The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

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16th Century
(1503-1605)

Numerical summary of the cardinals created by the 17 popes of this century.

Pius III (1503) - no cardinals created
Julius II (1503-1513) - 27 cardinals
Leo X (1513-1521) - 43 cardinals
Adrian VI (1522-1523) - 1 cardinal
Clement VII (1523-1534) - 33 cardinals
Paul III (1534-1549) - 71 cardinals
Julius III (1550-1555) - 20 cardinals
Marcellus II (1555) - no cardinals created
Paul IV (1555-1559) - 19 cardinals
Pius IV (1559-1565) - 47 cardinals
Pius V (1566-1572) - 21 cardinals
Gregory XIII (1572-1585) - 34 cardinals
Sixtus V (1585-1590) - 33 cardinals
Urban VII (1590) - no cardinals created
Gregory XIV (1590-1591) - 5 cardinals
Innocent IX (1591) - 2 cardinals
Clement VIII (1591-1605) - 53 cardinals
Total: 409 cardinals

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, vol. III, pp. 3-55; IV, pp. 4-8.

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Cum tam divino, apostolic constitution, January 14 (February 19?), 1505, Julius II (1503-1513).

Strongly condemned the practice of simony in the papal election.

Source: Pastor, Ludovico. Historia de los Papas desde fines de la Edad Media. Segunda edición corregida. Tomo III: Historia de los papas en la época del renacimiento desde la elección de Inocencio VIII hasta la muerte de Julio II (Inocencio VIII, Alejandro VI, Pío III, Julio II). Volumen VI (Alejandro III, Pío III y Julio II) (1492-1513), Barcelona: Ediciones G. Gili, 1950, p. 343-344.

Text: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum. Taurinensis editio locupletion facta... cura et studio Aloysii Tomasetti. Augustae Taurinorum 1859-1860, t. V, p. 405 ff.

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Bull of February 19, 1513, Julius II (1503-1513).

Reaffirmed his designs for the reform of the church.

Source: Pastor, Ludovico. Historia de los Papas desde fines de la Edad Media. Segunda edición corregida. Tomo III: Historia de los papas en la época del renacimiento desde la elección de Inocencio VIII hasta la muerte de Julio II (Inocencio VIII, Alejandro VI, Pmo III, Julio II). Volumen VI (Alejandro III, Pío III y Julio II) (1492-1513), Barcelona: Ediciones G. Gili, 1950, p. 352, n. 4.

Text: Collectio bullarum, brevium alirumque diplomatum sacrosanctae basilicae Vaticanae. T. II. Ab Urbano V. Ad Paulum III productus. Romae 1750, II, 37.

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Licat Romani pontificis, April 9, 1513, Leo X (1513-1521)

The privileges, indults and immunities granted to the said cardinals and contained or declared in this bull under the date of the pope's coronation remained in full force.

Source: Tanner, Norman P. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils.

Text: Regesta Leonis X no. 14.
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Supernae dispositionis, constitution, May 5, 1514, 9th session of V Lateran Council, Leo X (1513-1521).

The Council (1512-1517) issued a decree on the reform of the Roman Curia that contained a lengthy section of the College of Cardinals. Predominantly, it dwelt on the life style of cardinals. It ordered that all cardinals reside at the curia; but it omitted mention of the size or national makeup of the body, or the method of selecting new members.

Source: Broderick, John F. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: size and geographical composition (1099-1986"), Archivum Historiae Pontificiae, (1986), pp. 7-71), p. 44; Minnich, Nelson H. "Incipiat Iudicium a Domo Domini: The Fifth Lateran Council and the reform of Rome", Reform and authority in the Medieval and Reformation Church. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America, 1981, pp. 127-142; Schoeck, Richard J. "The Fifth Lateran Council: Its partical successes and its larger failures", Reform and authority in the Medieval and Reformation Church. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America, 1981, pp. 99-126.

