 1985. The name of the dicastery has also been listed as Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers.

Presidents:
Fiorenzo Angelini, pro-president (1985-1989); president (1989-1996)
Javier Lozano Barragán (1996-2009)
Zygmunt Zimowski, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Radom, Poland (2009-

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Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts
This council was established Pope John Paul II by articles 154-158 of the apostolic constitution
Pastor Bonus, dated June 28, 1988.

Presidents:
Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B., pro-president (1988-1990)
Vincenzo Fagiolo (1990-1994)
Julián Herranz Casado (1994-2007)
Francesco Coccopalmerio (2007-

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Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization
This council was established Pope Benedict XVI by the Apostolic Letter "Motu Proprio data"
Ubicumque et semper, dated September 21, 2010.

President:
Rino Fisichella, titular archbishop of Voghenza (2010-

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Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog
Name changed from Pontifical Councl for Non-Christians. On March 11, 2006, the presidency of the council was united to that of the Pontifical Council for Culture. On June 25, 2007, the presidency was separated from that council.

Presidents:
Paolo Marella (1964-1973)
Sergio Pignedoli (1973-1980)
Jean Jadot, titular archbishop of Zuri, pro-president (1980-1984)
Francis Arinze, pro-president (1984-1985); president (1985-2002)
Michael Louis Fitzgerald, titular archbishop of Nepte (2002-2006)
Paul Poupard (2006-2007)
Jean-Louis Tauran (2007-

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Pontifical Council for Culture
Merged with the Secretariat for Dialogue with Non-Believers, March 26, 1993, keeping its name. On March 11, 2006, the presidency of the council was united to that of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog. On June 25, 2007, the presidency was separated from that council.

Presidents:
Gabriel-Marie Garrone (1982-1988)
Paul Poupard (1988-2007)
Gianfranco Ravasi (2007-

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Non-Believers
Merged with Pontifical Council for Culture, March 26, 1993 taking that name.

Presidents:
Franz König (1965-1980)
Paul Poupard (1985-1993)

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Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See
The Council was established by Pope John Paul II with a
chirigraph dated May 31, 1981. The Council is also referred to as the Group of Fifteen (G15). The Council ceased to exist on February 23, 2014 replaced by the Secretariat for the Economy.

According to the General Regulations of the Roman Curia of February 4, 1992, chapter III: Meetings of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizationald and Economic Problems of the Holy See, Art. 84, § 1. To treat the organizational and economic problems of the Holy See and of related bodies and to suggest appropriate solutions to such problems, the Council is ordinarily convened twice a year, according to art. 24 of the Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus. The meetings are convoked by the Cardinal Secretary of State in collaboration with the Cardinal President of the Prefecture of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
§ 2. The Council may seek the advice of experts.
Regolamento Generale della Curia Romana, 4 febbraio 1992 3. The Council is also informed about the activities of the Istituto per le Opere di Religione, according to art. 25 of the Apostolic Constitution Pastor bonus.

Joachim Meisner
Antonio María Rouco Varela
Polycarp Pengo
Norberto Rivera Carrera
Francis Eugene George, O.M.I.
Wilfrid Fox Napier, O.F.M.
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne
Angelo Scola
Telesphore Placide Toppo
George Pell
Agostino Vallini
Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino
Jean-Pierre Ricard
Odilo Pedro Scherer
John Tong Hon

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OFFICES

Reverend Apostolic Chamber

     In the XI century, for the financial administration of the Curia and of the temporal goods of the Holy See, we find the term camera thesauraria and in the XII century, for the head of this administrative office, we find the name Camerlengo. In this office were absorbed the more ancient charges of vestiarius, vice-dominus, arcarius, and sacellarius. Beginning with the XIII century, this office no longer lapsed with the death of the Pope. In the XIII and XlV centuries it acquired certain jurisdictional functions, not merely in matters of finance but also in some penal and civil cases. Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) extended its competence to all causes dealing, even indirectly, with the rights and interests of the camera (September 8, 1379). The camerlengo was often a cardinal, but it became a cardinalitial office only from the XV century. Beginning at this same period there was also a permanent assistant, known as the vice-camerlengo, which office was later united with that of governor of Rome. The clerics of the camera, who assisted the camerlengo, varied in number from century to century; Pope Eugenius IV (1431-1447) organized them into a college and gave them their first statutes (July 6, 1444). For the duties connected with the collection of income, the custody of the treasury, and payments, we find, in the XIII century, the thesaurarius, or treasurer. For the handling of judicial cases, the office of auditor camerae was set up in the XIII century; the powers of this office were increased in 1485 by Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492), and, after a brief period of suppression under Pope Paul IV (1555-1559), also in 1562 by Pope Pius IV (1559-1565) and other popes.

