Numerical summary of the cardinals and pseudocardinals created created by the 16 popes and of this century.
Paschal II (1099-1118) - 91 cardinals
[Antipope] Theodoric (1100-1101) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
[Antipope] Albert (1101) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
[Antipope] Sylvester IV (1105-1111) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
Gelasius II (1118-1119) - 3 cardinals
[Antipope] Gregory VIII (1118-1121) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
Callistus II (1119-1124) - 34 cardinals
Honorius II (1124-1130) - 26 cardinals
[Antipope] Celestine II (1124) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
Innocent II (1130-1143) - 74 cardinals
[Antipope] Anacletus II (1130-1138) - 19 pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Victor IV (1138) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
Celestine II (1143-1144) - 12 cardinals
Lucius II (1144-1145) - 9 cardinals
Eugenius III (1145-1153) - 38 cardinals
Anastasius IV (1153-1154) - 1 cardinal
Adrian IV (1154-1159) - 23 cardinals
Alexander III (1159-1181) - 64 cardinals
[Antipope] Victor IV (1159-1164) - 17 pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Paschal III (1164-1168) - 10 pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Callistus III (1168-1178) - 11 pseudocardinals
[Antipope] Innocent III (1179-1180) - no information found about creation of pseudocardinals by this antipope
Lucius III (1181-1185) - 16 cardinals
Urban III (1185-1187) - 4 cardinals
Gregory VIII (1187) - did not create any cardinals
Clement III (1187-1191) 30 cardinals
Celestine III (1191-1198) - 11 cardinals
Total: 437 cardinals and 57 pseudocardinals.
Of these cardinals, 15 were declared saint or blessed; 12 became popes; 4 became antipopes; 23 were deposed; and 98 occupied episcopal sees.
Source: Annuaire Pontifical Catholique. XXXI (1928), p. 159.
The suburbicarian sees of Porto and Santa Rufina united, 1119, Calixtus II (1119-1124).
When these two suburbicarian sees, dating from the third and sixth centuries respectively, were united into one by the pope, the number of cardinal bishops was diminished by one since both dioceses until then had each been occupied by one cardinal.
Source: Forget, J. "Cardinaux", Dictionnaire de théologie catholique contenant l'exposé des doctrines de la théologie catholique, leurs prevues et leur histoire. Commence sous la direction de A. Vacant, E. Mangenot, continué sous celle de E. Amann, avec le concours d'un grand nombre de collaborateurs. Troisiéme tirage. Tome deuxiéme, deuxiéme partie, Cabados-Cisterciens. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1932, col. 1720; Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1996. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1996, p. 554.
II Lateran Ecumencial Council, April 2-17, 1139, Innocent II (1130-1143).
Restricted the election of the new pope entirely to the cardinals. It eliminated the right of the other clergy and the laymen to acclaim the election made by the cardinal bishops as established by the decree In Nomine Domini, issued by Nicholas II in 1059.
Source: Fanning, William H. W. "Papal elections", The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1913, pp. 456-457.
Whether the Pope in this council made a rule restricting the election of the popes to the cardinals, thus eliminating whatever participation had been left to the lower clergy and people by Nicholas II (1059-61), is a point that is disputed, though it appears not at all improbable when we consider the circumstances of his own election and those also of the election of Anacletus. One of the purposes of the council was to remove the evils of an eight-year schism, and it seems more than merely probable that the Pope was not content with this only, but went a step farther to prevent the repetition of such a schism from that particular contributing cause. Moreover, such a rule seems to form a necessary link in the historical development of papal elections .
Source: Schroeder, H.J. Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Translation and Commentary. St. Louis: B. Herder, 1937, pp. 195-213.
Jaffé, Philippus. Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. 2 vols. Graz: Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. Reprint of Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVII. Edidit Philippus Jaffé. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach professoris Berolinensis. Curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald. Tomus primus (A S. Petro ed a. MCXLIII). Tomus secundus (Ab a. MCXLIII ad a. MCXCVIII). Lipsiae: Veit et Comp. 1888-1895, I, p. 886.