Text: The Latin text, from the ninth session, May 5, 1514, is in Conciliorum oecumenicorum decreta, ed. By Giuseppe Alberigo, et al., Freiburg im Breisgau, 1961, pp. 593-597. There is a fairly complete English translation in H. J. Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Translation, and Commentary. St Louis, 1937, 491-495).

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The new titles of S. Callisto--(confirming the establishment attributed to Calixtus III (1455-1458)--, S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, S. Maria in Ara Coeli, S. Cesareo in Palatio, S. Agnese in Agone, S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, S. Silvestro in Capite, S. Apollinare, S. Tommaso in Parione, S. Pancrazio and S. Bartolomeo all'Isola (inter duos pontes) and the deaconry of S. Onofrio established, July 6, 1517, Leo X (1513-1521).

In the famous secret consistory of July 1, 1517, the pope created 31 cardinals, (the largest number created at one time until the consistory of February 18, 1946 in which Pius XII created 32 new cardinals). On July 3, 1517, the names of the new cardinals were published and three days later, on July 6, all these titles and the deaconry were erected. The reason to create such a large number of cardinals was to have a friendly and loyal Sacred College.

Source: Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotassi dei cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa: nelle loro sedi svburbicarie titoli presbiterali e diaconie dal secolo V all'anno del signore MDCCCLXXXVIII; compilata sivi manoscritti originali ed avtentici esistenti nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani e su molteplici altre fonti storiche edite ed inedite antiche e moderne. Roma: Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888. His Storia dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa; v 1. Chiefly tables. Includes "Tavoie delle fonti storiche del presente volume" and "Cronotassi dei Pontefici Romani", p. LIX; Gulik, Guilelmus van, Eubel, Conradus, Schmitz-Kallenberg, Ludovicus, Ritzler, Remigius, Sefrin, Pirminus. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, III, p. 15, n. 1.

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Etsi ad singula, constitution, July 5, 1532, Clement VII (1523-1534).

The title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso was assigned in perpetuity to the vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. The disposition was confirmed by Sixtus V (1585-1590) in his constitution Religiosa, April 13, 1587. Later on, St. Pius X by the constitution Sapienti Consilio, June 29, 1908, changed the title of the office to Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and kept the same title for its occupant. By the motu proprio Quo aptius, February 27, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978) suppressed the office of the Apostolic Chancery of the Holy Roman Church (originated in the 4th century) and transferred its functions to the secretariat of state.

Source: Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1939. Vatican City: Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939, p. 60.

Text: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum taurinensis editio: locupletior facta collectione novissima plurium brevium, epistolarum, decretorum actorumque S. Sedis a S. Leone Magno usque ad praesens cura et studio R.P.D. Aloysii Tomassetti ...auspicante ... S.R.E. cardinali Francisco Gaude. 25 v. Augustae Taurinorum: Seb. Franco, H. Fory et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, VI, 153-155.

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Cum sicut nobis, motu proprio, June 26, 1550, Julius III (1550-1555).

Text: Bull. Rom., tom. 4, I, pp. 268-270.

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Sanctissimus Dominus noster, decree, January 26, 1554, Julius III (1550-1555).

Prohibited that brothers be cardinals at the same time.

Soruce: Molien, A. "Cardinal", Dictionnaire de droit canonique, contenant tous les termes de droit canonique, avec un sommaire de l'histoire et des institutions et de l'etat actuel de la discipline. Paris, Letouzey et Anâe, 1935-1965, column 1322.

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Cum venerabilis, constitution, August 22, (or September 11) 1555, Paul IV (1555-1559).

The most senior of the cardinal bishops residing in Rome becomes the dean of the Sacred College. Likewise, a cardinal deacon, already ten years in the Sacred College, holds the ius optionis, ahead of a cardinal priest of later creation, provided, however, that there remain in the college ten cardinal deacons. This disposition was later reaffirmed by Sixtus V in Postquam verus, nn. 7, 8, December 3, 1587; Benedict XIII in Romani Pontifices, nn. 5, 7, September 7, 1724; and Clement XII in Pastorale officium, n. 8, January 10, 1731.

