The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Guide to documents and events

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th
15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st Guide Home

20th Century
(1903-2005)

Numerical summary of the cardinals created by the 8 popes of this century.

Pius X (1903-1914) - 50 cardinals
Benedict XV (1914-1922) - 32 cardinals
Pius XI (1922-1939) - 76 cardinals
Pius XII (1939-1958) - 56 cardinals
John XXIII (1958-1963) - 52 cardinals
Paul VI (1963-1978) - 143 cardinals
John Paul I (1978) - no cardinals created
John Paul II (1978-2005) - 231 cardinals
Total: 640 cardinals

Source: Consistories of the 20th Century

Cool Archive

Pius X (1903-1914) Benedict XV (1914-1922) Pius XI (1922-1939) Pius XII (1939-1958) John XXIII (1958-1963) Paul VI (1963-1978) John Paul II (1978-2005)
Top Guide Home

Pius X (1903-1914)

Commisum nobis, constitution, January 20, 1904, Pius X (1903-1914).

Inflicted the penalty of excommunication on any cardinal who introduced a lay veto in any future conclave, thus ending the right of exclusion or civil veto power in papal elections used by Austria, France, and Spain.

Source: Sagmüller, Johannes Baptist. "The right of exclusion", Catholic Encyclopedia, copyright © 1913 by the Encyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version copyright © 1997 by New Advent, Inc. Transcribed by Bobie Jo M. Bilz

Text: Codex Iuris Canonici. Pii X Pontificis Maximi iussu digestus Benedicti Papae XV auctoritate promulgatus. Praefatione, fontium annotatione et indice analytico-alphabetico ab Emo. Petro Card. Gasparri auctus. New York: P.J. Kenedy typographi pontificii, 1918, pp. 688-689.

Cool Archive

Vacante Sede Apostolica, apostolic constitution, December 25, 1904, Pius X (1903-1914).

The document dealt comprehensively with the election of the Roman Pontiff and the role of the cardinals during the vacancy of the Apostolic See and in the electoral process. In title II, chapter I of the document, entitled "The electors of the Roman Pontiff," the pope treated the role to be played by cardinals in selecting a new pontiff. All the cardinals, and only the cardinals, to the exclusion of any other ecclesiastical or civil dignitary of any grade or order, were to be the electors (No. 27), Thus, by the provisions of this constitution, even if the pope dies while a council is being held in Rome or in any other place, the election is to be conducted by the cardinals alone and under no circumstance by the council, which is to be suspended until the new pope decides to reopen it or not (No. 28). A cardinal who has been excommunicated, suspended, interdicted, or subjected to any other ecclesiastical sanction, is not excluded from the election. The censures are suspended, but only for the election (No. 29).

Once a cardinal is created and published, he has the right to participate in the election even though he has not yet been invested (No. 30). Cardinals who have been canonically deposed and those who, with papal consent, have renounced their dignity, cannot take part in the conclave (No. 31). If a cardinal has not at least been ordained a deacon, he cannot participate in the election unless he has a special privilege granted by the Roman Pontiff (No. 32).

After the death of the pope, cardinals are to wait ten days for their absent colleagues, after which time they will enter the conclave and proceed to the election (No. 33). If a cardinal arrives after the beginning of the conclave but before a pope has been elected, he must be admitted into the conclave immediately (No. 34). Unless legitimately impeded, all cardinals are obliged to participate in the election (No. 35). If a cardinal refuses to enter the conclave or leaves it after having entered, he will lose his vote and will not be readmitted unless he was forced to leave because of sickness (No. 36). All cardinals, if not impeded by sickness, should assemble for the ballot when the bell has sounded three times and, if anyone refuses, he shall incur excornmunication (No. 37). Any cardinal who receives two-thirds of the votes is to be considered validly elected (No. 38).

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, pp. 15-17.

Text: Codex Iuris Canonici. Pii X Pontificis Maximi iussu digestus Benedicti Papae XV auctoritate promulgatus. Praefatione, fontium annotatione et indice analytico-alphabetico ab Emo. Petro Card. Gasparri auctus. New York: P.J. Kenedy typographi pontificii, 1918, pp. 661-688.

Cool Archive

Crux pectoralis, motu proprio, May 24, 1905, Pius X (1903-1914).

Granted cardinal priests and deacons who had not received the episcopal consecration the use of the pectoral cross both in private and in public.

Source:

Text: Acta Sanctæ Sedis, XXXVII (1905), 681-683.

Cool Archive

Sapienti consilio, apostolic constitution, June 29, 1908, Pius X (1903-1914).

Reorganized the Roman Curia. By this constitution the number of congregations was reduced from twenty to twelve. Those remaining or newly established were: Holy Office, Consistorial, Discipline of Sacraments, Council, Affairs of Religious, Propagation of Faith, Index, Rites, Ceremonial, Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Studies, and Basilica of Saint Peter. All congregations, except the first two, were to be presided over by a cardinal prefect and composed of cardinal members. The prefecture of the Holy Office and the Consistorial were reserved to the pope although their actual direction was charged to a cardinal secretary.
Besides the congregations, three tribunals--Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, Roman Rota, and Apostolic Signature-and five offices--Apostolic Chancery, Datary, Apostolic Chamber, Secretariat of State, and Secretariats of Briefs to Princes and of Latin Letters--were also established at the same time as components of the central government of the church. With the exemption of the Rota and the Secretariats of Briefs and Latin Letters, all were to be under the direction of a cardinal.

Sources: Ferretto, Giuseppe. "La riforma del B. Pio X". Apollinaris, XXV (1952), 35-84; Larraona, Arcadio and Servo Goyeneche. "De SS. Congregationum, Tribunalium et Officiorum constitutione et interna ordinatione post Const. Sapienti Consilio". Apollinaris, XXV (1952), 85-140; Martin, Michael. The Roman Curia as it now exists; an account of its departments: sacred congregations, tribunals, offices; competence of each; mode of procedure; how to hold communication with; the latest legislation. London: R. & T. Washbourne, 1913; Roberti, Francesco. "De Curia Romana ante pianam reformationem". Apollinaris, XXV (1952), 13-34.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, I (1909), 7-19.