Consistory of Rheims of March or April 1148 and the origin of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Between 1059 and 1179, in the Council of Reims in 1148, the cardinals unanimously protested against the formulary composed by the bishops of France and proposed by St. Bernard, without their consent, in the affair of Gilbert de La Porrie. They give themselves the name of Sacred College that will be used from then on:
They manifested to the pope with great resentment that the Sacred College of Cardinals was like the base on which rests the Universal Church and that it was an unacceptable act against the primacy itself of the Holy See to have made this doctrinal determination without its intervention. (Col. 990).
Source: Molien, A. "Collège (Sacré)", Dictionnaire de droit canonique, contenant tous les termes de droit canonique, avec un sommaire de l'histoire et des institutions et de l'etat actuel de la discipline. Paris, Letouzey et Ané, 1935-1965, columns 990-1000. Cfr. Thomassin, Louis. Ancienne et nouvelle discipline ecclésiastique. Paris, 1864, Ier part., l.II, c. Cxiii, p. 4; Hefele-Leclerq, Histoire des conciles, t. V, p. 834; Vacandard, Vie de saint Bernard, t. II, p. 339.
At this juncture of the events, the person on trial was no longer Gilbert but Pope Eugene III who was faced with both the determined group led by St. Bernard and an equally determined curia whose spokesman reminded Eugene in no uncertain terms that the time had finally come to forget "old and new friendships," think of the Church Universal, and punish the outrageous audacity of such novel procedure in matters concerning the faith.
Source: Haring, Nicholas M. "Notes on the council and the consistory of Rheims (1148)", Mediaeval studies, XXVIII (1966), p. 50.
Establishment of the College of Cardinals, 1150, Eugenius III (1145-1153).
The cardinals, as already said, are a corporation, a college after the manner of the cathedral chapters. When the latter ceased to lead any longer the vita canonica or common life, they became corporations recognized by the canon law, with free administration of their property, chapter-meetings, autonomy, disciplinary authority, and the right to have and use a seal. That the members of the chapter (capitulars, canons) were the only counsellors and auxiliaries of the bishop helped to round out the position of the former, and to unite them as against the other clergy of the cathedral, all the more so as this right of the capitulars to co-government of the diocese (partly by counsel, concilium, and partly by consent, consensus) was constitutional and recognized by the canon law. The cathedral chapters reached their fullest development as corporations early in the thirteenth century, when they obtained the exclusive rights of episcopal elections. In a similar way the cardinal-bishops, cardinal-priests, and cardinal-deacons came to form a corporation, by the fact that since Alexander III (1159-1181) they alone had the right to elect the pope, they alone were his immediate assistants at Mass, and were his only counsellors in all important matters. Since 1150 the corporation of the cardinals becomes more and more known as a collegium, though such synonymous terms as universitas, conventus, cætus, capitulum are occasionally used. The dean or head of the College of Cardinals is the Bishop of Ostia; the sub-dean is the Bishop of Porto. The dean is the successor of the former archpriest, the first of the cardinal-priests, known since the twelfth century as prior cardinalium presbyterarum; he is also to some extent the successor of the archdeacon, known since the thirteenth century as prior diaconarum cardinalium. The archpriest was the immediate assistant of the pope at ecclesiastical functions. The archdeacon, as supervisor of the discipline of the Roman clergy and administrator of the possessions of the Roman Church, was, after the pope, the most important person in the papal court. During a vacancy, as above stated, both archpriest and archdeacon, together with the chief notary (primicerius notariorum), governed the Apostolic See. When later on the cardinals became a corporation that included bishops among its members, one of these bishops must naturally assume the headship; it could be no other than the Bishop of Ostia, whose immemorial right it was to bear the pallium at the consecration of the newly-elected pope, in case the latter were not yet a bishop, and to whom fell later the privilege of anointing the Roman Emperor, and of taking in general councils the first place after the pope. As president of the college it is the duty of the dean to convoke the same, to conduct its deliberations, and to represent it abroad.