Source: Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist. "Cardinal", The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1913, vol. III, p. 340, citing from L. Brancatius. Dissertatio de optione sex episcopatum. Rome, 1692; "Dignité des cardinaux", Analecta juris pontificii, II , col. 1918-

Text: Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum Sanctorum Romanorum Pontificum Taurinenses editio 25 vols.; Turin: Seb. Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, VI, 502- .

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Compactum, 1555, Paul IV (1555-1559).

Prohibited uncle and nephew or two brothers-in-law to be cardinals at the same time.

Source: Molien, A. "Cardinal", Dictionnaire de droit canonique, contenant tous les termes de droit canonique, avec un sommaire de l'histoire et des institutions et de l'etat actuel de la discipline. Paris, Letouzey et Anê, 1935-1965, column 1322.

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Cum saepius, motu proprio, January 9, 1556, Paul IV (1555-1559).

Text: Bull. Rom., tom. 4, I, p. 326, 327.

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Cum secundum Apostolum, apostolic constitution, December 15 (16?), 1558, Paul IV (1555-1559).

Decreed extreme penalties against those who discuss the election of the future pope, behind the back and without permission of his predecessor while he is still alive.

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Prudentis patrisfamilias, bull, September 22, 1561, Pius IV (1559-1565).

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

Text:

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Decree of November 19, 1561, Pius IV (1559-1565).

Established that if the pope died during the celebration of the council, the election of the successor must be made by the cardinals and not by the council. It also forbade the pope from appointing a coadjutor with right of succession.

Source: Gulik, Guilelmus van, Eubel, Conradus, Schmitz-Kallenberg, Ludovicus, Ritzler, Remigius, Sefrin, Pirminus. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, III, p. 37; Ortolan, T. "Election des papes". Dictionnaire de thêologie catholique, contenant l'exposê des doctrines de la thêologie catholique, leurs preuves et leur histoire. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Anê, 1903-1950 [i.e. 1899-1950], col. 2285.

Text: Acta vicecancell. 8, f. 104.

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In eligendis, apostolic constitution, October 9, 1562, Pius IV (1559-1565).

The constitution established that the conclave should not possess funds other than those strictly necessary to meet the expenses of its own deliberations and those of the previous pope's funeral, with the sum fixed at 10,000 ducats. No longer should the conclave be held responsible for paying any debts left by the previous pope. Such measures were evidently intended to avoid the danger of simony. Each cardinal was allowed to bring two conclavists, except for the princes and the most senior cardinals, who were allowed three each. The conclavists had to have been in the cardinal's service for a year before the conclave and could not be brothers or nephews. The conclavists were forbidden from sacking the new pope's cell (this provision failed). Pius IV also decreed that the cells for the cardinals should be decided by drawing lots and the conclave placed under strict surveillance.

Source: Baumgartner, Frederic. Behind locked doors. A history of the papal elections. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, p. 120-121; Manzini, Raimondo. "Papal elections", pp. 183-190, in The Vatican, The Vendome Press, 1980, p. 187; Spinelli, Lorenzo. "La sistemazione dell'istituto della vacanza della Sede Apostolica all'epoca del Concilio di Trento: la decretale In eligendis, chapter VIII in his La vacanza della Sede Apostolica dalle origine al Concilio tridentino. Milan: A. Giuffrê, 1955, pp. 229-246; Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

Text: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum taurinensis editio : locupletior facta collectione novissima plurium brevium, epistolarum, decretorum actorumque S. Sedis a S. Leone Magno usque ad praesens cura et studio R.P.D. Aloysii Tomassetti ...auspicante ... S.R.E. cardinali Francisco Gaude. 25 v. Augustae Taurinorum : Seb. Franco, H. Fory et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, VII, 230-236.

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Council of Trent, session 23, July 15, 1563 and session 24, November 24, 1563, Pius IV (1559-1565).