Cool Archive

Apostolicæ Romanorum Pontificum, motu proprio, April 15, 1910, Pius X (1903-1914).

The pope considered that the double charge imposed upon cardinal bishops--the pastoral care of the faithful entrusted to them, and their function as counselors to the pope--could not be conveniently carried. Some of them, in particular the bishops of Sabina and Velletri, had for centuries had auxiliary bishops. In this constitution Pope Pius X ordained that all the suburbicarian dioceses should have suffragan bishops, who would carry the day-to-day administrative functions. Pope Benedict XV in his apostolic constitution Ex actis tempore, February 1, 1915, revoked this regulation about the suffragan bishops, and cardinal bishops were again placed at the head of the dioceses from which they derived their rank in the Sacred College. On April 11, 1962, Pope John XXIII, by his motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, decreed that these dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see.

Sources: Benigni, U. "Suburbicarian dioceses", The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, 1913, vol. 14, pp. 324-325; Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 37.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, II (1910), 277-281.

Cool Archive

Edita a Nobis, motu proprio, May 5, 1914, Pius X (1903-1914).

Separated the suburbicarian dioceses of Ostia and Velletri (united since 1150) and established that henceforth the dean of the Sacred College would unite the see he held at the moment of his promotion to the deanship to that of Ostia. The temporal administration of the suburbicarian sees was reorganized and their wealth was placed under the administration of the financial section of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. The annual emolument of the suffragan bishops was fixed at 6000 lires and the remaining income was to be divided into seven parts: two for the dean and one for each of the other five cardinal bishops. Cardinal bishops were to remain in the suburbicarian dioceses originally assigned to them. The only translation permitted by the pontiff was the union of the see of Ostia to the see already held by the cardinal bishop who became dean of the college.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 37.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, VI (1914), 219-220.

Cool Archive

Benedict XV (1914-1922)

Ex actis tempore, apostolic constitution, February 1, 1915, Benedict XV (1914-1922).

Confirmed Pope Pius X's provisions concerning the finances of the suburbicarian sees and concerning the prohibition of cardinal bishops' transferring from one of these sees to another. At the same time, revoked the regulation about the suffragan bishops, and cardinal bishops were again placed at the head of the dioceses from which they derived their rank in the Sacred College. On April 11, 1962, Pope John XXIII, by his motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, decreed that these dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals, (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, p. 38.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, VII (1915), 229-231.

Cool Archive

Seminaria clericorum, motu proprio, November 4, 1915, Benedict XV (1914-1922).

Added the section of the S.C. Consistorial that dealt with seminaries to the congregation of Studies and gave to the new unit the name of S.C. Congregation of Seminaries and Universities. A cardinal prefect remained at its head.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals, (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, p. 24.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, VII (1915), 493.

Cool Archive

Alloquentes proxime, motu proprio, March 25, 1917, Benedict XV (1914-1922).

Suppressed the S.C. of the Index and transferred its functions to the S.C. of the Holy Office. Furthermore, transferred the section Indulgences from the Holy Office to the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary. The pope had announced these changes in his consistorial allocution Amplissimum Collegio on March 22, 1917.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, p. 24.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, IX (1917), 161-167.

Cool Archive

Dei providentis, motu proprio, May 1, 1917, Benedict XV (1914-1922).

Established the S.C. for the Oriental Church, reserved its prefecture the pope, and placed a cardinal secretary over it. On August 15, 1967, the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiæ Universæ changed its name to Congregation for the Oriental Churches and gave the title of prefect to the cardinal heading the dicastery until the as secretary.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, pp. 24-25.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, IX (1917), 529.

Cool Archive

Code of Canon Law, promulgated on May 27, 1917, effective on May 19, 1918, Benedict XV (1914-1922).

The Code calls the cardinals the "Senate of the Roman Pontiff".

Sources: Augustine, Charles. A commentary on the new Code of Canon Law. St. Louis, Mo.; London: B. Herder Book Co., 1918. Vol. II Clergy and hierarchy, pp. 116-119; 227-245. Woywod, Stanislaus. A practical commentary on the Code of Canon Law. Revised by Callistus Smith. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, 1952. First printing of combined volumes I and II, March 1948, vol. I, pp. 76-77; 101-107; vol. II, pp. 649-656.

Text: Codex Iuris Canonici. Pii X Pontificis Maximi iussu digestus Benedicti Papae XV auctoritate promulgatus. Praefatione, fontium annotatione et indice analytico-alphabetico ab Emo. Petro Card. Gasparri auctus. New York: P.J. Kenedy typographi pontificii, 1918.

Cool Archive

Pius XI (1922-1939)

Cum proxime, motu proprio, March 1, 1922, Pius XI (1922-1939).

Ordered that the conclave should begin fifteen days after the death of the Roman Pontiff and empowered the Sacred College of Cardinals to extend this period to eighteen days if they considered it necessary.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XIV (1922), 145-146.

Cool Archive

Suburbicariae Sabinae, apostolic constitution, June 3, 1925, Pius XI (1922-1939).

United the diocese of Poggio Mirteto (erected on November 25, 1841) to the suburbicarian see of Sabina. Cardinal Gaetano de Lai, who was bishop of Sabina in 1925, became then bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, p. 38.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XVIII (1926), 36-37.

Cool Archive

Treaty and Concordat between the Holy See and Italy, February 11, 1929, Pius XI (1922-1939).

The first of these two documents created the State of Vatican City and the second regulated the relations between the Italian Kingdom and the Church. Article 21 of the Lateran Treaty granted cardinals the rank of princes of the blood and guaranteed the freedom of the conclave. Articles 15 and 23 of the Concordat dealt with the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres in the Pantheon and with the suburbicarian dioceses respectively.

Source: Olivero, Giuseppe. "Cardinali". Novissimo digesto italiano. A cura di Antonio Azara ed Ernesto Eula. 3d edition. Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1957, vol. II, pp. 951-953.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXI (1929), 209-295.

