The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

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11th Century
(999-1099)

Numerical summary of the cardinals created by the 19 popes and 2 antipopes of this century

Sylvester II (999-1003) - 3 cardinals
John XVII (1003) - 1 cardinal
John XVIII (1003 - 1009) - 2 cardinals
Sergius IV (1009 - 1012) - 10 cardinals
Benedict VIII (1012 - 1024) - 21 cardinals
John XIX (1024 - 1032) - 10 cardinals
Benedict IX (1032 -1044) - 38 cardinals
Sylvester III (1045) - no cardinals created
Gregory VI (1045 -1046) - 3 cardinals
Clement II II (1046 - 1047) - no cardinals created
Damasus II (1048) - 1 cardinal
St. Leo IX (1049-1054) - 26 cardinals
Victor II (1055 - 1057) - 3 cardinals
Stephen (IX) X (1057 - 1058) - 14 cardinals
[Antipope] Benedict X (1058 - 1059) - 1 pseudocardinal
Nicholas II (1059 - 1061) - 14 cardinals
Alexander II (1061-1073) - 45 cardinals
St. Gregory VII (1073 - 1085) - 31 cardinals
[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100) - 25 pseudocardinals
B. Victor III (1086 - 1087) - no cardinals created
B. Urban II (1088 -1099) - 74 cardinals
Total: 296 cardinals and 26 pseudocardinals

Of these cardinals, 13 were declared saint or blessed; 13 became popes; 5 became antipopes; 10 were deposed; and 89 were bishops of sees other than Rome (including the suburbicarian dioceses).

Source: Annuaire Pontifical Catholique. XXX (1927), p. 154.

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The Heinricianum, 1020, Benedict VIII (1012-1024) and Emperor St. Henry II (1002-1024)

It was the reconfirmation of the donation document of Otto the Great in 962.

Hanns Leo Mikoletzky calls it a "frequently overrated document", and says that Henry would have not been overly concerned with the problem of its many binding stipulations. For the content of these privileges had taken on a rigid form, whose confirmation was perhaps a question of prestige for the papacy but no longer and exalted obligation for the German king. The recognition of the Church's property and rights which found expression there would surely have been advanced by the Curia in case of emergency on the ground of earlier confirmations without this gesture of Henry's...' (Heinrich II. Und die Kriche, pp. 68-69).

This interpretation of the Ottonianum assumes that it was prestigious advantage for the papacy, whereas Percy Schramm takes the position that it was a political triumph for the emperor.

Source: Hill, Boyd H. Medieval monarchy in action. The German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV. London: George Allen and Unwin.; New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972. (Historical problems: Studies and documents, 15), p. 69.

After his coronation (1014), the emperor, through a solemn diploma, confirm the rights of the Roman church, and declares that the election of the pope should be freely done by the people and the clergy. Thsi important document was published by Labbe, Sacrosancta concilia, t. IX, col. 813. Cf. Pertz, Monumenta Germanif historica, t. IV, Append., p. 173.

Source: Ortolan, T. "Election des papes". Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, contenant l'exposé des doctrines de la théologie catholique, leurs preuves et leur histoire. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1903-1950 [i.e. 1899-1950], col. 2308.

The personal appearance of the pope on German soil created an immense impression. At Easter 1020 the two conferred at Bamberg, and Henry gave Benedict an imperial privilege which verbally reproduced the Ottonian privilege granted by Otto I in 962, including the rights of sovereignty it conferred on the emperor; he also promised military aid.

Source: Kelly, J.N.D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 140.

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The Holy Roman Emperor's right to confirm papal elections renewed, Pope Clement II (1046-1047) and Emperor Henry III (1046-1056).

To place an unsurmountable barrier to the ambition of the counts of Tusculum, Clement II renewed in favor of Henry III the privilege given to Charlemagne of confirming the election of the supreme pontiffs.

Source: Ortolan, T. "Election des papes". Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, contenant l'exposé des doctrines de la théologie catholique, leurs preuves et leur histoire. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1903-1950 [i.e. 1899-1950], col. 2309.

Enthroned on December 25, 1046, Clement crowned Henry and his queen Agnes as emperor and empress on the same day. Henry then had himself invested with the rank of patrician which empowered him to take the lead in the appointment of a pope, and the Romans had to undertake afresh not to elect a pope in future without the approval of emperor and patrician.

Source: Kelly, J.N.D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 145-145.

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Pope and cardinals referred to as "cardos" (hinges) of the Church, epistle, 1049, St. Leo IX (1049-1055) to Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople (1043-1058).

In section XXXII, Nam Romanae ecclesiae, of his letter, the pope compares St. Peter and his successors to the hinges of the door of the Church that allows it to open and close. Likewise, the papal clergy are called cardinals, the pope stated.

Text: Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio. Edited by Giovanni Domenico Mansi. 53 vols. Paris: H. Welter, 1901-1927, XIX, cols. 635-656.

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In Nomine Domine, Lateran synod decree, April 13 (12?), 1059, Nicholas II (1059-1061).

According to this decree the pope should be elected by the cardinal-bishops. The rest of the clergy and the laity of Rome had the right to acclaim the election. The pope should normally be a member of the Roman clergy, but in case of necessity could come from outside Rome. The election, if possible, was to be held at Rome; but if necessary, it could be held elsewhere. The pope-elect was to wield full authority even if he could not reach Rome. Imperial control was limited to a personal right granted by the pope to confirm papal elections.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals, (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies, Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis.

Text: Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio. Edited by Giovanni Domenico Mansi. 53 vols. Paris: H. Welter, 1901-1927, XIX, cols. 903-904; Jaffé, Philippus. Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. 2 vols. Graz: Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. Reprint of Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVII. Edidit Philippus Jaffé. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach professoris Berolinensis. Curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald. Tomus primus (A S. Petro ed a. MCXLIII). Tomus secundus (Ab a. MCXLIII ad a. MCXCVIII). Lipsiae: Veit et Comp. 1888-1895, I, p. 558-559.

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