     The individual clerics, the auditor camerae, and the treasurer had each acquired certain special prerogatives and presided over special tribunals, but the camera plena also functioned as a collegiate tribunal in which, however, beginning in the XVI century, the cardinal camerlengo no longer exercised his right to preside. On October 30, 1800, Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) formally established a certain dependence of the Camera on the camerlengo. During the XIX century the Camera was mainly a court for the Papal States.

     With the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio (June 29, 1908), Pope Pius X (1903-1914) confirmed to the Apostolic Camera the functions of temporal power that it had exercised from antiquity. The office, powers, and privileges of the prelate-clerics of the Apostolic Camera were definitively determined by Pope Pius XI (1922-1939) in the constitution Ad incrementum, August 15, 1934. With the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae (August 15, 1967), issued by Pope Paul VI (1963-1978), the Camera, under the presidency of the cardinal camerlengo of Holy Roman Church or the vice-camerlengo if he is impeded, keeps the office of caring and administering the temporal goods and rights of the Holy See during the sede vacante.

     The functions of the cardinal camerlengo and of the camerali during the sede vacante, already enhanced by the apostolic constitution Vacantis Apostolicea Sedis (December 8, 1945), of Pope Pius XII (1939-1958), and by the motu proprio Summi Pontifici electio (September 5, 1962) of Pope John XXIII (1958-1963), were integrally confirmed by the apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici eligendo, no. 17 (October 1, 1975) of Pope Paul VI and reaffirmed by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus (June 28, 1988) of Pope John Paul II (1978-2005).

Camerlengos of the Holy Roman Church (1):
Cencio (1189-1198)
Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1198-1213?)
Stefano di Ceccano, O.Cist. (1219-1227)
Guglielmo di San Lorenzo (? -?)
Eudes de Châteauroux (1270-1273)
Tommaso d'Ocre, O.Cel. (1294-1300)
Teodorico Ranieri (1300-1306)
Arnaud de Canteloup (1306-1310)
Bertrand des Bordes (1311)
Arnaud d'Aux (1313-1320)
Gasbert de Valle (1319-1347)
Stefano Aldebrandi Cambaruti (1347-1360)
Arnaud Aubert (1361-1371)
Pierre de Cros, O.S.B. (1371-1383)
Francesco de Conzie (1383-1431?)
Francesco Lando (1419-1427)
Niccola Albergati, O.Carth. (1431-1432)
Francesco Condulmer (1432-1439)
Ludovico Trevisano (1440-1465)
Latino Orsini (1471-1477)
Guillaume d'Estouteville, O.S.B.Clun. (1477-1483)
Raffaele Sansoni Riario (1483-1521)
Innocenzo Cibo (1521)
Francesco Armellini de' Medici (1521-1528)
Agostino Spinola (1528-1537)
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora (1537-1564)
Vitellozzo Vitelli (1564-1568)
Michele Bonelli, O.P. (1568-1570)
Luigi Cornaro (1570-1584)
Filippo Guastavillani (1584-1587)
Enrico Caetani (1587-1599)
Pietro Aldobrandini (1599-1621)
Ludovico Ludovisi (1621-1623)
Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1623-1638)
Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1638-1671)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1671-1698)
Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1698-1719)
Annibale Albani (1719-1747)
Silvio Valenti Gonzaga (1747-1756)
Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1756-1763)
Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore (1763-1799)
Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti (1800-1801)
Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj, pro-camerlengo (1801-1814) (2)
Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore (1814-1824)
Pierfrancesco Galleffi (1824-1837)
Giacomo Giustiniani (1837-1843)
Tommaso Riario Sforza (1843-1857)
Lodovico Altieri (1857-1867)
Filippo De Angelis (1867-1877)
Gioacchino Pecci (1877-1878)
Camillo di Pietro (1878-1884)
Domenico Consolini (1884)
Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano (1885-1913)
Francesco Salesio della Volpe (1914-1916)
Pietro Gasparri (1916-1934)
Eugenio Pacelli (1935-1939)
Lorenzo Lauri (1939-1941)
Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1958-1970)
Jean Villot (1970-1979)
Paolo Bertoli (1979-1985)
Sebastiano Baggio (1985-1993)
Eduardo Martínez Somalo (1993-2007)
Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B. (2007-2014)
Jean-Louis Tauran (2014-

(1) The list is taken from Niccolò del Re La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici (4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998), p. 296-297. It contains discrepancies with other sources, especially from the 12th to the 14th centuries, that perhaps are unsolvable because the distance in time and the complexities presented by the different obediences during the Western Schism.
(2) Cardinal Ippolito Antonio Vincenti Mareri was named pro-camerlengo in 1808, temporarily, in the absence of Cardinal Doria.