Cool Archive

Recenti conventione, apostolic constitution, May 26, 1929, Pius XI (1922-1939).

Translation of the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres to the church of S. Apollinare.

Source: .

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXII (1929), 308-309.

Cool Archive

Istruzioni per gli Eminentissimi Cardinali, S.C. Ceremonial, December 8, 1930, Pius XI (1922-1939).

These instructions expanded on the dispositions of canon 239, par. 1, no. 21 of the Code of Canon Law, concerning the right of precedence of the cardinals in both the ecclesiastical and civil hierarchies.

Source:Goyeneche, Servus. "De iure praecedendi patrum cardinalium proprio". Studia in honorem Francisci Roberti, J. B. Montini, H. J. Cicognani S. R. E. Cardinalium. Civitate Vaticana: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis, 1959. (Apollinaris, XXXII, fasc. I-II), pp. 139-140.

Text: Never published.

Cool Archive

Quum S. Thomæ in Parione, apostolic constitution, December 18, 1937, Pius XI (1922-1939).

Because of the poor physical conditions of its church, the pope suppressed the title of S. Tommaso in Parione and transferred it to that of S. Maria in Vallicella.

Source: Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1939. Vatican City: Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939, p. 64; Josi, Enrico. "Titoli della Chiesa Romana", Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, vol. XII, column 157.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXX (1938), p. 191.

Cool Archive

Pius XII (1939-1958)

Norme ceremoniali per gli Eminentissimi Signori Cardinali, S. C. Ceremonial, January 6, 1942, Pius XII (1939-1958).

These norms, approved by the pope on December 22, 1942, expanded and explained the Istruzioni of December 8, 1930, concerning the right of precedence of the cardinals.

Source: Goyeneche, Servus. "De iure praecedendi patrum cardinalium proprio". Studia in honorem Francisci Roberti, J. B. Montini, H. J. Cicognani S. R. E. Cardinalium. Civitate Vaticana: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis, 1959. (Apollinaris, XXXII, fasc. I-II), pp. 140-141.

Text:

Cool Archive

Vacantis Apostolicæ Sedis, apostolic constitution, December 25, 1945, Pius XII (1939-1958).

The document retained most of the regulations of Pope Pius X's Vacante Sede Apostolica and incorporated the modification made by Pope Pius XI in the motu proprio Cum proxime. The most notable innovation introduced by this constitution was the rule establishing that a cardinal could not be validly elected pope unless he obtained one vote over the traditional two-thirds majority, thus precluding the possibility that this minimum could be obtained by the vote of the cardinal who received the necessary number of votes. This was the first time since Pope Alexander III's constitution Licet de vitanda of 1179 that to be elected pope it was necessary to obtain more than two-thirds of the votes.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies, Villanova University, 1974, unpublished master's thesis, p. 18; Staffa, Dino. "Annotationes ad Const. Ap. 'Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis'", Apollinaris XIX (1946), 175-193.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXXVIII (1946), 65-99.

Cool Archive

Sancti Hadriani Ecclesia, apostolic constitution, January 25, 1946, Pius XII (1939-1958).

The deaconry of S. Adriano was transferred to the church S. Paolo Apostolo alla Regola (in Arenula).

Source: Frutaz, A. Pietro. "Diaconia", Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, Vol. IV, col. 1521-1535.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXXIX (1947), 54-55.

Cool Archive

Valde solliciti, motu proprio, November 30, 1952, Pius XII (1939-1958).

Modified the cardinals' vestments. Among other dispositions, the length of the cappa magna was shortened from fifteen meters to seven. Curiously, without having been abrogated, the regulations of the motu proprio were abandoned the day following the election of Pope John XXIII, October 28, 1958.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXXXIV (1952), 849-850.

Cool Archive

John XXIII (1958-1963)

Consistorial allocution, December 15, 1958, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Expanded the membership of the Sacred College of Cardinals abrogating the limit of seventy cardinals established by the constitution Postquam, issued by Sixtus V on April 13, 1587, and confirmed by the Code of Canon Law of 1917. On this occasion, the pope created 23 new cardinals adding them to the 51 existing ones and thus raising the total number of members of the College to 74.

Source: De la Hera, Alberto. "La reforma del colegio cardenalicio bajo el pontificado de Juan XXIII", Ius canonicum, II (1962), 692-699.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, XXV (1958), 987.

Cool Archive

Quos nationum, apostolic constitution, December 2, 1959, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 378-379.

Cool Archive

Est in more, apostolic constitution, December 2, 1959, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the deaconry of S. Saba.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 379-380.

Cool Archive

Siquidem sacrae, apostolic constitution, December 2, 1959, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the deaconry of S. Teodoro in Palatio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 381-382.

Cool Archive

Cum nobis, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 504-505.

Cool Archive

Quandoquidem, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Andrea della Valle.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 505-506.

Cool Archive

Inter cetera, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Merulana.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 507-508.

Cool Archive

Cum ob peculiaris, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Francesco a Ripa Grande.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 508-509.

Cool Archive

Ad Romanorum Pontificum, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 510-511.

Cool Archive

Inter templa, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Giovanni Battista dei Fiorentini.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 511-512.

Cool Archive

E sacris almae, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Maria ai Monti.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 513-514.

Cool Archive

Sacra maiorum, apostolic constitution, March 12, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the deaconry of S. Eugenio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LII, (1960), 514-515.

Cool Archive

Consueverunt, apostolic constitution, December 30, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIII, (1961), 255-256.

Cool Archive

Plurima, apostolic constitution, December 30, 1960, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of Ss.mo Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIII, (1961), 257-258.

Cool Archive

Ad suburbicarias dioeceses, motu proprio, March 10, 1961, John XXIII (1958-1963).