At the Council of Trent (1545-1563) there was great interest in the reform of the Sacred College (136). Among secular rulers Emperor Ferdinand I was particularly active in this regard. To his mind a thorough of the College was more urgent than the convocation of the Council. In an allocution to two papal legates, October 9, 1560, he complained that there were then more than 60 cardinals, where as the Council of Basel wanted only 24; and that many of the current cardinals were too young and lacking in ability. His so-called first reform plan, June, 1562, asked for a limit of 26 in the number of cardinals.In his second reform plan, March 1, 1563, he again sought a decrease in the size of the Sacred College; and requested more consideration for maturity, capability, and spirituality in the selection of red hats. The imperial orators at Trent were instructed in August, 1563, to ask that cardinals be chosen from all nations. At this latter date, The French orators petitioned that the maximum size of the College be cut to 24.

Conciliar action was long stalled, however, because of the more pressing urgency of other problems, because of the strong opposition of the cardinals to any reform of their body, and because of papal hesitations formed by the linking of reform of the College of Cardinals with reform of papal elections, and with the question of the superiority of council over pope. Not until its final months did Trent issued decrees about the cardinals. At Session 23, July 15, 1563, it was enacted that all who preside over patriarchal, primatial, metropolitan, and cathedral churches are bound to personal residence in their diocese, if they be cardinals. At Session 24, November 16, 1563, the pope was directed to choose cardinals from all the nations of Christendom, so far as this is feasible; and to use the same norms as regards manner of life, age, doctrine, and other qualities in the selection of cardinals as were enacted by the Council for the choice of bishops. Tridentine legislation, therefore, did not insist that cardinals reside at the roman Curia; it avoided setting limits to the size of the College; it was silent on the role of the cardinals in the choice of new cardinals; and it left popes with wide latitude in deciding who would be cardinals. This was the final statement to date of an ecumenical council on the Sacred College.

Source: Broderick, John F. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: size and geographical composition (1099-1986"), Archivum Historiae Pontificiae, (1986), pp. 45-46; Trisco, Robert. "Reforming the Roman Curia: Emperor Ferdinand I and the Council of Trent", Reform and authority in the Medieval and Reformation Church. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America, 1981, pp. 143-337.

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Admonet nos, constitution, March 29, 1567, St. Pius V (1566-1572).

Text: Bull. Rom., tom. 4, II, pp. 364-367.

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Romani Pontificis, constitution, August 30, 1567, St. Pius V (1566-1572).

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Decree of January 26, 1571, St. Pius V (1566-1572).

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Dubiis, constitution, December 23, 1581, Gregory XIII (1572-1585).

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Postquam verus, constitution, December 3, 1586, Sixtus V (1585-1590).

In the introduction of this document, Sixtus stated that the cardinals represent the apostles because of their proximity and special assistance to the Vicar of Christ and that "for the exaltation of the Catholic religion, the peace and tranquility of the Christian people, the advancement and honor of the Holy Apostolic See, they should, if necessary, shed their blood and die." Given the high dignity of the cardinalitial office, the pope, the body of the text begins, should select the cardinals from among the best and most learned men (No. 1). In selecting new cardinals, the pope, although he asks advice from the old cardinals, is entirely free to create whomever he sees fit (No. 2). The total number of cardinals was to be seventy, like the ancients of the Old Testament who assisted Moses (No. 4): six cardinal bishops, fifty cardinal priests, and fourteen cardinal deacons (No. 5). Among them there should be doctors in both canon and civil law as well as masters in theology from the regular and mendicant orders (No. 9). Since cardinals assist the pope in the government of the universal church, they must be selected from as many nations as possible (No. 11).

Excluded from the cardinalitial office were illegitimate sons, even if they had been legitimized or had obtained dispensation (No. 12); those who had any impediment for receiving holy orders (No. 13); those who had children or grandchildren (No. 16); and those who had brothers, nephews uncles, cousins, or any relative of first or second degree in the Sacred College (Nos. 17-18).

