The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

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17th Century
(1605-1700)

Numerical summary of the cardinals created by the 11 popes of this century.

Leo XI (1605) - no cardinals created
Paul V (1605-1621) - 60 cardinals
Gregory XV (1621-1623) - 11 cardinals
Urban VIII (1623-1644) - 74 cardinals
Innocent X (1644-1655) - 40 cardinals
Alexander VII (1655-1667) - 38 cardinals
Clement IX (1667-1669) - 12 cardinals
Clement X (1670-1676) - 20 cardinals
Innocent XI (1676-1689) - 43 cardinals
Alexander VIII (1689-1691) - 14 cardinals
Innocent XII (1691-1700) - 30 cardinals
Total: 342 cardinals

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, vol. IV, pp. 8-35; V, pp. 5-22.

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The deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio is erected, November 5, 1603, Clement VIII (1592-1605).

The pope re-established this deaconry, which had been previously suppressed, to replace the title of S. Vitale.

Source: Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotassi dei cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa: nelle loro sedi svburbicarie titoli presbiterali e diaconie dal secolo V all'anno del signore MDCCCLXXXVIII; compilata sivi manoscritti originali ed avtentici esistenti nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani e su molteplici altre fonti storiche edite ed inedite antiche e moderne. Roma: Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888. His Storia dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa; v 1. Chiefly tables. Includes "Tavoie delle fonti storiche del presente volume" and "Cronotassi dei Pontefici Romani", p. LXI.

Without any further details, Patrick Gauchat, in vol. IV of Hierarchia Catholica, p. 51, says that the erection took place in 1613 but at the same time indicates that the nephew of the pope, Silvestro Aldobrandini, was created cardinal and assigned this church on November 5, 1603.

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Romanum decet, July 31, 1605, Paul V (1605-1621).

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The title of S. Biagio dell'Anello transferred to the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, October 17, 1616, Paul V (1605-1621).

That church was demolished and the title was transferred to the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 40.

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Æterni Patris Filius, constitution, November 15, 1621, Gregory XV (1621-1623).

This constitution regulated the papal elections establishing three ways of choosing the pope: scrutiny, compromise and quasi-inspiration. It also ordered that the voting had to be secret and in writing; and banned the compilation of the so-called "black and white lists". This index divided the cardinals into those condemned to exclusion from consideration and those favored with inclusion among the papabili: this had been a privilege going back to the influence of Charlemagne, who as "protector of the Church" claimed the rights of Christian potentates to "intercede" for one candidate and veto another. The practice of the right of exclusion, abrogated by the monarchs of Austria, France and Spain, was prohibited under pain of excommunication by the apostolic constitution Commisum nobis, issued on January 20, 1904, by Pope Pius X.

Source: Manzini, Raimondo. "Papal elections", pp. 183-190, in The Vatican, The Vendome Press, 1980, p. 187; Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

Text: Magnum bullarium Romanum, a Beato Leone Magno usque ad S.D.N. Benedictum XIII: opus absolutissimum Laertii Cherubini ... a D. Angelo Maria Cherubino ... deinde a R.R.P.P. Angelo a Lantusca & Joanne Paulo a Roma ... ac tandem eorum cura & studio qui recentiorum Pontificum constitutiones hactenus promulgatas collegerunt, illustratum & auctum. Editio novissima octo voluminibus comprehensa: accedunt, prout in editione Romana, vitae omnium pontificum, appendices insuper suis locis restituti. 19 vols. Luxemburgi: Sumptibus Andreae Chevalier, 1727-1758, XII, 610-627.

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Decet Romanum Pontificem, March 12, 1622, Gregory XV (1621-1623).

Prescribed the ceremonial to be followed in the conclave.

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

Text: Magnum bullarium Romanum, a Beato Leone Magno usque ad S.D.N. Benedictum XIII: opus absolutissimum Laertii Cherubini ... a D. Angelo Maria Cherubino ... deinde a R.R.P.P. Angelo a Lantusca & Joanne Paulo a Roma ... ac tandem eorum cura & studio qui recentiorum Pontificum constitutiones hactenus promulgatas collegerunt, illustratum & auctum. Editio novissima octo voluminibus comprehensa: accedunt, prout in editione Romana, vitae omnium pontificum, appendices insuper suis locis restituti. 19 vols. Luxemburgi: Sumptibus Andreae Chevalier, 1727-1758, XII, 662-673.