The status of the suburbicarian sees had remained unchanged since 1925. This motu proprio established that senior cardinal priests or deacons were no longer to have the right to opt for suburbicarian sees made vacant by the death of cardinal bishops but reserved for the pope the right to make the appointment to them. This provision modified canon 236, paragraph three, which recognized the right of option as regulated by Sixtus V in 1587. The promulgation of this document was immediately followed by the appointment of Cardinal Giuseppe Antonio Ferretto, then the most recently created of all cardinals and the youngest of the curial cardinals, to the see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto on March 26, 1961.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 38-39.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIII, (1961), 198.

Cool Archive

Prorsus singularia, apostolic constitution, February 22, 1962, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Atanasio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIV, (1962), 551-552.

Cool Archive

Suburbicariis sedibus, motu proprio, April 11, 1962, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Pius X's regulation concerning the appointment of bishops who would administer the suburbicarian dioceses, the motu proprio Apostolicæ Romanorum Pontificum, was reenacted through this motu proprio. Henceforth the six cardinal bishops were to be at the exclusive service of the central administration of the church and would have no ordinary jurisdiction over the suburbicurian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. Thus ended the episcopal jurisdiction of cardinal bishops which had placed them at the head of the Roman clergy--immediately after the pope--since the early centuries of Christianity and eventually at the head of the Sacred College of Cardinals, the corporative body of the clergy of Rome.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 39.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIV (1962), 253-256.

Cool Archive

Cum gravissima, motu proprio, April 15, 1962, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Provided that all cardinals should receive the episcopal consecration. Accordingly, on April 19, 1962, the pope himself consecrated twelve cardinals who were only priests: Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustine Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. The last cardinal before then to be only a priest was Nicola Canali, created by Pius XI on December 16, 1937. He died on August 3, 1961. Since this motu proprio was promulgated, several cardinals have asked the pope to be excused from becoming bishops because of advanced age; through 2006, they are: Henri de Lubac, S.J. (1983), Pietro Pavan (1985), Yves-Marie Congar, O.P. (1994), Mikel Koliqi (1994), Alois Grillmeier, S.J. (1994), Roberto Tucci, S.J. (2001), Leo Scheffczyk (2001), Avery Dulles, S.J. (2001), Tomás Špildík, S.J. (2003) and Albert Vanhoye, S.J. (2006).

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, pp. 32-33.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIV (1962), 256-258.

Cool Archive

Inter frequentissima, apostolic constitution, May 5, 1962, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Established the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIV, (1962), 703-704.

Cool Archive

Summi Pontificis electio, motu proprio, September 5, 1962, John XXIII (1958-1963).

Pope Pius XII's innovation in Vacantis Apostolicæ Sedis did not long remain in force, however. This document modified it establishing that the majority required for the election of a new pope was to be two-thirds plus one only if the number of cardinals could not be divided by three. If the number were a multiple of three, then only a two-thirds majority would be required, with such a majority possibly including the vote of the new pope. The multisecular disposition of Alexander III, in Licet de vitanda, was again placed in force. The changes effected by this motu proprio were incorporated into Pius XII's constitution and published as De Sede Apostolica Vacante et de Romani Pontificis electione.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 18-19.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIV (1962), 632-640.

Cool Archive

Paul VI (1963-978)

Circular letter of the S.C. Ceremonial concerning the garments of the cardinals, February 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Suppressed the silk (moiré) cassock, mantelletta, mozzetta and the gold tassels on the sash. This was the most important decision of the circular letter, the others were of a more concrete character.

Source: Calderón, Cipriano. "Consistorio en clima conciliar." Ecclesia, XXV ( February 13, 1965), num. 1231, 23-24.

Text:

Cool Archive

Omnibus quidem, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Croce in Via Flaminia.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 442-443.

Cool Archive

Sacra Romae, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Gran Madre di Dio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 444-445.

Cool Archive

Consuevit Ecclesia, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Nostra Signora del Ss.mo Sacramento e Santi Martiri Canadesi.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 445-446.

Cool Archive

Purpuratorum Patrum numerum, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Regina Apostolorum.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 447-448.

Cool Archive

Cum Nobis esset, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 448-449.

Cool Archive

Romanorum Pontificum morem, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Leone I.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 450-451.

Cool Archive

Sacris Romanae Ecclesiae, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Camillo de Lellis agli Orti Sallustiani.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 451-452.

Cool Archive

Sacrum Patrum Cardinalium, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Cuore di Maria.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 481-482.

Cool Archive

Mirifica Ecclesiae, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Patrizio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 482-483.

Cool Archive

Quod ex antiquitate, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of SS. Nome di Gesù.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 484-485.

Cool Archive

Almae Urbis templa, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 485-486.

Cool Archive

Sacrum Cardinalium Collegium, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Cuore di Cristo Re.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 487-488.

Cool Archive

Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 488-489.

Cool Archive

De magnitudine munerum, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of Immacolato Cuore della B.V.M. (This deaconry has never been assigned)

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 490-491.

Cool Archive

Auctis hodie, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Maria Liberatrice in Monte Testaccio.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 491-492.

Cool Archive

Sanctissimis templis, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of Anunziazione della B.V.M. a Via Ardeatina.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 493-494.

Cool Archive

Inter cetera Romanae, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 494-495.

Cool Archive

Quandoquidem sacrorum Cardinalium, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Girardino.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 496-497.

Cool Archive

Cum antiquissimi tituli, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 497-498.

Cool Archive

Romana haec Sedes, apostolic constitution, February 5, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tuscolana.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), pp. 498-499.

Cool Archive

Ad purpuratorum patrum, motu proprio, February 11, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Stipulated that Eastern-rite patriarchs incorporated to the Sacred College of Cardinals would not belong to the clergy of Rome and consequently no title or deaconry should be assigned to them. Cardinal patriarchs are to be part of the order of cardinal bishops and rank below the bishops of titles of suburbicarian sees. The cardinal patriarchs retain their patriarchal sees and are not allotted any suburbicarian see. Accordingly, no titles were assigned, through 2001, to patriarchs Maximos IV Saigh, B., of Antioch of the Melkites (1965); Paul-Pierre Meouchi, of Antioch of the Maronites (1965); Stephanos I Sidarouss, C.M., of Alexandria of the Coptics (1965); Antoine Pierre Khoraiche, of Antioch of the Maronites (1983); Nasarallah Pierre Sfeir, of Antioch of the Maronites (1994); Ignace Moussa I Daoud, emeritus of Antioch of the Syrians (2001); and Stéphanos II Ghattas, of Alexandria of the Copts (2001). Cardinal Ignace Gabriel I Tappouni, patriarch of Antioch of the Syrians, who had been created by Pius XI in the consistory of December 16, 1935 and assigned the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, left that title in 1965.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 33-34.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), 295-296.