Link. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church

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Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

Presidents:
Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1968-1969)
Jean Villot (1969-1979)
Giuseppe Caprio (1979-1981)
Agostino Casaroli (1981-1989)
Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B. (1989-1995)
Lorenzo Antonetti, pro-president (1995-1998); president (1998)
Agostino Cacciavillan (1998-2002)
Attilio Nicora (2002-2011)
Domenico Calcagno (2011-

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Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

Prefects:
Angelo Dell'Acqua, O.Ss.C.A. (1967-1968)
Egidio Vagnozzi (1968-1980)
Giuseppe Caprio (1981-1990)
Edmund Casimir Szoka (1990-1997)
Sergio Sebastiani (1997-2008)
Velasio De Paolis, C.S. (2008-2011)
Giuseppe Versaldi (2011-

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Financial Information Authority

Established by Pope Benedict XVI on December 30, 2010, by an Apostolic Letter in the form of a "
Motu Proprio" for the Prevention and Countering of Illegal Activities in the Area of Monetary and Financial Dealings.

President:
Attilio Nicora (2011-

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COMMISSIONS

Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City

Presidents:
Alberto di Jorio, pro-president (1961-1968)
Sergio Guerri, pro-president ad interim (1968-1969); pro-president (1969-1981)
Agostino Casaroli (1979-1984)
Sebastiano Baggio (1984 -1990)
Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B. (1990-1997)
Edmund Casimir Szoka (1997-2006)
Giovanni Lajolo (2006-

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Pontifical Commission for Latin America
The commission was instituted by Pope Pius XII on April 21, 1958. Pope Paul VI inserted the commission into the S.C. for Bishops on November 30, 1963 as General Council for Latin America. Its president since then has been the prefect of that congregation. Pope John Paul II restructured and strengthened the commission by his motu proprio Decessoris Nostri of June 18, 1988.

Presidents:
Carlo Confalonieri (1963-1973)
Sebastiano Baggio (1973-1984)
Bernardin Gantin (1984-1998)
Lucas Moreira Neves, O.P. (1998-2000)
Giovanni Battista Re (2000-2010)
Marc Ouellet, P.S.S. (2010-

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Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei

Presidents:
Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B. (1988-1991)
Antonio Innocenti (1991-1995)
Angelo Felici (1995-2000)
Darío Castrillón Hoyos (2000-2009)
William Joseph Levada (2009-2012)
Gerhard Ludwig Müller (2012-

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COMMITTEE

Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses

Presidents:
Opilio Rossi (1983-1991)
Édouard Gagnon, P.S.S. (1991-2001)
Jozef Tomko (2001-2007)
Piero Marini, titular archbishop of Martirano (2007-

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ANOTHER INSTITUTION CONNECTED TO THE HOLY SEE

Library and Archive of the Holy Roman Church

Librarians:
Marcello Cervini (1550-1555)
Roberto de' Nobili (1555-1559)
Alfonso Carafa (1559-1565)
Marcantonio Amulio (1565-1572)
Guglielmo Sirleto (1572-1585)
Antonio Carafa (1585-1591)
Marcantonio Colonna, seniore (1591-1597)
Cesare Baronio, Orat. (1597-1607)
Ludovico de Torres, iuniore (1607-1609)
Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, ad vitam (1609-1618)
Scipione Cobelluzzi (1618-1626)
Francesco Barberini, seniore (1626-1633)
Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap. (1633-1646)
Orazio Giustiniani, Orat. (1646-1649)
Luigi Capponi, librarian ad vitam (1649-1659)
Flavio Chigi, seniore (1659-1681)
Francesco Lorenzo Brancati di Lauria, O.F.M. Conv. (1681-1693)
Girolamo Casanate (1693-1700)
Enrico Noris, O.E.S.A. (1700-1704)
Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1704-1730)
Angelo Maria Quirini, O.S.B.Cas. (1730-1755)
Domenico Silvio Passionei, pro-librarian (1741); librarian (1755-1761)
Alessandro Albani (1761-1769)
Francesco Saverio de Zelada (1770-1801)
Ercole Consalvi, pro-librarian (1801-1806) (sospendito in 1806)
Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (1802-1808)
Vacant (1808-1814)
Ercole Consalvi (1814-1823)
Vacant (1823-1826)
Giulio Maria della Somaglia (1826-1830)
Giuseppe Albani (1830-1834)
Luigi Lambruschini, C.R.S.P. (1834-1853)
Angelo Mai (1853-1854)
Vacant (1854-1860)
Antonio Tosti (1860-1866)
Vacant (1866-1869)
Jean-Baptiste-François Pitra, O.S.B. (1869-1889)
Placido Maria Schiaffino, O.S.B.Oliv. (1889)
Alfonso Capecelatro di Castelpagano, Orat. (1890-1912)
Francesco di Paola Cassetta (1914-1919)