As a legal corporation the cardinals have their own revenues, which are administered by a camerlengo (camerarius) chosen from their own body (not to be confounded with the cardinal camerlengo, administrator of the papal estate), and to some extent the successor of the former archdeacon or prior diaconorum cardinalium. In the Middle Ages the revenues of the College of cardinals were considerable. They were jointly entitled, among other dues, to a share of the moneys paid into the papal treasury on such occasions as the conferring of the pallium, confirmation of bishops, also by nations and fiefs that acknowledged the sovereignty or protection of the Holy See. Therefore, since the thirteenth century, the cardinals have had their own treasury. Nicholas IV allotted to the College of Cardinals (18 July, 1289) one half the revenues of the Apostolic See, i.e. of the pallium taxes, the dues for confirmation of bishops (servilit communio), the "census" or tribute from the countries subject to the pope, the Peter's-pence, the visitation dues (paid in on the occasion of their visits to Rome, visitatio liminum apostolorum, by all archbishops, by bishops immediately subject to the Holy See or confirmed and consecrated by the pope, and by abbots freed from episcopal jurisdiction and immediately subject to the Holy See). The common revenue of the College of Cardinals is now inconsiderable; hence the rotulus cardinalicius, or dividend paid yearly to the cardinals resident in Rome, is comparatively small.
Source: Sagmüller, Johannes Baptists. "Cardinal", The Catholic Encyclopedia. vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
The suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Velletri united, 1150, Eugenius III (1145-1153).
The see of Ostia, dating from the the third century, assigned to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals by this pope, was united to that of Velletri, established in the fifth century. They remained united until May 5, 1914 when Pope Pius X by the motu proprio Edita a nobis, separated them. Later on, October 20, 1981, Velletri was united with the diocese of Segni.
First non-Rome resident cardinal, 1163, Alexander III (1159-1181).
Traditionally, the clerics created cardinals were required to reside in Rome. This custom was changed in 1163 when the pope allowed the archbishop of Mainz, Conrad of Wittelsbach, to return to his see after having being created a cardinal. In order to make him a member of the Roman clergy, Alexander named him to a church in the city, making the cardinal a titular pastor. This custom is still in practice.
Source: Bunson, Matthew. Pope Encyclopedia: an A to Z of the Holy See. New York: Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1995, p. 68-69.
Licet de vitanda, decree, III Lateran Ecumenical Council, March 19, 1179, Alexander III (1159-1181).
The first canon of that Council stated that "to prevent schisms in future, only the cardinals should have the right to elect the pope, and two-thirds of their votes should be required for the validity of such election. If any candidate, after securing only one-third of the votes, should arrogate to himself the papal dignity, both he and his partisans should be excluded from the ecclesiastical order and excommunicated." The most important regulation of this constitution is the inclusion of all cardinals--bishops, priests and deacon--as the exclusive electors of the pope thus ending the antagonism among the three orders created by Nicholas II's decision in 1059 granting the electoral right to only the cardinal bishops.
Text: Alex. III in Concil. Later. Cap. 6 "Licet de vitanda", de elect. I, 6; Jaffé, Philippus. Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. 2 vols. Graz: Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. Reprint of Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVII. Edidit Philippus Jaffé. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach professoris Berolinensis. Curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald. Tomus primus (A S. Petro ed a. MCXLIII). Tomus secundus (Ab a. MCXLIII ad a. MCXCVIII). Lipsiae: Veit et Comp. 1888-1895, II, p. 340-341.
Twelfth century catalog of cardinalitial titles enumerates 28 titles, seven for each of the four patriarchal basilicas.
For the service of St. Peter's: S. Maria in Trastevere, S. Crisogono, S. Cecilia, S. Anastasia, S. Lorenzo in Damaso, S. Marco and SS. Martino e Silvestro. For S. Paolo fuori le Mura: S. Sabina, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, S. Prisca, S. Sisto, S. Balbina, S. Marcello and S. Susanna. For S. Maria Maggiore: SS. Apostoli, S. Ciriaco in Thermis, S. Eusebio, S. Pudenziana, S. Vitale, SS. Marcellino e Pietro and S. Clemente. For S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura: S. Prassede, S. Pietro ad Vincula, S. Lorenzo in Lucina, S. Croce in Gerusalemme, S. Stefano in Celio Monte, SS. Giovanni e Paolo and SS. Quattro Coronati.
This catalog was done by Pietro Mallio during the pontificate of Alexander III (1159-1181).
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