Cool Archive

Sacro Cardinalium Consilio, motu proprio, February 24, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established that the dean and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals should be elected to their posts by and from among the cardinal bishops instead of succeeding by order of seniority as had been the practice for centuries and as was legally stipulated by canon 237, paragraph one, of the Code of Canon Law of 1917. This election by the cardinal bishops requires papal confirmation to be valid.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 34.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), 296-297.

Cool Archive

Integrae servandae, motu proprio, December 7, 1965, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Reorganized the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and changed its name to Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 26.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LVII (1965), 952-955.

Cool Archive

Reference No. 3711 of the Sacred Congregation Ceremonial, June 6, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Instruction on the dress of cardinals, bishops and other prelates.

Source:

Text:

Cool Archive

Sunt hic Romae, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of B. Maria Vergine Addolorata a piazza Buenos Aires.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), pp. 929-930.

Cool Archive

Ab antiquis quidem, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 931-932.

Cool Archive

Quandoquidem aucto, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 932-933.

Cool Archive

More institutoque, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of Ss. Nomi di Gesù e Maria in via Lata.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 934-935.

Cool Archive

Ad guberncula christianae, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 935-936.

Cool Archive

Hac nostra aetate, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Maria della Mercede e Sant'Adriano a Villa Albani.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 937-938.

Cool Archive

Pulcherrima templa, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Giuseppe in via Trionfale.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 938-939.

Cool Archive

Decessores nostri, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 940-941.

Cool Archive

Ea sollicitudine affecti, apostolic constitution, June 7, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 941-942.

Cool Archive

Bolletino No. 183 of the Sacred Congregation Ceremonial concerning the prerogative and habits of the cardinals, June 8, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Source: Noonan, James-Charles. The Church visible. The ceremonial life and protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. New York : Viking, 1996, p. 510-511.

Text: Same as source.

Cool Archive

Regimini Ecclesiae Universae, apostolic constitution, August 15, 1967, Paul VI (1963-1978)

The wishes of the conciliar fathers of Vatican II to reorganize the Roman Curia were fulfilled by this constitution, put in force on January 1, 1968. It introduced numerous modifications in the central government of the Church.

The most relevant ones for concerning the role of cardinals as papal advisors in the curia were: cardinal prefects and cardinal members of the congregations were appointed for five years instead of for an indefinite period of time, with a papal option to reappoint; cardinals who head any Roman department must resign at the death of the pope, with the exception of the vicar general of Rome, the grand penitentiary, and the camerlengo; to congregations, tribunals, and offices, was added a new category among the organs of the curia, that of secretariats (departments dealing with ecumenical affairs); all congregations are headed by a cardinal; the cardinal secretary of state may convoke all cardinal prefects to study and solve different problems as well as to coordinate works, to inform, and to express opinions.

The constitution enumerated and determined the functions and jurisdiction of these organs: the Secretariat of State of Papal Secretariat, the Sacred Council for Public Affairs of the Church (formerly the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs), the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (formerly for the Oriental Church), the Congregation for Bishops (formerly the Consistorial), the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation of Rites, the Congregation for the Clergy (formerly of the Council), the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes (formerly for Affairs of Religious), the Congregation for Catholic Education (formerly of Seminaries and Universities), the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples of Propaganda Fide, the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity (permanently established on January 3, 1966), the Secretariat for Non-Christians (established on May 19, 1964), the Secretariat for Non-Believers (established on April 8, 1965), the Council of the Laity and the Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax" (established on January 6, 1967) the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, the Sacred Roman Rota, the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, the Apostolic Chancery, the Prefecture of Economic Affairs, the Apostolic Chamber, the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture of the Apostolic Palace, and the Central Office of Statistics. Curial organs other than congregations were also to be headed by cardinals with the exception of the Roman Rota, the Prefecture of the Apostolic Palace, and the Central Office of Statistics. The prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church was to be the cardinal secretary of state. The Congregation for the Basilica of Saint Peter was reduced in rank and the Datary and the Ceremonial Congregation were suppressed.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 26-28.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LIX (1967), 885-928.

Cool Archive

Instruction on the dress, titles and coat-of-arms of cardinals, bishops and lesser prelates, March 28, 1969; effective, April 13, 1969, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Text: L'Osservatore Romano, weekly English edition, II (April 17, 1969), p. 4.

Cool Archive

Ad hoc usque tempus, motu proprio, April 15, 1969, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Abolished all the administrative and governmental privileges formerly enjoyed by the cardinals in their titles and deaconries. Henceforth their only function in regard to their churches is to promote their well-being by their advice and protection.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis, p. 41.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXI (1969), 226-227.

Cool Archive

Communique concerning the imposition of the red biretta to the new cardinals by the heads of state of France, Italy, Portugal and Spain, April 15, 1969, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Revoked the privilege that these heads of state had of conferring the red biretta to the new cardinals of their countries and to the papal nuncios accredited before their governments who were elevated to the Sacred College. Spain had enjoyed this privilege since 1564. The Holy See had requested that this practice cease on the day of the announcement of the consistory, March 29, 1969.

Source: "Cese de un privilegio", Ecclesia, XXIX (1969), Núm. 1437, pp. 4-5.

Text: L'Osservatore Romano, edición semanal en lengua española, Año I, Núm. 17, 27 de abril de 1969, p. 11.