Librarians and archivists:
Francis Aidan Gasquet, O.S.B., librarian (1919-1929); archivist (1920-1929)
Franz Ehrle, S.J. (1929-1934)
Giovanni Mercati (1936-1957)
Eugène Tisserant (1957-1971)
Antonio Samorè (1974-1983)
Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B., pro-librarian and archivist (1983-1985); librarian and archivist (1985-1988)
Antonio María Javierre Ortas, S.D.B. (1988-1992)
Luigi Poggi, pro-archivist and pro-librarian (1992-1994); archivist and librarian (1994-1998)
Jorge María Mejía (1998-2003)
Jean-Louis Tauran (2003-2007)
Raffaele Farina, S.D.B. (2007-2012)
Jean-Louis Bruguès, O.P., archbishop-bishop emeritus of Angers, France (2012-

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ABOLISHED DICASTERIES

Congregation of the Index

Suppressed in 1917.

Prefects:
Francesco Segna (1908-1911)
Francesco Salesio della Volpe (1911-1916)

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Congregation of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's Basilica

Pope Julius II granted particular favors to the faithful who contributed to the re-edification of of the Vatican Basilica. Pope Clement VII created a college of sixty members to which he entrusted the responsibility of building and administering the basilica. Pope Clement VIII replaced that college with a Congregation of Cardinals, which had the archpriest of the basilica as prefect. The powers of this congregation, which had increased successively, were reduced by Pope Pius IX in 1863. The administration the goods of the basilica was regulated by the norms established by Pope Benedict XIV with the constitution Quanta curatura of November 25, 1751; and by Pope Pius X's apostolic constitution
Sapienti ConsiIio of June 29, 1908. The congregation was reduced in rank by Pope Paul VI with the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae of August 15, 1967, which established that "the respectable Fabbrica di S. Pietro, continued to care for all that concerns the basilica of the Prince of the Apostles, according to the prescriptions of the constitution Sapienti Consilio of June 29, 1908, and in concordance with the chapter of that basilica" (n. 132). The Fabric became part of the Palatine Administration.

With the apostolic constitution Pastor Bonus of June 28, 1988.Pope John Paul II established, among other things, that the "Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica continue, according to its own laws, to take care itself of all that concerns Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles for the conservation and decorum of the building, for the internal discipline of the caretakers, and for the pilgrims who visit the temple". To the Fabric of Saint Peter's is given, according to the statute, a cardinal president, assisted by a delegate. One and the other invested with the respective charges in the Committee with Administration. Within of the Fabric, operates the "Study of the Vatican Mosaic", which began its artistic activity under Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590), and was was erected canonically under Pope Benedict XIII (1724-1730). The delegate is at the same time president of "Study of the Vatican Mosaic". The cardinal president of the Fabric is the protector of the Archconfraternity of the SS.mo Sacramento of the Vatican basilica, and the delegate is the primicerius.

Prefects:
Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (1908-1913)
Rafael Merry del Val y Zulueta (1913-1930)
Eugenio Pacelli (1930-1939)
Federico Tedeschini (1939-1959)
Domenico Tardini (1959-1961)
Paolo Marella (1961-1968)

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Congregation Ceremonial

It was founded by Pope Sixtus V, in the constitution Immensa aeterni Dei, January 22, 1588, to supervise the liturgical and the non-liturgical ceremonies of the Roman Curia. It is in charge of ceremonies in the papal chapel and palace and of those carried out by cardinals. It settled questions of precedence among the cardinals, prelates, and diplomatic representatives to the Holy See (can. 254). The dicastery was suppressed in 1968.