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Circumspecta, August 6, 1623(?), Urban VIII (1623-1644).

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Ad Romani Pontificis, constitution, January 25, 1625, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

Confirms the two documents of Gregory XV (above) incorporating them, verbatim, in this document.

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

Text: Magnum bullarium Romanum, a Beato Leone Magno usque ad S.D.N. Benedictum XIII: opus absolutissimum Laertii Cherubini ... a D. Angelo Maria Cherubino ... deinde a R.R.P.P. Angelo a Lantusca & Joanne Paulo a Roma ... ac tandem eorum cura & studio qui recentiorum Pontificum constitutiones hactenus promulgatas collegerunt, illustratum & auctum. Editio novissima octo voluminibus comprehensa: accedunt, prout in editione Romana, vitae omnium pontificum, appendices insuper suis locis restituti. 19 vols. Luxemburgi: Sumptibus Andreae Chevalier, 1727-1758, IV, 93-95.

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Establishment of the Archive of the Sacred College of Cardinals, motu proprio, November 10, 1625, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

Source: Ritzler, Remigio. "Per la storia dell'Archivio del Sacro Collegio". Mélanges Eugène Tisserant. Vol. V. Deuxième partie. Archives vaticanes. Histoire ecclésiastique. Cittá del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1964, p. 299-338.

Text:

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The title of S. Carlo ai Catinari suppressed and transferred to the church of S. Carlo ai Corso, October 6, 1627, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

In the secret consistory of October 6, 1627, the pope erected the title of S. Carlo ai Corso and suppressed the title of S. Carlo ai Catinari, transferring its prerogatives to the former one.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 41.

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Title of Eminence granted to the cardinals, decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonies, June 10, 1630, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

This decree, approved by the pope in the secret consistory held on that date, granted cardinals the title of Eminency. The same title was also granted to the three ecclesiastical electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the archbishop-electors of Cologne, Mainz and Treves, and to the grand master of the order of Saint John of Jerusalem (Knight of Malta), even though he was a layman.

Source: Montor, Artaud de. The lives and times of the popes. Including the complete gallery of the portraits of the Pontiffs. Reproduced from "Effigies Pontificum Romanorum Dominici Basae". Being a series of volumes giving the history of the world during the Christian era. Retranslated, revised, and written up to date from Les vies des papes, by the chevalier Artaud de Montor. 10 vols. New York: The Catholic Publication Society of America, 1911, vol. VI, p. 32; Goyeneche, Servus. "De iure praecedendi patrum cardinalium proprio". Studia in honorem Francisci Roberti, J.B. Montini, H.J. Cicognani S.R.E. Cardinalium. Civitate Vaticana: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis, 1959. (Apollinaris, XXXII, fasc. I-II), p. 134, n. 17.

Text:

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The title of S. Carlo ai Corso suppressed and the title of S. Carlo ai Catinari re-established, September 5, 1639, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 41.

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Acquum est, constitution, July 19, 1642, Urban VIII (1623-1644).

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Militantis ecclesiæ, apostolic constitution, December 19, 1644, Innocent X (1644-1655).

Cardinals of reigning houses retained their inherited titles of nobility and their family arms, but without the crown and with the cardinal's hat and the fifteen tassels.

Text: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum taurinensis editio : locupletior facta collectione novissima plurium brevium, epistolarum, decretorum actorumque S. Sedis a S. Leone Magno usque ad praesens cura et studio R.P.D. Aloysii Tomassetti ...auspicante ... S.R.E. cardinali Francisco Gaude. 25 v. Augustae Taurinorum : Seb. Franco, H. Fory et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, XV, 339-.

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The title of S. Agnese in Agone suppressed and transferred to new title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, bull, October 5, 1654, Innocent X (1644-1655).

The title of S. Agnese in Agone had been erected by Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of July 1, 1517. Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) erected the deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone in the consistory of February 17, 1998.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 39.