Cool Archive

The titles of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, Immaculata al Tiburtino, Natività di N.S.G.C. in Via Gallia, Nostra Signora della Salette, Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, S. Cuore de Gesù agonizzante a Vitinia, S. Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle, S. Giovanni Battista de' Rossi, S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Monte Sacro Alto, S. Gregorio VII, S. Luca a Via Prenestina, S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle, Nostra Signora "Regina Pacis (S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde after 1973), S. Pio X alla Balduina, Ss. Protomartiri a Via Aurelia Antica, and S. Roberto Bellarmino and the deaconries of Ognissanti in Via Apia Nuova, S. Giovanni Battista Decollato and Ss. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano assigned, April 29, 1969, Paul VI (1963-1978)

In the consistory for the creation of new cardinals, the pope assigned these new titles and deaconries.

Source:

Text:

Cool Archive

Sacra Ritum Congregatio, motu proprio, May 8, 1969, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Divided the Sacred Congregation of Rites into two new different congregations: for the Causes of the Saints (canonizations), and for Divine Worship (rites), both to be headed by cardinal prefects.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 28.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXI (1969), 297-304.

Cool Archive

Ingravescentem aetatem, motu proprio, November 21, 1970, Paul VI (1963-1978).

A very important modification of the electoral power of cardinals was introduced by this document that stipulated that cardinals older than eighty years were deprived of their right to elect the pope and to participate in the conclave. When this provision went into effect on January 1, 1971, twenty-five cardinals lost their electoral rights. Besides, cardinals heading organs in the Roman Curia were asked to submit their resignation to the pope upon reaching 75 years of age and ceased as members of the same at 80.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals in the Twentieth Century (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 19.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXIII (1970), 810-813.

Cool Archive

Quo aptius, motu proprio, February 27, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Suppressed the office of the Apostolic Chancery of the Holy Roman Church (originated in the 4th century) and its functions were transferred to the Secretariat of State.

Source:

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 113-116.

Cool Archive

Purpuratis patribus, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Tuscolana.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 133-134.

Cool Archive

Ab antiquis quidem, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 134-135.

Cool Archive

Ecclesiae Sanctae Principibus, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 136-137.

Cool Archive

Cum ob proxime, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 137-138.

Cool Archive

Quandoquidem, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 138-139.

Cool Archive

Cum pro auctis, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Marco in Agro Laurentino.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 139-140.

Cool Archive

Gliscentibus fere, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Maria Madre della Provvidenza a Monte Verde.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 141-142.

Cool Archive

Hac nostra aetate, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" in Ostia mare.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 141-142.

Cool Archive

Romana templa, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 143-144.

Cool Archive

Augescentibus, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Pier Damiani ai Monti di S. Paolo.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 144-145.

Cool Archive

Siquidem peculiaria, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 144-145.

Cool Archive

Auctis pro Ecclesia, apostolic constitution, February 11, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Established the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 147-148.

Cool Archive

Consistorial allocution, March 5, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

In his address, the pope determined that the maximum number of cardinal electors (those under 80 years of age) would be 120 and, also, indicated that the possibility of including non-cardinals as papal electors was being considered. These new electors would be Eastern patriarchs not members of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and those bishops of the general secretariat of the World Synod who were not cardinals.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals, (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 19-20.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 161-165.

Cool Archive

Gaudemus sane, allocution to general secretariat of World Synod of Bishops, March 24, 1973, Paul VI (1963-1978).

In this address, the pope repeated that the possibility of including non-cardinals as papal electors was being considered as he has done in the consistorial allocution of March 3, 1973.

Source: Miranda, Salvador. The Sacred College of Cardinals, (1903-1973): Developments, documents and biographies. Villanova University, 1974; unpublished master's thesis p. 19-20.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXV (1973), 247-249.

Cool Archive

Romano Pontifici eligendo, apostolic constitution, October 1, 1975, Paul VI (1963-1978).

Issued norms for the College of Cardinals during a vacancy of the Holy See and the election of the Pope. The constitution provided the following:

* While the Apostolic See is Vacant, the government of the Church is in the hands of the Sacred College of Cardinals only with regard to ordinary business and those matters which cannot be deferred, and with regard to the preparation of all those matters which are necessary for the election of the new Pope.

* Consequently, during the vacancy, the Sacred College has no power or jurisdiction in those matters which pertain to the Supreme Pontiff while he is alive; all those matters must be reserved for the future Pope alone.

* When business must be expedited . . . the Sacred College of Cardinals should act according to the decision of the majority.

* During the vacancy, cardinals should wear the customary red-trimmed black cassock and red sash.

* All cardinals who are heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia and the Cardinal Secretary of State, on the occasion of the death of the Pontiff, cease from their offices with the exception of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Major Penitentiary and the Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome.

* If the office of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church or of the Major Penitentiary becomes vacant, the College of Cardinals must elect a successor as soon as possible.

*If the Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome dies during the vacancy, the Viceregent shall take his place. If the Viceregent is also dead or impeded, the senior auxiliary bishop shall take his place.

* The right to elect the Roman Pontiff belongs solely to the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church with the exception of those who, at the time of entrance into the conclave, have already completed their eightieth year of age. The maximum number of cardinals elector should not exceed one hundred twenty.

* After a cardinal of the Holy Roman Church has been created and announced in a consistory, he, by that very fact, immediately has the right to elect the Pontiff, even though the biretta has not yet been imposed on him . . . .However, cardinals who have been canonically deposed or who, with the consent of the Roman Pontiff, have renounced the cardinalitial dignity, do not possess this right. Furthermore, the Sacred College of Cardinals may not, during the vacancy of the Holy See, reinstate or rehabilitate them.

* After the death of the Pontiff, the cardinals elector who are present, must wait for fifteen solid days for those who are absent; the Sacred College of Cardinals has the power, however, to delay entry into the conclave for twenty days; after that the cardinals elector who are present must enter the conclave and proceed with the election.

* Nevertheless, cardinals elector, if they arrive [before the pope is elected], should be admitted to the conclave.