Those promoted to the cardinalate had to be clerics and should have received the four minor orders at least one year before their creation (No. 15). Creations were to take place during the fast days of December (No. 10). New cardinals, absent from the curia at the moment of their creation, should be required to go to Rome within a year, this had to be pledged by oath when receiving the red biretta. If the oath were refused, or taken but not fulfilled, the creation was forfeited (No. 19).

Cardinal deacons had to be at least twenty-two years of age and to receive ordination within a year, otherwise they would lose their active and passive voice (No. 6). Cardinal deacons who received priestly ordination had to remain in their cardinalitial order until new cardinal deacons were created to occupy their places whereupon they would pass to the order of cardinal priests (No. 7). The cardinal protodeacon, who is the senior among the cardinal deacons, could opt (No. 25) provided he was of legal age, for one of the suburbicarian dioceses after it had vacated for the third time (No. 8). Subsequently, the minimum number of years a cardinal deacon had to be in his order before being able to opt for a suburbicarian see was fixed at ten.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unplished master's thesis.

Text: Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum Sanctorum Romanorum Pontificum Taurinenses editio, 25 vols.; Turin: Seb. Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, Vol. 8, LXXVI, 808-816.

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Religiosa, constitution, April 13, 1587, Sixtus V (1585-1590).

In its introduction, the pope noted that it had been a very old tradition in the Roman Church to assign a titular church (title) to its priests, and a region, or deaconry, to its deacons. These priests and deacons exercised quasi-episcopal jurisdiction over the spiritual and temporal government and administration of their churches. Furthermore, there were six cathedral churches very near Rome that were assigned to the cardinal bishops.

Since some of the churches traditionally assigned to cardinals were in poor conditions or inadequate locations, the pope would suppress them and erect new ones. The rest were confirmed as titles or deaconries (No. 1). Forty one titles were confirmed and ten newly erected (No. 2): The ancient titles of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, SS. Marcellino e Pietro, SS. Quattro Coronati, SS. Giovanni e Paolo, S. Anastasia, S. Sabina, S. Stefano in Monte Cello, S. Clemente, SS. Nereo e Achineo, S. Susanna, S. Pudenziana, S. Sisto, S. Pietro in Vincoli, S. Martino ai Monti, S. Eusebio, S. Prisca, S. Vitale, S. Marco, S. Marcello, S. Lorenzo in Lucina, SS. Apostoli, S. Lorenzo in Damaso, S. Balbina, S. Cecilia, S. Crisogono, S. Prassede, and S. Maria in Trastevere, and the more recent ones of SS. Quirico e Giulitta, S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, S. Agnese in Agone, S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, S. Tommaso in Parione, S. Silvestro in Campo Marzo, S. Pancrazio, S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, S. Matteo in Merulana, S. Maria in Aracoeli, S. Maria in Via, S. Maria sopra Minerva, S. Maria degli Angeli, and S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni. The deaconry of S. Onofrio was made a presbyteral title, and the following nine titles were newly erected: S. Agostino, S. Maria del Popolo, S. Alessio, S. Biagio dell'Anello (ai Catinari), S. Maria della Pace, S. Salvatore in Lauro, S. Pietro in Montorio, S. Trinità de' Monti, and S. Maria in Transpontina. Fourteen existent deaconries were confirmed (No. 3): S. Maria in Aquiro, S. Maria in Cosmedin, SS. Cosma e Damiano, S. Maria Nova (S. Francesca Romana), S. Adriano, S. Maria in Via Lata, S. Maria in Portico (S. Galla), S. Angelo in Pescheria, S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, S. Maria in Domnica, S. Eustachio, S. Vito in Macello, S. Agata and S. Giorgio in Velabro, and the six suburbicarian sees remained as they were at the time (No. 4): Ostia, Porto e S. Rufina, Sabina, Frascati, Albano and Palestrina . On July 5, 1532, Clement VII had perpetually assigned the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso to the cardinal vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church (Item) and Sixtus V kept this disposition unchanged (No. 5).The titles and deaconries were to be strictly separated to avoid past confusions which had originated from assigning deaconries as titles and viceversa (Nos. 6-8). Cardinals signing apostolic letters were to add their titles or deaconries to their names (No. 9). As for cardinal priests and deacons, they enjoyed "quasi episcopal" jurisdiction in their titles and deaconries. In other words, once they had taken canonical possession of their churches, they could perform the same functions as bishops in their sees. This jurisdiction was referred to as "quasi episcopal" because, since they had not received episcopal consecration, cardinal priests and deacons did not have episcopal jurisdiction "qua tale." Their jurisdiction was a privilege.