Prefects:
Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano (1908-1913)
Serafino Vannutelli (1913-1915)
Vincenzo Vannutelli (1915-1930)
Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte (1930-1948)
Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani (1948-1951)
Eugène Tisserant (1951-1968)

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Apostolic Chancery

     The origins of the Apostolic Chancery are to be sought out in the very ancient office, going back to the IV century, of the notaries of Holy Roman Church, headed by the primicerius who was in turn aided hy the secundicerius. They were in charge of drawing up the pontifical acts and, in their quality as scriniarii, also supervised the archives. Towards the end of the VIII century the duties of the primicerius passed to the Librarian who, under Pope Gelasius II (1118-1119) was a cardinal. This office disappeared in order to make way, under Pope Lucius II (1144-1145), for a cardinal chancellor. From the time of Pope Honorius III (1216-1227) onwards, the chancellorship was entrusted to persons not of cardinalitial rank and the name was changed to vice-chancellor. This name was preserved when, under Pope John XXII (1316-1334), the supervision of this office was definitively placed in the hands of a cardinal. It was only under Pope Pius X (1903-1914) that the name of chancellor of Holy Roman Church was restored. His cardinalitial title is always the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso as mandated by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the constitution Etsi ad singula issued on July 5, 1532 .

     From the end of the XIV century, the vice-chancellor has been assisted by a Regent, or Lieutenant. Side by side with the ancient notaries (who were called protonotaries from the XIV century on). We find in the XIII century, for the drawing up of bulls and because of the increased activity of the chancery, a numerous staff of abbreviatores, correctores, scriptores, and plumbstores.

     From the XV century on, the competence of the chancery was much reduced through the introduction of the Apostolic Brief and the creation of the secretariat of briefs. At the same time the functions of the protonotaries were almost completely absorbed by the abbreviatores litterarum apostolicarum, who were organized in various colleges (de parco majore et minore, de prima visione), and who, under the supervision of the vice-chancellor and the regent, also enjoyed e train jurisdictional functions. Other colleges, such as the sollicitatores etc., with less important duties, were suppressed in large part in 1678 by Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689) and Pope Pius VII (1800-1823), and then completely eliminated in 1901 by Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903). The abbreviatores de parco majore remained until the reform of Pope Pius X and were suppressed by the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio of June 29, 1908. Their duties were once more turned over to the college of the apostolic protonotaries de numero participantium. The chancery drew up and despatched the decretal letters of canonization the pontifical bulls dealing with appointments to consistorial benefices and offices, the erection of new dioceses and chapters and certain other affairs of major importance, on instructions from the congregations or by order of the Sovereign Pontiff personally.

      The office was abolished by the motu proprio Quo aptius of February 27, 1973, issued by by Pope Paul VI (1963-1978). Its functions were transferred to the secretariat of State.

Vice-chancellors:
Pierre Arnaud de Puyanne, O.S.B. (1306)
Arnaud Nouvel, O.Cist. (1306/1307-1317)
Gauscelin de Jean (1317-1318)
Pierre Le Tessier, C.R.S.A. (ca. 1318-1325)
Pierre Des Près (1325-1361)
Pierre de Monteruc (1361-1378)
Renoul de Monteruc (regent, 1378-1383)
Francesco Moricotti Prignani (regent, 1383-1385; vice-chancellor, 1385-1394)
Angelo Acciaiouli (1394-1408)
Jean Allarmet de Brogny (pseudochancellor, 1391-1417; chancellor, 1417-1421)
Vacant (1426-1436)
Jean de la Rochetaillée (1436-1437)
Francesco Condulmer (1437-1453)
Vacant (1453-1457)
Rodrigo de Borja y Borja (1457-1492)
Ascanio Maria Sforza (1492-1505)
Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere (1505-1507)
Sisto Gara della Rovere (1507-1517)
Giulio de' Medici (1517-1523)
Pompeo Colonna (1524-1526)
Vacant (1526-1532)
Ippolito de' Medici (1532-1535)
Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1535-1589)
Alessandro Damasceni Peretti (1589-1623)
Ludovico Ludovisi (1623-1632)
Francesco Barberini, seniore (1632-1679)
Vacant (1679-1689)
Pietro Ottoboni (1689-1740)
Tommaso Ruffo (1740-1753)
Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1753-1756)
Alberico Archinto (1756-1758)
Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore (1758-1763)
Henry Benedict Mary Clement Stuart, duke of York (1763-1807)
Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto (1807-1818)
Giulio Maria della Somaglia (1818-1830)
Tommaso Arezzo (1830-1833)
Carlo Odescalchi (1833-1834)
Carlo Maria Pedicini (1834-1843)
Tommaso Bernetti (1844-1852)
Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso (1852-1878)
Antonino Saverio De Luca (1878-1883)
Teodolfo Mertel (1884-1899)
Lucido Maria Parocchi (1899-1903)
Antonio Agliardi (1903-1908)