* In addition to the cardinals elector, the following should enter into the conclave:

* The secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals who performs the functions of secretary of the conclave
* the Vicar General of the Roman Pontiff for Vatican City
* Sacristans
* Master of Pontifical Ceremonies
* Confessors
* Two doctors: a surgeon and an internist
* Architect of the conclave
* Two expert technicians

* Election shall be by two-thirds plus one of the votes required.

* After his acceptance, if the electee already possesses episcopal ordination, he is at that very moment the Bishop of the Church of Rome and, at the same instant, the true Pope and Head of the Episcopal College. He actually acquires and can exercise full and supreme power over the universal Church.

* The episcopal ordination of the Supreme Pontiff-elect who is not yet a bishop is conferred by the Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or, if he is absent, by the Assistant Dean, or if he also is impeded, by the senior cardinal bishop. During the conclave which elected John XXIII, Vatican Radio mistakenly informed the world one day early that a Pope had been elected. At the conclave which elected Paul VI, to avoid confusion concerning the color of the smoke, electronic signals were installed, marked white and black, to inform Vatican Radio.

Source:

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXVII (1975), 609-645.

Cool Archive

John Paul II (1978-2005)

The Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See was established by a chirograph, May 31, 1981, John Paul II (1978-2005).

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, vol. LXXIII (1981), n. 8, p. 545-546.

Cool Archive

The suburbicarian see of Velletri united with that of Segni, by the apostolic constitution In illius patris, October 20, 1981, John Paul II (1978-2005).

The suburbicarian diocese of Velletri (dating from the 5th century) was united with the diocese of Segni (also from the 5th century). In a very early time, before the clear definition of the suburbicarian sees as cardinalitial dioceses of the cardinal bishops occurred, Segni had been counted among the suburbicarian dioceses.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, vol. LXXIV (1982), n. 1, p. 8.

Cool Archive

Code of Canon Law, promulgated, January 25, 1983; effective, November 27, 1983, John Paul II (1978-2005).

The new Code addresses the subject of the cardinals in Part II : The Hierarchical Constitution of the Church. Section I: The Supreme Authority of the Church. Chapter III : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, canons 349-359.

Source:

Cool Archive

The new titles of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarosa, S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, S. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, S. Maria Immacolata di Lourdes a Boccea, SS. Nome di Maria a Via Latina, S. Paolo della Croce a "Corviale" and S. Sofia a Via Boccea and the new deaconries of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, S. Anselmo all'Aventino, S. Elena fuori Porta Prenestina, S. Giovanni della Pigna and S. Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavalleggeri assigned, May 25, 1985, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create new cardinals, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of the new cardinals.

Source:

Cool Archive

Name of suburbicarian dioceses changed, September 30, 1986, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the reorganization of the Italian dioceses took place, the suburbicarian dioceses of Porto e Santa Rufina, Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, and Velletri e Segni became hyphenated dioceses signifying that they were a single ecclesiastical unit instead of two separate ones that had been united.

Source:

Text:

Cool Archive

The new titles of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, S. Frumenzio ai Prati Fiscali, S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acqua Traversa, Ss. Giacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, S. Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca, S. Maria "Regina Mundi" a Torre Spaccata, Ss. Martiri dell'Uganda a Poggio Ameno and Spirito Santo alla Ferratella and the new deaconry of S. Benedetto fuori Porta S. Paolo assigned, June 28, 1988, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create new cardinals, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of the new cardinals.

Source:

Cool Archive

Pastor Bonus , apostolic constitution, June 28, 1988, John Paul II (1978-2005).

Reorganized the Roman Curia.

Source: Provost, James H. "Pastor Bonus: Reflections on the reorganization of the Roman Curia." The Jurist, XLVIII (1988), 499-535.

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXXX (1988), 841-932.

Cool Archive

The new titles of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, S. Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, S. Giuseppe all'Aurelio, and S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort and the new deaconries of S. Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio and S. Spirito in Sassia assigned, June 28, 1991, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create new cardinals, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of the new cardinals.

Source:

Text:

Cool Archive

The new titles of Ss. Aquila e Priscilla, S. Gerardo Maiella, SS. Redentore a Valmelaina and S. Ugo and the deaconries of S. Giulano dei Fiamminghi and Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Prima Porta assigned, November 26, 1994, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create new cardinals, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of the new cardinals.

Source:

Text:

Cool Archive

Universi Dominici Gregis, apostolic constitution, February 22, 1996, John Paul II (1978-2005).

Regulated the papal election establishing the following:

* Powers of the College of Cardinals during vacancy:

* During the vacancy of the Apostolic See, the College of Cardinals has no power of jurisdiction in matters which pertain to the Supreme Pontiff during his lifetime or in the exercise of his office.

* During the vacancy the cardinals are to wear the usual black cassock with piping and the red sash, with skullcap, pectoral cross and ring.

* At the death of the pope all heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia cease to exercise their office except for the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and the Major Penitentiary. Likewise the cardinal vicar general for the Diocese of Rome continues in office as does the cardinal archpriest of the Vatican basilica and the vicar general for the Vatican City.

* Should the offices of Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church or of Major Penitentiary be vacant at the time of the pope's death or should they become vacant before the election of his successor, the College of Cardinals shall as soon as possible elect the cardinal or cardinals who shall hold these offices until the election of the new pope.

* If the vicar general of the Diocese of Rome dies during the vacancy, the viceregent shall exercise this office. If there is no viceregent, the auxiliary bishop who is senior by appointment shall exercise this office.

* Election of the Roman Pontiff:

* The right to elect the Roman pontiff belongs exclusively to the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, with the exception of those who have reached their 80th birthday before the day of the Roman Pontiff's death or the day when the Apostolic See becomes vacant. The maximum number of cardinal electors must not exceed 120.

* A cardinal of the Holy Roman Church who has been created and published before the College of Cardinals thereby has the right to elect the pope, even if he has not yet received the red hat or the ring or sworn the oath. Cardinals who have been canonically deposed or who with the consent of the Roman pontiff have renounced the cardinalate do not have the right to elect. The College of Cardinals cannot re-admit or rehabilitate them.