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Inter cetera, apostolic constitution, October 25, 1660, Alexander VII (1655-1667).

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 177.

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The deaconry of S. Maria Nuova suppressed, August 8, 1661, Alexander VII (1655-1667).

In the secret consistory of August 8, 1661 suppressed and declared extinct the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova. The church became known as S. Francesca Romana.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 52.

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The deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, suppressed and transferred to the new title of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, June 26, 1662, Alexander VII (1655-1667).

In the secret consistory of June 26, 1662, it was decided to transfer the image of the Virgin Mother of God S. Maria in Portico from the church of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, formerly title of S. Galla, that was deteriorated, to the church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 53.

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The deaconry of S. Maria della Scala erected, June 26, 1662, Alexander VII (1655-1667).

In the secret consistory of June 26, 1667, the pope erected this new deaconry replacing the one of S. Maria Nuova suppressed almost a year earlier due to the jurisdictional controversy between the Olivetan monks and the cardinal deacon, according to Cristofori.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, IV, 53.

Source: Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotassi dei cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa: nelle loro sedi svburbicarie titoli presbiterali e diaconie dal secolo V all'anno del signore MDCCCLXXXVIII; compilata sivi manoscritti originali ed avtentici esistenti nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani e su molteplici altre fonti storiche edite ed inedite antiche e moderne. Roma: Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888. His Storia dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa; v 1. Chiefly tables. Includes "Tavoie delle fonti storiche del presente volume" and "Cronotassi dei Pontefici Romani", p. LXI.

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Nos, volentes, motu proprio, August 2, 1667, Clement IX (1667-1669).

Grants privileges to conclavists.

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 176.

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Cum a prima, motu proprio, February 28, 1668, Clement IX (1667-1669).

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The title of S. Salvatore in Lauro suppressed and the new title of S. Bernardo alle Terme erected, May 19, 1670, Clement X (1670-1676).

In the secret consistory of May 19, 1670, the pope suppressed the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro that Sixtus V (1585-1590) had erected by his constitution Religiosa Sanctorum Pontificum of April 13, 1587, and erected the new title of S. Bernardo alle Terme.

Source: Hierarchia catholica medii et recentoris aevi sive Summorum Pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium ecclesiarum antistitum series. Edited by Guilelmus van Gulik, Conradus Eubel, Ludovicus Schmitz-Kallenberg, Remigius Ritzler, and Pirminus Sefrin. 8 vols. Munich: Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913-1978. Reprint edition: Padua: Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1960-1982, V, 44 and 51.

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Instructio, November 29, 1690, Alexander VIII (1689-1691).

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 177.

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Romanum decet Pontificem, apostolic constitution, June 21, 1692, Innocent XII (1691-1700).

Cardinal priests and deacons retained all their rights and privileges until this apostolic constitution transferred all jursidiction over the clergy and the faithful of their churches to the exclusive competence of the cardinal vicar of Rome, leaving to the cardinal priests and deacons only corrective and administrative functions. Privileges of honorific pontifical rights, episcopal blessing, and conferral of benefices were not taken away from them. The document also suppressed the office of cardinal-nephew. The Code of Canon Law of 1917 incorporated Innocent's legislation in canons 240, 2; 1414, 4; and 1432, 1.

Source: Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 175-193.

Text: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum taurinensis editio : locupletior facta collectione novissima plurium brevium, epistolarum, decretorum actorumque S. Sedis a S. Leone Magno usque ad praesens cura et studio R.P.D. Aloysii Tomassetti ...auspicante ... S.R.E. cardinali Francisco Gaude. 25 v. Augustae Taurinorum : Seb. Franco, H. Fory et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus, 1857-1872, XX, 441-446.

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Ut iudicium, constitution, October 15, 1693, Innocent XII (1691-1700).

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Ecclesiae Catholicæ, constitution, September 23, 1695, Innocent XII (1691-1700).

Forbade all "election capitulations" binding the future pope before his election to do what the cardinals requested in such documents. The practice had started in the conclave of 1352 that elected Innocent VI.

Source: Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist. "Cardinal", The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1913, p. 336.

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