Chancellors
Antonio Agliardi (1908-1915)
Ottavio Cagiano de Azevedo (1915-1927)
Andreas Frühwirth, O.P. (1927-1933)
Tommaso Pio Boggiani, O.P. (1933-1942)
Celso Costantini (1954-1958)
Santiago Luis Copello (1959-1967)
Luigi Traglia (1968-1973)
(The office was abolished by Pope Paul VI on February 27, 1973)

Bibliography. Niccolò del Re, La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 445-446.

Link. The Apostolic Chancery.

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Apostolic Datary

      Traces of the office of Datarius are found as early as the pontificate of Pope Martin V (1417-1431). Its origin goes back to the distinction which was introduced at the time of the Western Schism between the signature on Pontifical Letters and the marking of the date, which was entrusted to a specific person.

      Under Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484), the duties of the Datarius were expanded and, starting with the end of the XV century, he was at the head of a special office for the preparation and the dating of the grants of favors, especially of non-consistorial benefices reserved to the Holy See, and of certain dispensations. Beginning with the XVII century, the office was usually entrusted to a cardinal with the title of pro-datarius.

      The pro-datarius had under his jurisdiction the sub-datarius, and a considerable staff. Leo XIII, on February 6, 1901 organized and divided the business of the Datary into three sections, each with its own respective head or prefect: the section for the conferring of benefices, the section for matrimonial dispensations, and the administrative section.

      Through the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio issued on June 29, 1908, Pope Pius X (1903-1914), turned over to the new S.C. of the Sacraments the faculty for matrimonial dispensations; however, he made the Datary independent of the Chancery in the despatching of papal bulls, and he determined its field of competence in the following terms: "This office is under the charge of a Cardinal of Holy Roman Church, who will henceforth have the title of Datarius. To the Datary was entrusted the sole task of examining the qualifications of those who apply for non-consistorial benefices reserved to the Apostolic See (or which have fallen within its jurisdiction); to draw up and despatch the Apostolic Letters for the conferring of these benefices; to grant dispensations from conditions required for the conferring of such benefices; to supervise the pensions and obligations which the Sovereign Pontiff may have imposed in the conferring of the aforementioned benefices."

      With the Code of Canon Law (promulgated on May 27, 1917, effective on May 19, 1918), the Apostolic Reservations were extended to the universal Church and constituted universal law. The cardinal datary was one of the palatine cardinals. The office was suppressed by Pope Paul VI (1963-1978), with the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae, August 15, 1967.

Pro-dataries:
Pier Marcellino Corradini (1721-1731)
Antonio Gentili (1731-1740)
Pompeio Aldrovandi (1740-1743)
Giovanni Giacomo Millo (1743-1757)
Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini (1758-1774)
Vincenzo Malvezzi Bonfioli (1774-1775)
Andrea Negroni (1775-1789)
Filippo Campanelli (1789-1795)
Aurelio Roverella (1795-1812)
Vacant (1812-1814)
Alessandro Mattei (1814 -1820)
Giulio Gabrielli (1820-1822)
Antonio Gabriele Severoli (1823-1824)
Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore (1824-1844)
Ugo Spinola (1844-1858)
Mario Mattei (1858-1870)
Luigi Vannicelli Casoni (1870-1877)
Carlo Sacconi (1877-1889)
Angelo Bianchi (1889-1897)
Gaetano Aloisi Masella (1897-1902)
Angelo di Pietro (1902-1908)
(Title changed to datary in 1908)

Dataries:
Angelo di Pietro (1908-1914)
Vincenzo Vannutelli (1914-1930)
Raffaele Scapinelli di Leguigno (1930-1933)
Luigi Capotosti, pro-datary (1931-1933); datary (1933-1938)
Federico Tedeschini (1938-1959)
Paolo Giobbe (1959-1967)
(The office was suppressed on August 15, 1967)

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