This "quasi episcopal" jurisdiction included the rights and privileges of giving laws that bound in conscience; correcting and imposing sentences of excommunication, suspension, and interdict; making visitations as a bishop does in his diocese; conferring benefices in their churches; providing pastoral care for their faithful; using the pontifical insignias and solemn episcopal blessing; conferring tonsure and minor orders; granting dispensations to their subjects in all instances in which bishops could do so by law; and granting one-hundred days of indulgence.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unplished master's thesis.

Text: Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum Sanctorum Romanorum Pontificum Taurinenses editio (25 vols.; Turin: Seb. Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872), VIII, 833-837.

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Immensa, apostolic constitution, Janaury 22, 1588, Sixtus V (1585-1590).

Reorganized the Roman Curia establishing fifteen congregations of cardinals whose duty was to deal with both the administration of the papal states and with spiritual matters. These Congregations were: (1) Erection of Churches and Consistorial Provisions, (2) Holy Inquisition, (3) Signature of Grace, (4) "Annonae" of Papal States (food supplies), (5) Sacred Rites and Ceremonies, (6) Defense of Papal States, (7) Index of Prohibited Books, (8) Execution and Interpretation of Decrees of Council of Trent, (9) For Helping the Poor of Papal States, (10) Roman Universities of Studies, (11) Consultation of Regulars, (12) Consultation of Bishops and Other Prelates, (13) Roads, Bridges, and Waters, (15) Vatican Press, (15) The Consulta for Affairs of Papal States.

After the establishment of the congregations, consistories almost immediately became "merely a solemn ceremonial act, continued in order to place vividly before the gaze of the present generation a picture of the life of the Curia in the past." Affairs that before were discussed and decided in consistory now passed under the jurisdiction of the various congregations. Solemn promulgation or enactment remained the only consistorial functions.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unplished master's thesis, pp. 22-23.

Text: Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum Sanctorum Romanorum Pontificum Taurinenses editio, 25 vols.; Turin: Seb. Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, VIII, 985-999.

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Sanctissimus Dominus Noster, constitution, March 16, 1588, Gregory XIV (1590-1591).

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Decree of April 26, 1591, Gregory XIV (1590-1591.

Issued in a secret consistory, it granted cardinals belonging to religious orders the privilege of wearing the red hat, red biretta and red skull-cap.

Source: Hynes, Harry G. The privileges of cardinals. Commentary with historical notes. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1945, (The Catholic University of America Canon Law Studies, 217), p. 24, and p. 24, n. 13.

Text: Plati (Piatti), Girolamo. De cardinalis dignitate et officio. 6th ed., cura Alexandri Card. Spada, Romae, 1836, p. 50.

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The title of S. Vitale is suppressed, 1596, Clement VIII (1592-1605).

The pope gave this church to the Society of Jesus and to avoid possible jurisdictional controversies between the titular cardinal and the Society, suppressed the title.

Source: Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotassi dei cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa: nelle loro sedi svburbicarie titoli presbiterali e diaconie dal secolo V all'anno del signore MDCCCLXXXVIII; compilata sivi manoscritti originali ed avtentici esistenti nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani e su molteplici altre fonti storiche edite ed inedite antiche e moderne. Roma: Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888. His Storia dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa; v 1. Chiefly tables. Includes "Tavoie delle fonti storiche del presente volume" and "Cronotassi dei Pontefici Romani", p. LXI.

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