* From the moment the Apostolic See is vacant, the cardinal electors must wait 15 full days before beginning the election; they may wait a maximum of 20 days before beginning the conclave.

* The conclave shall take place within the territory of the Vatican City.

* During the conclave the cardinal electors shall reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae.

* The following persons shall also be admitted:
   * the secretary of the College of Cardinals who acts as the secretary of the conclave
   * papal master of ceremonies along with two masters of ceremonies and two religious attached to the papal sacristy
   * an ecclesiastic chosen to assist the cardinal dean or the cardinal taking his place
   * confessors
   * two medical doctors
   * cooks and housekeepers

* The election is to take place in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace.

*Election by acclamation or inspiration and by compromise are eliminated. These two methods had been in in force if not commonly used since the bull Constitutionem, issued on December 10, 1294 by Pope Celestine V.

* Two thirds of the votes, calculated on the basis of the total number of electors present, are required for election. If it is impossible to divide the number of electors into three equal parts, one additional vote shall be required for election.

* Should the election begin on the afternoon of the first day, only one ballot is to be held; then, on the following days, if no one was elected on the first ballot, two ballots shall be held in the morning and two in the afternoon.

* After balloting has been carried out for three days without result, voting is to be suspended for a maximum of one day.

* After seven ballots, there shall be another pause.

* Another series of seven ballots is then held. If election has not taken place, there is another pause.

* Another series of seven ballots is then held.

* Then, if balloting has not resulted in an election, the cardinal electors shall be invited to express an opinion about the manner of proceeding. The election will then proceed as the absolute majority of the electors decides. Nevertheless, there can be no waiver of the requirement that a valid election takes place only by an absolute majority of the votes or else by voting only on the two names which in the ballot immediately preceding have received the greatest number of votes; in this second case only an absolute majority is required.

* The crime of simony shall not invalidate or nullify the election.

* Civil authorities may not veto any candidate.

* Any one may be elected; membership in the College of Cardinals is not required.

* When the election has taken place, the cardinal dean, or the cardinal who is first in order and seniority, asks the one elected: Do you accept your canonical election as supreme pontiff? Then he asks: By what name do you wish to be called?

* After his acceptance, the person elected, if he has already received episcopal ordination, is immediately bishop of the church of Rome, true pope and head of the college of bishops. He thus acquires and can exercise full and supreme power over the universal church. If the person elected is not already a bishop, he shall be immediately ordained bishop.

* The senior cardinal deacon announces that the election has taken place and proclaims the name of the new pope.

* If the newly elected supreme pontiff is not already a bishop, his episcopal ordination shall be carried out by the dean of the College of Cardinals or, in his absence, by the subdean or, should he too be prevented from doing so, by the senior cardinal bishop.

*The coronation of the new pope is replaced by the ceremony of the solemn inauguration of his pontificate.

* I hereby declare abrogated all constitutions and orders issued by the Roman Pontiffs, and at the same time I declare completely null and void anything done by any person, whatever his authority, in any way contrary to this constitution.

Source: Foster, John J. M. "The election of the Roman Pontiff: An examination of Canon 332, § 1 and recent special legislation." The Jurist, LXVI (1996), pp. 691-705; Reese, S.J., Thomas, J. "Revolution in papal elections." America, April 13, 1996, p. 4; Williamson, Enid. "The Apostolic Constitution : Universi Dominici gregis." Canon Law Society of Great Britain and Ireland Newsletter, CIX (March 1997), pp.95-104.

Text: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, LXXXVIII (1996), 305-343.

Cool Archive

Elenco dei privilegi e facoltà in materia liturgica e canonica dei Cardinale di S.R.E., Secretariat of State, March 18, 1999.

Text: Communicationes, 31, 1999, pp. 11-13.

Cool Archive

Autonomus foundation "Domus Sanctæ Marthæ", chirograph, March 25, 1996, John Paul II (1978-2005).

Granted the use of the building "House Saint Martha", recently built in the Vatican, to the foundation, specifying that, according the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, it will be reserved exclusively for the cardinal electors during the conclave for the election of the Supreme Pontiff.

Source:

Text: Acta Apostolicæ Sedis, LXXXVIII (1996), 487.

Cool Archive

Fundametal Law of the Vatican City State, November 26, 2000, by Pope John Paul II (1978-2005).

This new legislation replaces the one issued by Pope Pius XI on June 7, 1929. In its introduction, the pope expresses that the need to provide a systematic and organic form to the changes introduced to the first fundamental law. The reason is to make the law respond better to the institutional purpose of the state which exists to guarantee the liberty of the Apostolic See and as a mean to insure the independence, real and visible, of the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his mission in the world. As it can be seen, the cardinals play a very important role in the government of the Vatican City State. The law took effect on February 22, 2001.

Cool Archive

The new title of S. Andrea al Quirinale and the new deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone were assigned, February 21, 1998, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create 20 new cardinals, he assigned this new title and and this new deaconry to two of those prelates.

Source: Vatican Press Office, February 22, 1998.

Cool Archive

The new titles of S. Silvia, S. Liborio, S. Gregorio Magno alla Magliana Nuova, Trasfigurazione di Nostro Signore Gesú Cristo, S. Francesco d'Assisi ad Acilia, S. Maria della Speranza, S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, and S. Antonio in Campo Marzio and the new deaconries of Dio Padre misericordioso and San Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella, were established, February 21, 2001, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to publish the names of the two cardinals reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 21, 1998, and create 42 new cardinals, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of those prelates.

Source: Vatican Press Office, February 21, 2001.

Cool Archive

The new titles of S. Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, S. Giustino, and S. Saturnino, and the new deaconries of S. Lucia del Gonfalone and Ss. Domenico e Sisto, were established, October 21, 2003, John Paul II (1978-2005).

When the pope celebrated a consistory to create 31 new cardinals, reserving one in pectore, he assigned these new titles and deaconries to some of those prelates.

Source: Vatican Press Office, October 21, 2003.

Top Guide Home Catalogs


©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.